Posts filed under ‘Antimicrobianos’

Antibiotic Resistance and the Risk of Recurrent Bacteremia

Clinical Infectious Diseases June 1, 2018 V.66 N.11 P.1651–1657

Sjoukje H S Woudt; Sabine C de Greeff; Annelot F Schoffelen; Anne L M Vlek; Marc J M Bonten …


Direct health effects of antibiotic resistance are difficult to assess. We quantified the risk of recurrent bacteremia associated with resistance.


We extracted antimicrobial susceptibility testing data on blood isolates from the Dutch surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance between 2008 and 2017. First and first recurrent (4–30 days) bacteremia episodes were categorized as susceptible, single nonsusceptible, or co-nonsusceptible to third-generation cephalosporins without or with carbapenems (Enterobacteriaceae), ceftazidime without or with carbapenems (Pseudomonas species), aminopenicillins without or with vancomycin (Enterococcus species), or as methicillin-sensitive/-resistant S. aureus (MSSA/MRSA). We calculated risks of recurrent bacteremia after nonsusceptible vs susceptible first bacteremia, estimated the crude population attributable effect of resistance for the Netherlands, and calculated risks of nonsusceptible recurrent bacteremia after a susceptible first episode.


Risk ratios for recurrent bacteremia after a single- and co-nonsusceptible first episode, respectively, vs susceptible first episode, were 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5–2.0) and 5.2 (95% CI, 2.1–12.4) for Enterobacteriaceae, 1.3 (95% CI, 0.5–3.1) and 5.0 (95% CI, 2.9–8.5) for Pseudomonas species, 1.4 (95% CI, 1.2–1.7) and 1.6 (95% CI, 0.6–4.2) for Enterococcus species, and 1.6 (95% CI, 1.1–2.4) for MRSA vs MSSA. The estimated population annual number of recurrent bacteremias associated with nonsusceptibility was 40. The risk of nonsusceptible recurrent bacteremia after a susceptible first episode was at most 0.4% (Pseudomonas species).


Although antibiotic nonsusceptibility was consistently associated with higher risks of recurrent bacteremia, the estimated annual number of additional recurrent episodes in the Netherlands (40) was rather limited.




June 10, 2018 at 7:22 pm

Duration of exposure to multiple antibiotics is associated with increased risk of VRE bacteraemia: a nested case-control study

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy June 2018 V.73 N.6 P.1692–1699

Theodore Gouliouris; Ben Warne; Edward J P Cartwright; Luke Bedford; Chathika K Weerasuriya …


VRE bacteraemia has a high mortality and continues to defy control. Antibiotic risk factors for VRE bacteraemia have not been adequately defined. We aimed to determine the risk factors for VRE bacteraemia focusing on duration of antibiotic exposure.


A retrospective matched nested case-control study was conducted amongst hospitalized patients at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012. Cases who developed a first episode of VRE bacteraemia were matched 1:1 to controls by length of stay, year, specialty and ward type. Independent risk factors for VRE bacteraemia were evaluated using conditional logistic regression.


Two hundred and thirty-five cases were compared with 220 controls. Duration of exposure to parenteral vancomycin, fluoroquinolones and meropenem was independently associated with VRE bacteraemia. Compared with patients with no exposure to vancomycin, those who received courses of 1–3 days, 4–7 days or >7 days had a stepwise increase in risk of VRE bacteraemia [conditional OR (cOR) 1.2 (95% CI 0.4–3.8), 3.8 (95% CI 1.2–11.7) and 6.6 (95% CI 1.9–22.8), respectively]. Other risk factors were: presence of a central venous catheter (CVC) [cOR 8.7 (95% CI 2.6–29.5)]; neutropenia [cOR 15.5 (95% CI 4.2–57.0)]; hypoalbuminaemia [cOR 8.5 (95% CI 2.4–29.5)]; malignancy [cOR 4.4 (95% CI 1.6–12.0)]; gastrointestinal disease [cOR 12.4 (95% CI 4.2–36.8)]; and hepatobiliary disease [cOR 7.9 (95% CI 2.1–29.9)].


Longer exposure to vancomycin, fluoroquinolones or meropenem was associated with VRE bacteraemia. Antimicrobial stewardship interventions targeting high-risk antibiotics are required to complement infection control procedures against VRE bacteraemia.



June 10, 2018 at 7:20 pm

Durability and Long-term Clinical Outcomes of Fecal Microbiota Transplant Treatment in Patients With Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection

Clinical Infectious Diseases June 1, 2018 V.66 N.11 P.1705–1711


Yafet Mamo; Michael H Woodworth; Tiffany Wang; Tanvi Dhere; Colleen S Kraft


Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) appears safe and effective for treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). However, durability, long-term clinical outcomes, and patient satisfaction after FMT are not well described.


Eligible patients who received FMT for RCDI at Emory Hospital between 1 July 2012 and 31 December 2016 were contacted via telephone for a follow-up survey. Of 190 eligible patients, 137 (72%) completed the survey.


Median time from last FMT to follow-up was 22 months. Overall, 82% (113/137) of patients at follow-up had no recurrence of C. difficile infection (CDI) post-FMT (non-RCDI group) and 18% (24/137) of patients had CDI post-FMT (RCDI group). Antibiotic exposure for non-CDI infections after FMT was more common in the RCDI group compared to the non-RCDI group (75% vs 38%, P = .0009). Overall, 11% of patients reported improvement or resolution of diagnoses not related to CDI post-FMT, and 33% reported development of a new medical condition or symptom post-FMT. Ninety-five percent of patients (122/128) indicated that they would undergo FMT again, and 70% of these 122 reported that they would prefer FMT to antibiotics as initial treatment if they were to have a CDI recurrence.


In this follow-up survey of outcomes after FMT at a median of 22 months follow-up, 82% of patients had durable cure of CDI. Patients with recurrence had more post-FMT antibiotic exposure, underscoring the need for thoughtful antibiotic use and a potential role for prophylactic microbiome enrichment to reduce recurrence.



June 10, 2018 at 7:17 pm

Antibiotic sensitivities of coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus in hip and knee periprosthetic joint infections: does this differ if patients meet the International Consensus Meeting Criteria?

Infect Drug Resist. 2018 Apr 13;11:539-546.

De Vecchi E1, George DA2, Romanò CL3, Pregliasco FE4,5, Mattina R6, Drago L1,4.



Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the main pathogens responsible for prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). As normal inhabitants of human skin, it is often difficult to define if they are contaminants, or if they have an active role in initiating infection. This study aims to evaluate differences in CoNS organisms (Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus warneri) and Staphylococcus aureus in terms of isolation rate and antimicrobial susceptibility from patients who met the International Consensus Meeting (ICM) criteria for PJIs and those who did not.


Staphylococci isolates from January 2014 to December 2015 retrieved from patients undergoing revision joint arthroplasty were classified in accordance with criteria established by the ICM of Philadelphia.


As per the consensus classification, 50 CoNS and 39 S. aureus infections were recognized as pathogens, while 16 CoNS and four S. aureus were considered as contaminants. Frequency of isolation of S. aureus was significantly higher in infected patients than in those without infection, while no significant differences were observed among CoNS. Resistance to levofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and rifampicin was significantly more frequent in S. haemolyticus than in the other species, as well as resistance to erythromycin and gentamicin in S. hominis. In comparison to S. aureus, CoNS were significantly more resistant to daptomycin and gentamicin and more susceptible to rifampicin.


CoNS, other than Staphylococcus epidermidis, are frequently isolated from PJIs, and their infective role and antimicrobial susceptibility need to be assessed on an individual patient basis. S. haemolyticus seems to emerge as responsible for PJI in a large volume of patients, and its role needs to be further investigated, also considering its pattern of resistance.



June 10, 2018 at 11:59 am

REVIEW – Histopathology in Periprosthetic Joint Infection: When Will the Morphomolecular Diagnosis Be a Reality?

Biomed Res Int. 2018 May 13;2018:1412701.

Bori G1, McNally MA2, Athanasou N2.


The presence of a polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltrate in periprosthetic tissues has been shown to correlate closely with the diagnosis of septic implant failure. The histological criterion considered by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society to be diagnostic of periprosthetic joint infection is “greater than five neutrophils per high-power field in five high-power fields observed from histologic analysis of periprosthetic tissue at ×400 magnification.” Surgeons and pathologists should be aware of the qualifications introduced by different authors during the last years in the histological techniques, samples for histological study, cutoffs used for the diagnosis of infection, and types of patients studied. Recently, immunohistochemistry and histochemistry studies have appeared which suggest that the cutoff point of five polymorphonuclear neutrophils in five high-power fields is too high for the diagnosis of many periprosthetic joint infections. Therefore, morphomolecular techniques could help in the future to achieve a more reliable histological diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection.



June 10, 2018 at 11:56 am

Ceftazidime/Avibactam and Ceftolozane/Tazobactam: Second-generation β-Lactam/βLI Combinations.

Clinical Infectious Diseases July 15, 2016 V.63 N.2 P.234-41.

van Duin D1, Bonomo RA2.


Ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam are 2 novel β-lactam/β-lactamase combination antibiotics. The antimicrobial spectrum of activity of these antibiotics includes multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB), including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ceftazidime/avibactam is also active against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that produce Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases. However, avibactam does not inactivate metallo-β-lactamases such as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases. Both ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam are only available as intravenous formulations and are dosed 3 times daily in patients with normal renal function. Clinical trials showed noninferiority to comparators of both agents when used in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections (when used with metronidazole). Results from pneumonia studies have not yet been reported. In summary, ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam are 2 new second-generation cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. After appropriate trials are conducted, they may prove useful in the treatment of MDR GNB infections. Antimicrobial stewardship will be essential to preserve the activity of these agents.



June 10, 2018 at 10:52 am

Clinical and Epidemiological Features of Enterococcus casseliflavus/flavescens and Enterococcus gallinarum Bacteremia: A Report of 20 Cases

Clinical Infectious Diseases June 1, 2001 V.32 N.11 P.1540-1546

Karlene C. Reid  Franklin R. Cockerill, III  Robin Patel

The clinical significance of intrinsically vancomycin-resistant enterococci is not yet fully established, as these organisms are infrequently recovered from clinical specimens. We report our experience with 20 cases of Enterococcus gallinarum and Enterococcus casseliflavus/flavescens bacteremia in humans from 1992 through 1998. Sixteen cases of bacteremia were caused by E. gallinarum. Underlying conditions were present in 19 (95%) of the patients and included malignancy, receipt of transplant, and Caroli’s disease. Polymicrobial bacteremia was present in 9 patients (45%). E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus/flavescens, although they are infrequently isolated from clinical specimens, may cause serious invasive infections.

La importancia clínica de los enterococos intrínsecamente resistentes a la vancomicina todavía no está completamente establecida, ya que estos organismos se recuperan con poca frecuencia de las muestras clínicas. Presentamos nuestra experiencia con 20 casos de bacteriemias en humanos por Enterococcus gallinarum y Enterococcus casseliflavus/flavescens bacteriemia 1992 hasta 1998.

Dieciséis casos de bacteriemia fueron causados por E. gallinarum. Las condiciones subyacentes estuvieron presentes en 19 (95%) de los pacientes e incluyeron malignidad, recepción de trasplante y enfermedad de Caroli.

La bacteriemia polimicrobiana estuvo presente en 9 pacientes (45%). E. gallinarum y E. casseliflavus / flavescens, aunque rara vez se aíslan de muestras clínicas, pueden causar infecciones invasivas graves.



June 8, 2018 at 8:23 am

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