Archive for September 26, 2019

Emergence of dominant toxigenic M1T1 Streptococcus pyogenes clone during increased scarlet fever activity in England: a population-based molecular epidemiological study.

Lancet Infect Dis. September 10, 2019  pii: S1473-3099(19)30446-3.

Emergence of dominant toxigenic M1T1 Streptococcus pyogenes clone during increased scarlet fever activity in England: a population-based molecular epidemiological study.

Lynskey NN1, Jauneikaite E2, Li HK1, Zhi X1, Turner CE3, Mosavie M4, Pearson M4, Asai M1, Lobkowicz L1, Chow JY5, Parkhill J6, Lamagni T7, Chalker VJ7, Sriskandan S8.

Author information

1 Department of Infectious Diseases and Medical Research Council Centre for Molecular Bacteriology & Infection, Imperial College London, London, UK.

2 Department of Infectious Diseases and Medical Research Council Centre for Molecular Bacteriology & Infection, Imperial College London, London, UK; Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK; Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, National Institute for Health Research, Imperial College London, London, UK.

3 Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

4 Department of Infectious Diseases and Medical Research Council Centre for Molecular Bacteriology & Infection, Imperial College London, London, UK; Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, National Institute for Health Research, Imperial College London, London, UK.

5 Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, National Institute for Health Research, Imperial College London, London, UK; North-West London Health Protection Team, London Public Health England Centre, Public Health England, London, UK.

6 Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, National Institute for Health Research, Imperial College London, London, UK; Wellcome Sanger Institute, Cambridge, UK.

7 Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, National Institute for Health Research, Imperial College London, London, UK; National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, UK.

8 Department of Infectious Diseases and Medical Research Council Centre for Molecular Bacteriology & Infection, Imperial College London, London, UK; Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, National Institute for Health Research, Imperial College London, London, UK. Electronic address: s.sriskandan@imperial.ac.uk.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Since 2014, England has seen increased scarlet fever activity unprecedented in modern times. In 2016, England’s scarlet fever seasonal rise coincided with an unexpected elevation in invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections. We describe the molecular epidemiological investigation of these events.

METHODS:

We analysed changes in S pyogenes emm genotypes, and notifications of scarlet fever and invasive disease in 2014-16 using regional (northwest London) and national (England and Wales) data. Genomes of 135 non-invasive and 552 invasive emm1 isolates from 2009-16 were analysed and compared with 2800 global emm1 sequences. Transcript and protein expression of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA; also known as scarlet fever or erythrogenic toxin A) in sequenced, non-invasive emm1 isolates was quantified by real-time PCR and western blot analyses.

FINDINGS:

Coincident with national increases in scarlet fever and invasive disease notifications, emm1 S pyogenes upper respiratory tract isolates increased significantly in northwest London in the March to May period, from five (5%) of 96 isolates in 2014, to 28 (19%) of 147 isolates in 2015 (p=0·0021 vs 2014 values), to 47 (33%) of 144 in 2016 (p=0·0080 vs 2015 values). Similarly, invasive emm1 isolates collected nationally in the same period increased from 183 (31%) of 587 in 2015 to 267 (42%) of 637 in 2016 (p<0·0001). Sequences of emm1 isolates from 2009-16 showed emergence of a new emm1 lineage (designated M1UK)-with overlap of pharyngitis, scarlet fever, and invasive M1UK strains-which could be genotypically distinguished from pandemic emm1 isolates (M1global) by 27 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Median SpeA protein concentration in supernatant was nine-times higher among M1UK isolates (190·2 ng/mL [IQR 168·9-200·4]; n=10) than M1global isolates (20·9 ng/mL [0·0-27·3]; n=10; p<0·0001). M1UK expanded nationally to represent 252 (84%) of all 299 emm1 genomes in 2016. Phylogenetic analysis of published datasets identified single M1UK isolates in Denmark and the USA.

INTERPRETATION:

A dominant new emm1 S pyogenes lineage characterised by increased SpeA production has emerged during increased S pyogenes activity in England. The expanded reservoir of M1UK and recognised invasive potential of emm1 S pyogenes provide plausible explanation for the increased incidence of invasive disease, and rationale for global surveillance.

FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, UK National Institute for Health Research, Wellcome Trust, Rosetrees Trust, Stoneygate Trust

FULL TEXT

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(19)30446-3/fulltext

PDF

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S1473-3099%2819%2930446-3

 

 

Lancet Infect Dis. September 10, 2019  pii: S1473-3099(19)30494-3.

Scarlet fever changes its spots.

Brouwer S1, Lacey JA2, You Y3, Davies MR2, Walker MJ4.

Author information

1 School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences and Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.

2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

3 State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

4 School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences and Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address: mark.walker@uq.edu.au.

FULL TEXT

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(19)30494-3/fulltext

PDF

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S1473-3099%2819%2930494-3

September 26, 2019 at 9:40 am


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