Archive for November 9, 2018

Ecological Analyses of Mycobacteria in Showerhead Biofilms and Their Relevance to Human Health

mBio 2018 September/October 2018 V.9 N.5 P.e01614-18

Matthew J. Gebert, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Angela M. Oliverio, Tara M. Webster, Lauren M. Nichols, Jennifer R. Honda, Edward D. Chan, Jennifer Adjemian, Robert R. Dunn, Noah Fierer

Bacteria within the genus Mycobacterium can be abundant in showerheads, and the inhalation of aerosolized mycobacteria while showering has been implicated as a mode of transmission in nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung infections.

Despite their importance, the diversity, distributions, and environmental predictors of showerhead-associated mycobacteria remain largely unresolved.

To address these knowledge gaps, we worked with citizen scientists to collect showerhead biofilm samples and associated water chemistry data from 656 households located across the United States and Europe.

Our cultivation-independent analyses revealed that the genus Mycobacterium was consistently the most abundant genus of bacteria detected in residential showerheads, and yet mycobacterial diversity and abundances were highly variable.

Mycobacteria were far more abundant, on average, in showerheads receiving municipal water than in those receiving well water and in U.S. households than in European households, patterns that are likely driven by differences in the use of chlorine disinfectants.

Moreover, we found that water source, water chemistry, and household location also influenced the prevalence of specific mycobacterial lineages detected in showerheads.

We identified geographic regions within the United States where showerheads have particularly high abundances of potentially pathogenic lineages of mycobacteria, and these “hot spots” generally overlapped those regions where NTM lung disease is most prevalent. Together, these results emphasize the public health relevance of mycobacteria in showerhead biofilms.

They further demonstrate that mycobacterial distributions in showerhead biofilms are often predictable from household location and water chemistry, knowledge that advances our understanding of NTM transmission dynamics and the development of strategies to reduce exposures to these emerging pathogens.

FULL TEXT

https://mbio.asm.org/content/9/5/e01614-18

PDF

https://mbio.asm.org/content/mbio/9/5/e01614-18.full.pdf

November 9, 2018 at 8:14 am

Identification of Epstein-Barr Virus in the Human Placenta and Its Pathologic Characteristics.

J Korean Med Sci. December 2017 V.32 N.12 P.1959-1966.   

Kim Y1,2, Kim HS3, Park JS3, Kim CJ4, Kim WH5.

1 Department of Pathology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

2 Laboratory of Epigenetics, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

4 Department of Pathology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

5 Department of Pathology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. woohokim@snu.ac.kr

Abstract

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a common pathogen in humans, is suspected as the cause of multiple pregnancy-related pathologies including depression, preeclampsia, and stillbirth. Moreover, transmission of EBV through the placenta has been reported. However, the focus of EBV infection within the placenta has remained unknown to date. In this study, we proved the expression of latent EBV genes in the endometrial glandular epithelial cells of the placenta and investigated the cytological characteristics of these cells. Sixty-eight placentas were obtained from pregnant women. Tissue microarray was constructed. EBV latent genes including EBV-encoding RNA-1 (EBER1), Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1), late membrane antigen (LMP1), and RPMS1 were detected with silver in situ hybridization and/or mRNA in situ hybridization. Nuclear features of EBV-positive cells in EBV-infected placenta were compared with those of EBV-negative cells via image analysis. Sixteen placentas (23.5%) showed positive expression of all 4 EBV latent genes; only the glandular epithelial cells of the decidua showed EBV gene expression. EBV infection status was not significantly correlated with maternal, fetal, or placental factors. The nuclei of EBV-positive cells were significantly larger, longer, and round-shaped than those of EBV-negative cells regardless of EBV-infection status of the placenta. For the first time, evidence of EBV gene expression has been shown in placental tissues. Furthermore, we have characterized its cytological features, allowing screening of EBV infection through microscopic examination.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5680494/pdf/jkms-32-1959.pdf

November 9, 2018 at 7:06 am

Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Mononucleosis as an Imitator of Severe Preeclampsia.

AJP Rep. January 2017 V.7 N.1 P.e5-e7.

Staley SA1, Smid MC2, Dotters-Katz SK2, Stringer EM2.

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

2 Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Abstract

Background In pregnancy, conditions presenting with hematologic abnormalities, transaminitis, and proteinuria pose diagnostic challenges in pregnancy. Case We present the case of an 18-year-old woman, G1P0, at 33 weeks’ gestation with fever of unknown cause, who developed progressively elevated liver enzymes, proteinuria, and thrombocytopenia, due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Conclusion Acute infection with EBV should be included in the differential diagnosis of preeclampsia with severe features, particularly in the setting of fever. Supportive treatment and observation may prevent iatrogenic preterm birth.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5303016/pdf/10-1055-s-0036-1597265.pdf

November 9, 2018 at 7:05 am

Maternal depressive symptoms related to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in late pregnancy.

Sci Rep. October 31, 2013 V.3 P.3096.

Zhu P1, Chen YJ, Hao JH, Ge JF, Huang K, Tao RX, Jiang XM, Tao FB.

1 1] Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China [2].

Abstract

We examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and Epstein-Barr virus reactivation before delivery. In this prospective observational study, prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus reactivation within one week before delivery was compared between 163 pregnant women with depressive symptoms at 33 to 34 weeks of gestation and a computer-generated control group of 163 pregnant healthy women without depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms at 33 to 34 weeks of gestation were significantly related to the prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus reactivation before delivery after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted OR = 2.74, 95%CI: 1.23-6.08). Compared to that in the control group, the prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus reactivation was higher in women with depressive symptoms accompanied by higher negative coping (24.2% compared with 7.9%; adjusted OR = 3.67, 95%CI: 1.47-9.16). Maternal depressive symptoms in late pregnancy are associated with Epstein-Barr virus reactivation, and this association could be moderated by maternal coping style.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3813936/pdf/srep03096.pdf

November 9, 2018 at 7:04 am


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