Archive for April, 2019

A review of the value of quadrivalent influenza vaccines and their potential contribution to influenza control.

Hum Vaccin Immunother. July 3, 2017 V.13 N.7 P.1640-1652.

Ray R1, Dos Santos G2, Buck PO3, Claeys C1, Matias G1, Innis BL3, Bekkat-Berkani R1.

Author information

1 a GSK , Wavre , Belgium.

2 b Business & Decision Life Sciences , Brussels , Belgium (on behalf of GSK).

3 c GSK , Philadelphia , PA , USA.

Abstract

The contribution of influenza B to the seasonal influenza burden varies from year-to-year. Although 2 antigenically distinct influenza B virus lineages have co-circulated since 2001, trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) contain antigens from only one influenza B virus. B-mismatch or co-circulation of both B lineages results in increased morbidity and mortality attributable to the B lineage absent from the vaccine. Quadrivalent vaccines (QIVs) contain both influenza B lineages. We reviewed currently licensed QIVs and their value by focusing on the preventable disease burden. Modeling studies support that QIVs are expected to prevent more influenza cases, hospitalisations and deaths than TIVs, although estimates of the case numbers prevented vary according to local specificities. The value of QIVs is demonstrated by their capacity to broaden the immune response and reduce the likelihood of a B-mismatched season. Some health authorities have preferentially recommended QIVs over TIVs in their influenza prevention programmes.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5512791/pdf/khvi-13-07-1313375.pdf

 

April 13, 2019 at 12:57 pm

Safety and Immunogenicity of MF59-Adjuvanted Cell Culture-Derived A/H5N1 Subunit Influenza Virus Vaccine: Dose-Finding Clinical Trials in Adults and the Elderly.

 Open Forum Infect Dis. March 1, 2019 V.6 N.4 

Frey SE1, Shakib S2, Chanthavanich P3, Richmond P4, Smith T5, Tantawichien T6, Kittel C7, Jaehnig P7, Mojares Z8, Verma B9, Kanesa-Thasan N9, Hohenboken M10.

Author information

1 School of Medicine, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri.

2 CMAX Clinical Research Pty Ltd., Adelaide, SA, Australia.

3 Department of Tropical Pediatrics, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

4 Division of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Western Australia, and Vaccine Trials Group, Telethon Kids Institute, Subiaco, WA, Australia.

5 Mercy Health Research, St. Louis, Missouri.

6 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, Bangkok, Thailand.

7 GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines GmbH, Marburg, Germany.

8 GlaxoSmithKline Pte Ltd., Singapore, Singapore.

9 GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines LLC, Rockville, Maryland.

10 Seqirus Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A/H5N1 influenza viruses have high pandemic potential; consequently, vaccines need to be produced rapidly. MF59® adjuvant reduces the antigen required per dose, allowing for dose sparing and more rapid vaccine availability.

METHODS:

Two multicenter, phase II trials were conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an MF59-adjuvanted, cell culture-derived, A/H5N1 vaccine (aH5N1c) among 979 adult (18-64 years old) and 1393 elderly (≥65 years old) subjects. Participants were equally randomized to receive 2 full-dose (7.5 μg of hemagglutinin antigen per dose) or 2 half-dose aH5N1c vaccinations 3 weeks apart. Outcomes were based on Center for Biologics Evaluation Research and Review (CBER) and Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) licensure criteria (titers ≥1:40 and seroconversions on day 43). Solicited reactions and adverse events were assessed (www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01776541 and NCT01766921).

RESULTS:

CBER and CHMP criteria were met by both age groups. CBER criteria for hemagglutination titers were met for the full-dose formulation. Solicited reaction frequencies tended to be higher in the full-dose group and were of mild to moderate intensity. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred.

CONCLUSIONS:

In adult and elderly participants, the full-dose aH5N1c vaccine formulation was well tolerated and met US and European licensure criteria for pandemic vaccines.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446137/pdf/ofz107.pdf

April 13, 2019 at 12:56 pm

RECOMENDACIONES PARA LA PREVENCIÓN DE INFECCIONES ASOCIADAS A ARTOPLASTIA ELECTIVA EN ADULTOS

Medicina (Buenos Aires). 2017 V.77 N.2 P.143-157

JUAN CARLOS CHULUYÁN1*, ANDREA VILA2*, ANA LAURA CHATTÁS3*, MARCELO MONTERO3*, CLAUDIA PENSOTTI4*+, CLAUDIA TOSELLO5*, MARISA SÁNCHEZ6*, CECILIA VERA OCAMPO7*, GUILLERMINA KREMER8*, RODOLFO QUIRÓS8*, GUILLERMO A. BENCHETRIT9*,CAROLINA FERNANDA PÉREZ10*, ANA LAURA TERUSI11*, FRANCISCO NACINOVICH12*

1 Grupo de Trabajo Infectología, Hospital General de Agudos Dr. T. Álvarez,

2 Servicio de Infectología, Hospital Italiano de Mendoza,

3 Hospital General de Agudos Dr. Pirovano,

4 Clínica Monte Grande,

5 Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín, UBA,

6 Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires,

7 Sanatorio Dupuytren,

8 Hospital Universitario Austral,

9 Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas A. Lanari, UBA,

10 Policlínico del Docente-Centro Médico Huésped,

11 Instituto César Milstein,

12 Instituto Cardiovascular de Buenos Aires, Centros Médicos Dr. Stamboulian, Argentina

Las infecciones del sitio quirúrgico que complican las cirugías ortopédicas con implante prolongan la estadía hospitalaria y aumentan tanto el riesgo de readmisión como el costo de la internación y la mortalidad. Las presentes recomendaciones están dirigidas a:

(i) optimizar el cumplimiento de normas y la incorporación de hábitos en cada una de las fases de la cirugía, detectando factores de riesgo para infecciones del sitio quirúrgico potencialmente corregibles o modificables; y

(ii) adecuar la profilaxis antibiótica preoperatoria y el cuidado intra y postoperatorio.

PDF

http://www.medicinabuenosaires.com/PMID/28463223.pdf

April 13, 2019 at 12:39 pm

Review – Candida auris – Review of the Literature

Clinical Microbiology Reviews January 2018 V.31 N.1

Anna Jeffery-Smith, Surabhi K. Taori, Silke Schelenz, Katie Jeffery, Elizabeth M. Johnson, Andrew Borman, Candida auris Incident Management Team, Rohini Manuel, Colin S. Brown

The emerging pathogen Candida auris has been associated with nosocomial outbreaks on five continents. Genetic analysis indicates the simultaneous emergence of separate clades of this organism in different geographical locations.

Invasive infection and colonization have been detected predominantly in patients in high-dependency settings and have garnered attention due to variable antifungal resistance profiles and transmission within units instituting a range of infection prevention and control measures. Issues with the identification of C. auris using both phenotypic and molecular techniques have raised concerns about detecting the true scale of the problem.

This review considers the literature available on C. auris and highlights the key unknowns, which will provide direction for further work in this field.

FULL TEXT

https://cmr.asm.org/content/31/1/e00029-17

PDF

https://cmr.asm.org/content/cmr/31/1/e00029-17.full.pdf

 

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April 11, 2019 at 8:15 am

Increased risk of chikungunya infection in travellers to Thailand during ongoing outbreak in tourist areas: cases imported to Europe and the Middle East, early 2019.

EuroSurveillance  March 07, 2019 V.24 N.10

Rapid communication

Emilie Javelle1,2,3, Simin-Aysel Florescu4, Hilmir Asgeirsson5,6, Shilan Jmor7, Gilles Eperon8, Eyal Leshem9, Johannes Blum10, Israel Molina11, Vanessa Field7,12, Nancy Pietroski13, Carole Eldin2, Victoria Johnston7, Ioana Ani Cotar14, Corneliu Popescu4, Davidson H Hamer15,16, Philippe Gautret2,3

Since the start of 2019, the EuroTravNet/GeoSentinel and TropNet data collection networks for the surveillance of travel-related morbidity have identified nine patients with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported from Thailand to Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom (UK), Romania, Israel and France.

In comparison, the last CHIKV infection reported to EuroTravNet/GeoSentinel in travellers from Thailand was a suspected case in Romania in January 2018.

Only three other cases were reported to this network during the past 3 years from Thailand, and none in travellers returning to Europe.

Here, we present the clinical and travel data of eight travellers notified to EuroTravNet/GeoSentinel and one notified to TropNet with confirmed chikungunya disease imported from Thailand within 2 months.

FULL TEXT

https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.10.1900146

PDF (CLIC DOWNLOAD)

April 7, 2019 at 12:53 pm

TUNGIASIS

NEJM april 2019

Tunga penetrans

Una niña (10) sana, se presentó en la clínica de atención primaria con un historial de 10 días de múltiples pápulas con picazón en las plantas de los pies y en los dedos de los pies. Las lesiones tenían puntos negros en el centro y eran dolorosas.

Dos semanas antes, ella y su familia habían viajado a zonas rurales de Brasil. Durante este tiempo, el niña había jugado descalza sobre terrenos sucios.

Se extrajeron pulgas de arena de múltiples lesiones y se diagnosticó tungiasis.

La tungiasis es una infestación de la piel causada por la pulga de arena Tunga penetrans, un ectoparásito que se encuentra en todas las partes tropicales y subtropicales del mundo.

La niña había recibido previamente todas las vacunas recomendadas incluyendo la antitetánica. El tratamiento incluyó la extirpación del parásito y el cuidado local de heridas.

Después del tratamiento, hubo una remisión completa de las lesiones, sin complicaciones en el seguimiento.

PDF

https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMicm1810588

April 5, 2019 at 3:53 pm

2017 WSES and SICG guidelines on acute calcolous cholecystitis in elderly population

World J Emerg Surg. 2019 Mar 4;14:10.

Pisano M, Ceresoli M, Cimbanassi S, Gurusamy K, Coccolini F, Borzellino G, et al

Background

Gallstone disease is very common afflicting 20 million people in the USA. In Europe, the overall incidence of gallstone disease is 18.8% in women and 9.5% in men. The frequency of gallstones related disease increases by age. The elderly population is increasing worldwide.

Aim

The present guidelines aims to report the results of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) and Italian Surgical Society for Elderly (SICG) consensus conference on acute calcolous cholecystitis (ACC) focused on elderly population.

Material and methods

The 2016 WSES guidelines on ACC were used as baseline; six questions have been used to investigate the particularities in elderly population; the answers have been developed in terms of differences compared to the general population and to statements of the 2016 WSES Guidelines. The Consensus Conference discusses, voted, and modified the statements. International experts contributed in the elaboration of final statements and evaluation of the level of scientific evidences.

Results

The quality of the studies available decreases when we approach ACC in elderly. Same admission laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be suggested for elderly people with ACC; frailty scores as well as clinical and surgical risk scores could be adopted but no general consensus exist. The role of cholecystostomy is uncertain.

Discussion and conclusions

The evaluation of pro and cons for surgery or for alternative treatments in elderly suffering of ACC is more complex than in young people; also, the oldest old age is not a contraindication for surgery; however, a larger use of frailty and surgical risk scores could contribute to reach the best clinical judgment by the surgeon. The present guidelines offer the opportunity to share with the scientific community a baseline for future researches and discussion.

FULL TEXT

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399945/

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399945/pdf/13017_2019_Article_224.pdf

April 3, 2019 at 8:37 am

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