Archive for February, 2020

2020/03 EDITORIAL – Challenges of coronavirus disease 2019 LANCET ID

Yet again, the world is experiencing a global viral epidemic of zoonotic origin. As of Feb 12, 45204 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 1116 deaths had been reported in 25 countries. The majority of cases and, at the time of writing, all but one death have been in China, despite efforts in the country to halt transmission through shutting down transport, quarantining entire cities, and enforcing the use of face masks. International flights have been cancelled and affected cruise ships quarantined. At this stage, it is unclear whether the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 outbreak will run its course, as SARS-CoV did in 2003, or will become an endemic cause of viral pneumonia….

FULL TEXT

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30072-4/fulltext?dgcid=raven_jbs_etoc_email

PDF

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S1473-3099%2820%2930072-4

February 27, 2020 at 8:37 am

2020/02/19 [Correspondence] Asymptomatic cases in a family cluster with SARS-CoV-2 infection LANCET ID

Since December, 2019, an outbreak of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to a serious epidemic in China and other countries, resulting in worldwide concern.1 Family clusters of infected individuals have been reported, and this phenomenon could present a serious threat to public health if not strictly controlled. In a previously reported family cluster, most infected individuals had clinical symptoms, decreased lymphocyte counts, and abnormal chest CT images, and were positive for the virus on quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis….

PDF

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S1473-3099%2820%2930114-6

February 25, 2020 at 8:29 pm

2020/02/24 Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study LANCET ID

Background

A cluster of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were successively reported in Wuhan, China. We aimed to describe the CT findings across different timepoints throughout the disease course.

Methods

Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (confirmed by next-generation sequencing or RT-PCR) who were admitted to one of two hospitals in Wuhan and who underwent serial chest CT scans were retrospectively enrolled. Patients were grouped on the basis of the interval between symptom onset and the first CT scan: group 1 (subclinical patients; scans done before symptom onset), group 2 (scans done ≤1 week after symptom onset), group 3 (>1 week to 2 weeks), and group 4 (>2 weeks to 3 weeks). Imaging features and their distribution were analysed and compared across the four groups.

Findings

81 patients admitted to hospital between Dec 20, 2019, and Jan 23, 2020, were retrospectively enrolled. The cohort included 42 (52%) men and 39 (48%) women, and the mean age was 49·5 years (SD 11·0). The mean number of involved lung segments was 10·5 (SD 6·4) overall, 2·8 (3·3) in group 1, 11·1 (5·4) in group 2, 13·0 (5·7) in group 3, and 12·1 (5·9) in group 4. The predominant pattern of abnormality observed was bilateral (64 [79%] patients), peripheral (44 [54%]), ill-defined (66 [81%]), and ground-glass opacification (53 [65%]), mainly involving the right lower lobes (225 [27%] of 849 affected segments). In group 1 (n=15), the predominant pattern was unilateral (nine [60%]) and multifocal (eight [53%]) ground-glass opacities (14 [93%]). Lesions quickly evolved to bilateral (19 [90%]), diffuse (11 [52%]) ground-glass opacity predominance (17 [81%]) in group 2 (n=21). Thereafter, the prevalence of ground-glass opacities continued to decrease (17 [57%] of 30 patients in group 3, and five [33%] of 15 in group 4), and consolidation and mixed patterns became more frequent (12 [40%] in group 3, eight [53%] in group 4).

Interpretation

COVID-19 pneumonia manifests with chest CT imaging abnormalities, even in asymptomatic patients, with rapid evolution from focal unilateral to diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities that progressed to or co-existed with consolidations within 1–3 weeks. Combining assessment of imaging features with clinical and laboratory findings could facilitate early diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia.

Funding

None.

PDF

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S1473-3099%2820%2930086-4

February 25, 2020 at 8:25 pm

Update: Public Health Response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak — United States, February 24, 2020

MMWR Early Release  February 25, 2020 / 69

What is already known about this topic?

An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout China and to 31 other countries and territories, including the United States.

What is added by this report?

Fourteen cases have been diagnosed in the United States, in addition to 39 cases among repatriated persons from high-risk settings, for a current total of 53 cases within the United States. The U.S. government and public health partners are implementing aggressive measures to slow and contain transmission of COVID-19 in the United States.

What are the implications for public health practice?

Interim guidance is available at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/index.html. As more is learned about this virus and the outbreak, CDC will rapidly incorporate new knowledge into guidance for action.

FULL TEXT

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6908e1.htm?s_cid=mm6908e1_e&deliveryName=USCDC_921-DM20815

PDF

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/pdfs/mm6908e1-H.pdf

February 25, 2020 at 7:55 pm

Commentary – A Unified Numbering Scheme for Class C β-Lactamases

Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. March 2020 V.64 N.3

A standard numbering scheme has been proposed for class C β-lactamases. This will significantly enhance comparison of biochemical and biophysical studies performed on different members of this class of enzymes and facilitate communication in the field.

FULL TEXT

https://aac.asm.org/content/64/3/e02247-19.abstract?etoc

PDF

https://aac.asm.org/content/aac/64/3/e02247-19.full.pdf

 

February 25, 2020 at 10:44 am

A Standard Numbering Scheme for Class C β-Lactamases

Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. March 2020 V.64 N.3

Unlike for classes A and B, a standardized amino acid numbering scheme has not been proposed for the class C (AmpC) β-lactamases, which complicates communication in the field. Here, we propose a scheme developed through a collaborative approach that considers both sequence and structure, preserves traditional numbering of catalytically important residues (Ser64, Lys67, Tyr150, and Lys315), is adaptable to new variants or enzymes yet to be discovered and includes a variation for genetic and epidemiological applications.

FULL TEXT

https://aac.asm.org/content/64/3/e01841-19.abstract?etoc

PDF

https://aac.asm.org/content/aac/64/3/e01841-19.full.pdf

 

February 25, 2020 at 10:43 am

Emergence of Ceftriaxone Resistance during a Case of Pneumococcal Meningitis with Fatal Evolution

Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. March 2020 V.64 N.3

We report a case of a 62-year-old man treated for Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis by ceftriaxone and dexamethasone. After neurological improvement, neurological degradation by vasculitis occurred, despite effective concentrations of ceftriaxone in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). S. pneumoniae with increased MICs to third-generation-cephalosporins (3GC) was isolated from the ventricular fluid 10 days after the isolation of the first strain. Isolate analysis showed that a mutation in the penicillin-binding protein 2X (PBP2X) has occurred under treatment.

This Journal section presents a real, challenging case involving a multidrug-resistant organism. The case authors present the rationale for their therapeutic strategy and discuss the impact of mechanisms of resistance on clinical outcome. An expert clinician then provides a commentary on the case.

FULL TEXT

https://aac.asm.org/content/64/3/e01958-19.abstract?etoc

PDF

https://aac.asm.org/content/aac/64/3/e01958-19.full.pdf

 

 

Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. March 2020 V.64 N.3

Case Commentary: Delayed Cerebral Vasculitis Associated with the Development of Ceftriaxone-Resistant Pneumococcal Meningitis

Mizrahi and colleagues present a well-described case of the emergence of drug resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis during therapy with ceftriaxone monotherapy with a low bactericidal concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid. Adherence to international guidelines could possibly have prevented the emergence of this resistant isolate and the adverse outcome.

FULL TEXT

https://aac.asm.org/content/64/3/e02251-19.abstract?etoc

PDF

https://aac.asm.org/content/aac/64/3/e02251-19.full.pdf

 

February 25, 2020 at 10:41 am

Editorial – The End of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci? A Micro-Comic Strip

Journal of Clinical Microbiology March 2020 V.58 N.3

With improved identification of bacteria using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), it has become common to identify staphylococci to the species level (1). This has led to a better understanding of the appropriate susceptibility testing methods for the staphylococcus species, which, in turn, makes specification of staphylococci more important….

FULL TEXT

https://jcm.asm.org/content/58/3/e02080-19?etoc

PDF

https://jcm.asm.org/content/jcm/58/3/e02080-19.full.pdf

February 25, 2020 at 10:17 am

.2020-02-22 ARTICLES Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding LANCET

Background

In late December, 2019, patients presenting with viral pneumonia due to an unidentified microbial agent were reported in Wuhan, China. A novel coronavirus was subsequently identified as the causative pathogen, provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). As of Jan 26, 2020, more than 2000 cases of 2019-nCoV infection have been confirmed, most of which involved people living in or visiting Wuhan, and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed.

Methods

We did next-generation sequencing of samples from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and cultured isolates from nine inpatients, eight of whom had visited the Huanan seafood market in Wuhan. Complete and partial 2019-nCoV genome sequences were obtained from these individuals. Viral contigs were connected using Sanger sequencing to obtain the full-length genomes, with the terminal regions determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Phylogenetic analysis of these 2019-nCoV genomes and those of other coronaviruses was used to determine the evolutionary history of the virus and help infer its likely origin. Homology modelling was done to explore the likely receptor-binding properties of the virus.

Findings

The ten genome sequences of 2019-nCoV obtained from the nine patients were extremely similar, exhibiting more than 99·98% sequence identity. Notably, 2019-nCoV was closely related (with 88% identity) to two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, collected in 2018 in Zhoushan, eastern China, but were more distant from SARS-CoV (about 79%) and MERS-CoV (about 50%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 2019-nCoV fell within the subgenus Sarbecovirus of the genus Betacoronavirus, with a relatively long branch length to its closest relatives bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, and was genetically distinct from SARS-CoV. Notably, homology modelling revealed that 2019-nCoV had a similar receptor-binding domain structure to that of SARS-CoV, despite amino acid variation at some key residues.

Interpretation

2019-nCoV is sufficiently divergent from SARS-CoV to be considered a new human-infecting betacoronavirus. Although our phylogenetic analysis suggests that bats might be the original host of this virus, an animal sold at the seafood market in Wuhan might represent an intermediate host facilitating the emergence of the virus in humans. Importantly, structural analysis suggests that 2019-nCoV might be able to bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in humans. The future evolution, adaptation, and spread of this virus warrant urgent investigation.

Funding

National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shandong First Medical University.

FULL TEXT

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30251-8/fulltext?dgcid=raven_jbs_etoc_email

PDF

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2820%2930251-8

2020-02-22 EDITORIAL – COVID-19  fighting panic with information LANCET

FULL TEXT

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30379-2/fulltext?dgcid=raven_jbs_etoc_email

PDF

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2820%2930379-2

February 21, 2020 at 4:10 pm

CDC – Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

CDC – Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index-sp.html

El 11/02/2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud anunció un nombre oficial para la enfermedad que está causando el brote actual de la enfermedad por coronavirus, COVID-19.

SINTOMAS

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/symptoms-sp.html

PREVENCION y TRATAMIENTO

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/prevention-treatment-sp.html

PREVENIR PROPAGACION del 2019-nCoV

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/guidance-prevent-spread-sp.html

PREGUNTAS FRECUENTES SOBRE EL 2019-nCoV

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/faq-sp.html

MAS INFORMACION (en inglés)

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html

 

About Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/index.html

-How COVID-19 Spreads

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/transmission.html

-Symptoms

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/symptoms.html

-CDC Tests for COVID-19

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/testing.html

-Laboratory Work

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/laboratory-work.html

-Prevention & Treatment

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/prevention-treatment.html

-What to Do If You Are Sick With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/steps-when-sick.html

-Frequently Asked Questions and Answers

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/faq.html

– What you need to know (Fact Sheet)

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/2019-ncov-factsheet-sp.pdf

-What to do if you are sick (Fact Sheet)

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/sick-with-2019-nCoV-fact-sheet-sp.pdf

Information for Healthcare Professionals from CDC

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/index.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fguidance-hcp.html

Current Interim Guidance (Orientación provisional actual):

-Evaluating and Reporting Persons Under Investigation (PUI)

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/hcp/clinical-criteria.html

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/identify-assess-flowchart.html

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/reporting-pui.html

-Healthcare Infection Control Guidance

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/hcp/infection-control.html

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/infection-prevention-control-faq.html

-Clinical Care Guidance

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-guidance-management-patients.html

-Home Care Guidance

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/guidance-home-care.html

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/guidance-prevent-spread.html

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/disposition-in-home-patients.html

-Guidance for EMS (Emergency Medical Services)

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/guidance-for-ems.html

-Healthcare Personnel with Potential Exposure Guidance

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/guidance-risk-assesment-hcp.html

Other Resources:

-COVID-19 Publications

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/publications.html

-Healthcare Preparedness Tools

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/preparedness-checklists.html

-Health Alert Network (HAN): Update and Interim Guidance on Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019

https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/han00427.asp

Resources for Healthcare Professionals Caring for COVID-19 Patients:

-What Healthcare Providers Should Know

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/caring-for-patients.html

-Frequently Asked Questions for Healthcare Providers

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/faq.html

Clinical Care:

-Clinical Care Guidance

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-guidance-management-patients.html

-Disposition of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-2019

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/disposition-hospitalized-patients.html

Infection Control:

-Infection Control

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/hcp/infection-control.html

-Frequently Asked Questions: Healthcare Infection Prevention and Control

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/infection-prevention-control-faq.html

Supply of Personal Protective Equipment (Suministro de equipo de protección personal):

-Healthcare Supply of Personal Protective Equipment

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/healthcare-supply-ppe.html

-Strategies for Optimizing Supply of N95 Respirators

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/respirator-supply-strategies.html

-FAQ about Respirators

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/respirator-use-faq.html

February 19, 2020 at 8:02 am

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