Posts filed under ‘Antiparasitarios’

Cryptosporidiosis Outbreaks — United States, 2009–2017

MMWR  June 28, 2019  V.68 N.25 P.568–572

Radhika Gharpure, DVM1,2; Ariana Perez, MPH1,3; Allison D. Miller, MPH1,4; Mary E. Wikswo, MPH5; Rachel Silver, MPH1,3; Michele C. Hlavsa, MPH1

Summary

What is already known about this topic?

Cryptosporidium is the leading cause of outbreaks of diarrhea linked to water and the third leading cause of diarrhea associated with animal contact in the United States.

What is added by this report?

During 2009–2017, 444 cryptosporidiosis outbreaks, resulting in 7,465 cases were reported by 40 states and Puerto Rico. The number of reported outbreaks has increased an average of approximately 13% per year. Leading causes include swallowing contaminated water in pools or water playgrounds, contact with infected cattle, and contact with infected persons in child care settings.

What are the implications for public health practice?

To prevent cryptosporidiosis outbreaks, CDC recommends not swimming or attending child care if ill with diarrhea and recommends hand washing after contact with animals….

FULL TEXT

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6825a3.htm#contribAff

PDF

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/pdfs/mm6825a3-H.pdf

 

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July 1, 2019 at 11:03 am

American trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease – Sexual transmission

International Journal of Infectious Diseases April 2019 V.81 N.4 P.81-84

Clever Gomes, Adriana B. Almeida, Ana C. Rosa, Perla F. Araujo, Antonio R.L. Teixeira

Highlights

  • Trypanosoma cruzi infection can be transmitted sexually from males and females to naïve mates.
  • T. cruzi parasites were detected in semen ejaculates from individuals with Chagas disease by nucleic acid techniques.
  • Semen aliquots from humans with Chagas disease instilled into the vagina of naïve female mice resulted in T. cruzi infections.
  • Breeding T. cruzi-infected male and female mice vertically transmitted the infection to progeny mice.

Objective

To contribute to the discussion on the research findings indicating the sexual transmission of American trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease in humans.

Methods

A review of the literature was performed to investigate the routes of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites and to evaluate the distribution of Chagas disease, which is now found across five continents.

Results

The epidemiological profile of American trypanosomiasis, which is still considered a neglected disease of the poor people of Latin America, has changed over time. A family-based study demonstrated that the blood protozoan T. cruzi can be transmitted sexually from infected males and females to naïve mates.

Conclusions

Evidence that Chagas disease can be transmitted sexually, coupled with the migration of individuals with Chagas disease to previously non-endemic countries and increased travel to endemic countries, has implications for public health. Improved screening of blood supplies and prenatal care are required to prevent congenital spread.

FULL TEXT

https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(19)30032-3/fulltext

PDF

https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(19)30032-3/pdf

June 30, 2019 at 12:18 pm

Disminución del nivel de conciencia, fiebre y disnea en una paciente infectada con HIV.

Revista Argentina de Microbiologia 2014 V.46 N.3 P.271-272

Carta al Editor

Shock séptico con meningitis debido a la bacteriemia por Klebsiella pneumoniae y falla multiorgánica en el contexto de un síndrome de hiperinfección por Strongyloides stercoralis,

PDF

https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/2130/213032482015.pdf

March 24, 2019 at 5:31 pm

Infección por Strongyloides stercoralis: estudio epidemiológico, clínico, diagnóstico y terapéutico en 30 pacientes

Revista Chilena de Infectologia Junio 2011 V.28 N.3

Marcelo Corti, María F. Villafañe, Norberto Trione, Daniel Risso, Juan Carlos Abuín y Omar Palmieri

Hospital de Enfermedades Infecciosas Francisco J. Muñiz, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Antecedentes

Strongyloides stercoralis, parásito endémico de áreas tropicales y subtropicales del planeta, en sujetos inmunodeprimidos puede cursar con formas graves y aun mortales como el síndrome de hiperinfestación y la enfermedad diseminada.

Métodos

Análisis retrospectivo de las características epidemiológicas, manifestaciones clínicas, co-infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), hallazgos microbiológicos y evolución de 30 pacientes con estrongiloidiasis, atendidos en el Hospital de Enfermedades Infecciosas F. J. Muñiz de Buenos Aires, entre enero 2004 y diciembre 2008.

Resultados

Se incluyeron en la evaluación 20 hombres y 10 mujeres con una mediana de edad de 33 años. Co-infección por VIH hubo en 21 pacientes (70%); la mediana de linfocitos T CD4+ en ellos al momento del diagnóstico de la parasitosis fue de 50 céls/mm3 (rango 7 a 355), (media de 56 céls/mm3). En los pacientes seronegativos para VIH, se comprobaron las siguientes co-morbilidades: tuberculosis (n: 3) y un caso de cada una de las siguientes afecciones: alcoholismo crónico, diabetes mellitus, reacción lepromatosa bajo corticotera-pia, y psoriasis en tratamiento inmunosupresor. Hubo dos pacientes sin aparentes enfermedades de base. Diecisiete pacientes presentaron enfermedad intestinal crónica con diarrea (57%), era asintomática y fue sospechada por la eosinofilia periférica (n: 7, 23%) y se clasificó como síndrome de hiperinfestación (n: 6, 20%) diagnosticado por la identificación de larvas en la materia fecal y secreciones broncopulmonares. Diecisiete pacientes (57%) presentaron eosinofilia periférica. El diagnóstico se efectuó por la visualización directa de las larvas en muestras de heces en fresco mediante la técnica de concentración de Baer-man (n: 20); por el examen copro-parasitológico seriado (n: 2) y por ambos métodos (n: 1); en líquido duodenal y materia fecal (n: 1) y por la identificación de larvas en materia fecal y secreciones respiratorias (n: 6). Letalidad global: 20% (6/30). Los pacientes con eosinofilia tuvieron una menor letalidad que aquellos sin esta respuesta (p < 0,001). No hubo correlación estadística entre la edad y la supervivencia. Sí fue significativa la correlación entre el recuento de CD4 y la letalidad, incluyendo 18 de los 21 pacientes seropositivos para VIH (p: 0,03). Finalmente, la correlación seropositividad para VIH y letalidad también fue significativa. Veintidós pacientes respondieron a la terapia antiparasitaria con ivermectina y evolucionaron favorablemente.

PDF

https://scielo.conicyt.cl/pdf/rci/v28n3/art03.pdf

March 24, 2019 at 5:28 pm

Toxoplasmosis: The Heart of the Diagnosis

OPEN FORUM INFECTIOUS DISEASES January 2019 V.6 N.1

James H England; Samuel S Bailin; Jeffrey R Gehlhausen; Donald H Rubin

Toxoplasma gondii is a common parasite that infects warm-blooded animals, including humans, and is a foodborne pathogen. We report a case of acute toxoplasmosis in a 76-year-old man after ingestion of the undercooked heart of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Tennessee. The patient’s adult grandson, who also consumed part of the heart, became ill with nearly identical symptoms, though he did not seek medical care. This case highlights important public health concerns about deer-to-human transmission of Toxoplasma.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/ofid/article/6/1/ofy338/5250666

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

January 20, 2019 at 12:17 pm

Diseases Transmitted by Cats.

Microbiol Spectr. October 2015 V.3 N.5

Goldstein EJC1, Abrahamian FM2.

Abstract

Humans and cats have shared a close relationship since ancient times. Millions of cats are kept as household pets, and 34% of households have cats.

There are numerous diseases that may be transmitted from cats to humans.

General modes of transmission, with some overlapping features, can occur through inhalation (e.g., bordetellosis); vector-borne spread (e.g., ehrlichiosis); fecal-oral route (e.g., campylobacteriosis); bite, scratch, or puncture (e.g., rabies); soil-borne spread (e.g., histoplasmosis); and direct contact (e.g., scabies).

It is also likely that the domestic cat can potentially act as a reservoir for many other zoonoses that are not yet recognized.

The microbiology of cat bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial with a broad mixture of aerobic (e.g., Pasteurella, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and anaerobic (e.g., Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Bacteroides) microorganisms.

Bacteria recovered from infected cat bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the cat, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods.

Bacteria may also originate from the victim’s own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury.

abstract

http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0013-2015

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

 

November 19, 2018 at 11:23 am

Pet-Related Infections.

Am Fam Physician. November 15, 2016 V.94 N.10 P.794-802.

Day MJ1.

Abstract

Physicians and veterinarians have many opportunities to partner in promoting the well-being of people and their pets, especially by addressing zoonotic diseases that may be transmitted between a pet and a human family member.

Common cutaneous pet-acquired zoonoses are dermatophytosis (ringworm) and sarcoptic mange (scabies), which are both readily treated.

Toxoplasmosis can be acquired from exposure to cat feces, but appropriate hygienic measures can minimize the risk to pregnant women.

Persons who work with animals are at increased risk of acquiring bartonellosis (e.g., cat-scratch disease); control of cat fleas is essential to minimize the risk of these infections.

People and their pets share a range of tick-borne diseases, and exposure risk can be minimized with use of tick repellent, prompt tick removal, and appropriate tick control measures for pets.

Pets such as reptiles, amphibians, and backyard poultry pose a risk of transmitting Salmonella species and are becoming more popular.

Personal hygiene after interacting with these pets is crucial to prevent Salmonella infections.

Leptospirosis is more often acquired from wildlife than infected dogs, but at-risk dogs can be protected with vaccination.

The clinical history in the primary care office should routinely include questions about pets and occupational or other exposure to pet animals.

Control and prevention of zoonoses are best achieved by enhancing communication between physicians and veterinarians to ensure patients know the risks of and how to prevent zoonoses in themselves, their pets, and other people.

FULL TEXT

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1115/p794.html

PDF

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2016/1115/p794.pdf

November 19, 2018 at 11:20 am

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