Archive for July 11, 2017

Clinical Risk Factors for Infective Endocarditis in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.

Tex Heart Inst J. Feb 1, 2017 V.44 N.1 P.10-15.

Salvador VB, Chapagain B, Joshi A, Brennessel DJ.

Abstract

Crucial to the management of staphylococcal bacteremia is an accurate evaluation of associated endocarditis, which has both therapeutic and prognostic implications. Because the clinical presentation of endocarditis can be nonspecific, the judicious use of echocardiography is important in distinguishing patients at high risk of developing endocarditis.

In the presence of high-risk clinical features, an early transesophageal echocardiogram is warranted without prior transthoracic echocardiography.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical risk factors for staphylococcal infective endocarditis that might warrant earlier transesophageal echocardiography and to describe the incidence of endocarditis in cases of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

A retrospective case-control study was conducted by means of chart review of 91 patients consecutively admitted to a community hospital from January 2009 through January 2013. Clinical risk factors of patients with staphylococcal bacteremia were compared with risk factors of patients who had definite diagnoses of infective endocarditis.

There were 69 patients with bacteremia alone (76%) and 22 patients with endocarditis (24%), as verified by echocardiography. Univariate analysis showed that diabetes mellitus (P=0.024), the presence of an automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/pacemaker (P=0.006) or a prosthetic heart valve (P=0.003), and recent hospitalization (P=0.048) were significantly associated with developing infective endocarditis in patients with S. aureus bacteremia.

The incidence of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus bacteremia was similar in the bacteremia and infective-endocarditis groups (P=0.437).

In conclusion, identified high-risk clinical factors in the presence of bacteremia can suggest infective endocarditis.

Early evaluation with transesophageal echocardiography might well be warranted.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5317353/pdf/i1526-6702-44-1-10.pdf

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July 11, 2017 at 4:06 pm

Telavancin: a novel semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide agent to counter the challenge of resistant Gram-positive pathogens.

Ther Adv Infect Dis. March 2017 V.4 N.2 P.49-73.    

Das B1, Sarkar C2, Das D3, Gupta A4, Kalra A1, Sahni S1.

Author information

1 Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) Rishikesh, Rishikesh, India.

2 Department of Pharmacology & Clinical Pharmacology, North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health & Medical Sciences (NEIGRIHMS) Shillong, Shillong, India.

3 Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Manipal University Jaipur, Dehmi Kalan, Jaipur Ajmer Expressway, Rajasthan, India.

4 Department of Surgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) Rishikesh, Rishikesh, India.

Abstract

Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA (S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis).

Telavancin has two proposed mechanisms of action. In vitro, telavancin has a rapid, concentration-dependent bactericidal effect, due to disruption of cell membrane integrity. Telavancin has demonstrable in vitro activity against aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria. Telavancin and vancomycin have similar spectra of activity. Gram-negative bacteria are usually non-susceptible to telavancin.

Telavancin has been successfully tested in various animal models of bacteremia, endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia. Phase II Telavancin versus Standard Therapy for Treatment of Complicated Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections due to Gram-Positive Bacteria (FAST 1 and FAST 2) and phase III [Assessment of Telavancin in Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections 1 (ATLAS 1 and ATLAS 2)] clinical trials have been conducted for evaluating telavancin’s efficacy and safety in cSSSIs.

Phase III clinical trials have been carried out for evaluating telavancin’s safety and efficacy in nosocomial pneumonia [Assessment of Telavancin for Treatment of Hospital acquired Pneumonia 1 and 2 (ATTAIN 1 and ATTAIN 2)].

A phase II randomized, double-blind, clinical trial has been carried out for evaluating telavancin’s safety and efficacy in uncomplicated S. aureus bacteremia [Telavancin for Treatment of Uncomplicated S. aureus Bacteremia (ASSURE)]. Pacemaker lead-related infective endocarditis due to a vancomycin intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strain (non-daptomycin susceptible) was successfully treated with parenteral telavancin for 8 weeks.

Telavancin extensively binds to serum albumin (~93%) and has a relatively small volume of distribution. Telavancin is not biotransformed by any cytochrome P450 microsomal enzymes and excreted mainly in the urine. Though well-tolerated, worrisome adverse effects, including renal dysfunction and QTc prolongation are of potential concern.

Given its extensive binding to plasma proteins, long half-life, and a long post-antibiotic effect, it represents a promising addition to the therapeutic armamentarium in combating infections caused by resistant Gram-positive pathogens, namely, MRSA.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5467880/pdf/10.1177_2049936117690501.pdf

July 11, 2017 at 4:04 pm

SOMANZ guidelines for the investigation and management sepsis in pregnancy.

Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. July 3, 2017    

Bowyer L1, Robinson HL2, Barrett H3, Crozier TM4, Giles M5,6, Idel I7, Lowe S8, Lust K9, Marnoch CA10, Morton MR11, Said J12,13, Wong M14, Makris A15,16.

Author information

1 Maternal Fetal Medicine, Royal Hospital for Women, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

2 Department of Medicine, Ipswich Hospital, Ipswich, Queensland, Australia.

3 Department of Obstetric Medicine, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

4 Intensive Care, Monash Medical Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

5 Department of Infectious Diseases, Alfred Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

6 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

7 Department of Nephrology, Eastern Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

8 Royal Hospital for Women, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

9 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

10 Auckland District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand.

11 Women’s and Babies Division, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, North Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

12 Department of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Sunshine Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

13 Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

14 Department of Anaesthesia, Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

15 Department of Nephrology, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, New South Wales, Australia.

16 Department of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Abstract

SOMANZ (Society of Obstetric Medicine Australia and New Zealand) has written a guideline to provide evidence-based guidance for the investigation and care of women with sepsis in pregnancy or the postpartum period.

The guideline is evidence-based and incorporates recent changes in the definition of sepsis. The etiology, investigation and treatment of bacterial, viral and non-infective causes of sepsis are discussed.

Obstetric considerations relevant to anaesthetic and intensive care treatment in sepsis are also addressed. A multi-disciplinary group of clinicians with experience in all aspects of the care of pregnant women have contributed to the development of the guidelines.

This is an executive summary of the guidelines.

abstract

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ajo.12646/abstract

PDF

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ajo.12646/epdf

July 11, 2017 at 3:42 pm


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