Archive for July 18, 2017

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia: comparative study of cases in HIV-infected patients and immunocompromised non-HIV-infected patients.

Rev Chilena Infectol. August 2014 V.31 N.4 P.417-24.

[Article in Spanish]

Cerón I, Rabagliati R, Langhaus J, Silva F, Guzmán AM, Lagos M.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although P. jiroveci pneumonia affects immunocompromised (IC) patients of any etiology, clinical features and prognostic outcomes are different depending if they are patients with HIV infection or other causes of IC.

OBJECTIVES:

To compare clinical and laboratory features as well as outcomes of P. jiroveci pneumonia in HIV versus non-HIV patients.

METHODS:

Retrospective review of clinical records of HIV and non-HIV patients with P. jiroveci pneumonia managed at the Hospital Clínico Universidad Católica in Santiago, Chile, between 2005 and 2007.

RESULTS:

We included 28 HIV and 45 non-HIV patients with confirmed P. jiroveci pneumonia. The non-HIV population was older (65 vs 36,2 years, p < 0,01), had shorter duration of symptoms (7 [1-21] vs 14 [2-45] days, p < 0,01), required more invasive techniques (60 vs 21%, p < 0,01) and RT-PCR to confirm the diagnosis (93 vs 68%, p < 0,01), were more frequently treated at intensive care units (58 vs. 25%, p < 0,01) requiring artificial ventilation (56 vs 11%, p < 0,01), and had a higher attributable mortality (33% vs 0%, p < 0,01).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study confirmed that P. jiroveci pneumonia in non-HIV IC patients is more severe, more difficult to diagnose and has higher mortality that in HIV patients. Therefore, it is mandatory to optimize diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for this patients group

PDF

http://www.scielo.cl/pdf/rci/v31n4/art07.pdf

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July 18, 2017 at 3:44 pm

Pneumocystis pneumonia in hospitalized patients: a detailed examination of symptoms, management, and outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-uninfected persons.

Transpl Infect Dis. 2012 Oct;14(5):510-8.

McKinnell JA1, Cannella AP, Kunz DF, Hook EW 3rd, Moser SA, Miller LG, Baddley JW, Pappas PG.

Author information

1 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening infection for immunocompromised individuals. Robust data and clear guidelines are available for prophylaxis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related PCP (HIV-PCP), yet few data and no guidelines are available for non-HIV-related PCP (NH-PCP). We postulated that prevention and inpatient management of HIV-PCP differed from NH-PCP.

METHODS:

We performed a retrospective case review of all pathologically confirmed cases of PCP seen at the University of Alabama Medical Center from 1996 to 2008. Data on clinical presentation, hospital course, and outcome were collected using a standardized data collection instrument. Bivariate analysis compared prophylaxis, adjunctive corticosteroids, and clinical outcomes between patients with HIV-PCP and NH-PCP.

RESULTS:

Our analysis of the cohort included 97 cases of PCP; 65 HIV and 32 non-HIV cases. Non-HIV cases rarely received primary prophylaxis (4% vs. 38%, P = 0.01) and received appropriate antibiotics later in the course of hospitalization (5.2 days vs. 1.1 days, P < 0.005). Among transplant patients, NH-PCP was diagnosed a mean of 1066 days after transplantation and most patients were on low-dose corticosteroids (87%) at the time of disease onset. No significant differences in adjunctive corticosteroid use (69% vs. 77%, P = 0.39) and 90-day mortality (41% vs. 28%, P = 0.20) were detected.

CONCLUSIONS:

Patients who have undergone organ or stem cell transplant remain at risk for PCP for many years after transplantation. In our cohort, patients who developed NH-PCP were rarely given prophylaxis, and initiation of appropriate antibiotics was significantly delayed compared to cases of HIV-PCP. Medical providers should be aware of the ongoing risk for NH-PCP, even late after transplantation, and consider more aggressive approaches to both prophylaxis and earlier empirical therapy for PCP.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3889465/pdf/nihms-536426.pdf

July 18, 2017 at 3:43 pm


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