Archive for December 21, 2018

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Buenos Aires, 2009-2014.

Medicina (B Aires). 2016;76(1):1-9.

[Article in Spanish]

Iglesias AA1, Bellomo CM, Martínez VP.

Author information

1 Laboratorio de Hantavirus, Servicio de Biología Molecular, Departamento de Virología, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas, ANLIS Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán, Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail:


Andes virus is the causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Argentina and neighboring countries. In our country four different areas are affected: Northwest, Southwest, Central and Northeast, where distinct Andes virus genotypes were characterized. Three genotypes were described in Buenos Aires province (Central area): AND-Buenos Aires, AND-Lechiguanas and AND-Plata. In this work, we considered all HPS cases confirmed by ELISA and real time RT-PCR during the period 2009-2014 in Buenos Aires province. The annual distribution, fatality rate and geographic distribution were analyzed. We also analyzed the genotypes involved by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Finally we evaluated epidemiological data in order to establish the route of transmission. We analyzed 1386 suspect cases of hantavirus infection from Buenos Aires province and we confirmed 88 cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome during 2009-2014. The overall average was 14.3 cases per year. The occurrence of a HPS outbreak was confirmed in Buenos Aires province during 2013, showing a 3 fold increase in case number compared to the annual average between 2009 and 2012, tending to normalize during 2014. The overall lethality was 25.6%, with a maximum value of 45.5% in 2011. Genotype analysis was performed in 30.7% of confirmed cases, AND-BsAs show the highest incidence, it was characterized in 72% of the studied cases. Epidemiological data and results of viral genome comparison strongly suggest person-to-person transmission in the three clusters of two cases described in our study.


December 21, 2018 at 11:20 am

Person-to-person household and nosocomial transmission of andes hantavirus, Southern Chile, 2011.

Emerg Infect Dis. October 2014 V.20 N.10 P.1629-36.

Martinez-Valdebenito C, Calvo M, Vial C, Mansilla R, Marco C, Palma RE, Vial PA, Valdivieso F, Mertz G, Ferrés M.


Andes hantavirus (ANDV) causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in Chile and is the only hantavirus for which person-to-person transmission has been proven. We describe an outbreak of 5 human cases of ANDV infection in which symptoms developed in 2 household contacts and 2 health care workers after exposure to the index case-patient. Results of an epidemiologic investigation and sequence analysis of the virus isolates support person-to-person transmission of ANDV for the 4 secondary case-patients, including nosocomial transmission for the 2 health care workers. Health care personnel who have direct contact with ANDV case-patients or their body fluids should take precautions to prevent transmission of the virus. In addition, because the incubation period of ANDV after environmental exposure is longer than that for person-to-person exposure, all persons exposed to a confirmed ANDV case-patient or with possible environmental exposure to the virus should be monitored for 42 days for clinical symptoms.


December 21, 2018 at 11:18 am

HANTAVIRUS – Person-to-person transmission of Andes virus.

Emerg Infect Dis. December 2005 V.11 N.12 P.1848-53.

Martinez VP1, Bellomo C, San Juan J, Pinna D, Forlenza R, Elder M, Padula PJ.

Author information

1 Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas ANLIS Dr. C.G. Malbrán, Buenos Aires, Argentina.


Despite the fact that rodents are considered to be the infectious source of hantavirus for humans, another route of transmission was demonstrated. Andes virus (ANDV) has been responsible for most of the cases recorded in Argentina. Person-to-person transmission of ANDV Sout lineage was described during an outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southwest Argentina. In this study, we analyzed 4 clusters that occurred in 2 disease-endemic areas for different ANDV lineages. We found new evidence of interhuman transmission for ANDV Sout lineage and described the first event in which another lineage, ANDV Cent BsAs, was implicated in this mechanism of transmission. On the basis of epidemiologic and genetic data, we concluded that person-to-person spread of the virus likely took place during the prodromal phase or shortly after it ended, since close and prolonged contact occurred in the events analyzed here, and the incubation period was 15-24 days



December 21, 2018 at 11:16 am

2018 IDSA clinical practice guideline for the management of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy.

Clin Infect Dis November 18, 2018

Norris AH et al.

A panel of experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) to update the 2004 clinical practice guideline on outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) [1]. This guideline is intended to provide insight for healthcare professionals who prescribe and oversee the provision of OPAT. It considers various patient features, infusion catheter issues, monitoring questions, and antimicrobial stewardship concerns. It does not offer recommendations on the treatment of specific infections. The reader is referred to disease- or organism-specific guidelines for such support.



December 21, 2018 at 9:11 am


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