Posts filed under ‘Antivirales no HIV’

Detection of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses in Air Sampled From a University Campus: A Longitudinal Study

Clinical Infectious Diseases March 2020 V.70 N.5 P.850–858

Background

Respiratory virus–laden particles are commonly detected in the exhaled breath of symptomatic patients or in air sampled from healthcare settings. However, the temporal relationship of detecting virus-laden particles at nonhealthcare locations vs surveillance data obtained by conventional means has not been fully assessed.

Methods

From October 2016 to June 2018, air was sampled weekly from a university campus in Hong Kong. Viral genomes were detected and quantified by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Logistic regression models were fitted to examine the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of ecological and environmental factors associated with the detection of virus-laden airborne particles.

Results

Influenza A (16.9% [117/694]) and influenza B (4.5% [31/694]) viruses were detected at higher frequencies in air than rhinovirus (2.2% [6/270]), respiratory syncytial virus (0.4% [1/270]), or human coronaviruses (0% [0/270]). Multivariate analyses showed that increased crowdedness (aOR, 2.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.5–3.8]; P < .001) and higher indoor temperature (aOR, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.1–1.3]; P < .001) were associated with detection of influenza airborne particles, but absolute humidity was not (aOR, 0.9 [95% CI, .7–1.1]; P = .213). Higher copies of influenza viral genome were detected from airborne particles >4 μm in spring and <1 μm in autumn. Influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B viruses that caused epidemics during the study period were detected in air prior to observing increased influenza activities in the community.

Conclusions

Air sampling as a surveillance tool for monitoring influenza activity at public locations may provide early detection signals on influenza viruses that circulate in the community.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/70/5/850/5432328

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

March 24, 2020 at 8:45 pm

Severe Illnesses Associated With Outbreaks of Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Influenza in Adults

Clinical Infectious Diseases March 2020 V.70 N.5 P.773–779

Background

Recent reports have described the contribution of adult respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections to the use of advanced healthcare resources and death.

Methods

Data regarding patients aged ≥18 years admitted to any of Maryland’s 50 acute-care hospitals were evaluated over 12 consecutive years (2001–2013). We examined RSV and influenza (flu) surveillance data from the US National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and used this information to define RSV and flu outbreak periods in the Maryland area. Outbreak periods consisted of consecutive individual weeks during which at least 10% of RSV and/or flu diagnostic tests were positive. We examined relationships of RSV and flu outbreaks to occurrence of 4 advanced medical outcomes (hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, intubated mechanical ventilation, and death) due to medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI).

Results

Occurrences of all 4 MAARI-related hospital advanced medical outcomes were consistently greater for all adult ages during RSV, flu, and combined RSV–flu outbreak periods compared to nonoutbreak periods and tended to be greatest in adults aged ≥65 years during combined RSV–flu outbreak periods. Rate ratios for all 4 MAARI-related advanced medical outcomes ranged from 1.04 to 1.38 during the RSV, flu, or combined RSV–flu outbreaks compared to the nonoutbreak periods, with all 95% lower confidence limits >1.

Conclusions

Both RSV and flu outbreaks were associated with surges in MAARI-related advanced medical outcomes (hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, intubated mechanical ventilation, and death) for adults of all ages.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/70/5/773/5427067

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

March 24, 2020 at 8:43 pm

Discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Drug Discov Ther. 2020 V.14 N.1 P.58-60.

Dong L1, Hu S2, Gao J1.

Abstract

The SARS-CoV-2 virus emerged in December 2019 and then spread rapidly worldwide, particularly to China, Japan, and South Korea. Scientists are endeavoring to find antivirals specific to the virus. Several drugs such as chloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, and favipiravir are currently undergoing clinical studies to test their efficacy and safety in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China; some promising results have been achieved thus far. This article summarizes agents with potential efficacy against SARS-CoV-2.

PDF

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/ddt/14/1/14_2020.01012/_pdf/-char/en

 

March 23, 2020 at 11:59 am

Compounds with therapeutic potential against novel respiratory 2019 coronavirus.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. March 9, 2020 

Martinez MA1.

Abstract

Currently, the expansion of the novel human respiratory coronavirus (known as: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-2019, or 2019-nCoV) has stressed the need for therapeutic alternatives to alleviate and stop this new epidemic. The previous epidemics of high-morbidity human coronaviruses, such as the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003, and the Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, prompted the characterization of compounds that could be potentially active against the currently emerging novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The most promising compound is remdesivir (GS-5734), a nucleotide analog prodrug currently in clinical trials for treating Ebola virus infections. Remdesivir inhibited the replication of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in tissue cultures, and it displayed efficacy in non-human animal models. In addition, a combination of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors, lopinavir/ritonavir, and interferon beta (LPV/RTV-INFb) were shown to be effective in patients infected with SARS-CoV. LPV/RTV-INFb also improved clinical parameters in marmosets and mice infected with MERS-CoV. Remarkably, the therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir appeared to be superior to that of LPV/RTV-INFb against MERS-CoV in a transgenic humanized mice model. The relatively high mortality rates associated with these three novel human coronavirus infections, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, has suggested that pro-inflammatory responses might play a role in the pathogenesis. It remains unknown whether the generated inflammatory state should be targeted. Therapeutics that target the coronavirus alone might not be able to reverse highly pathogenic infections. This minireview aimed to provide a summary of therapeutic compounds that showed potential in fighting SARS-CoV-2 infections.

PDF

https://aac.asm.org/content/aac/early/2020/03/03/AAC.00399-20.full.pdf

March 13, 2020 at 3:42 pm

Baloxavir marboxil for uncomplicated influenza in adults and adolescents.

N Engl J Med 2018 Sep 6; 379:913.

Hayden FG et al.

BACKGROUND

Baloxavir marboxil is a selective inhibitor of influenza cap-dependent endonuclease. It has shown therapeutic activity in preclinical models of influenza A and B virus infections, including strains resistant to current antiviral agents.

METHODS

We conducted two randomized, double-blind, controlled trials involving otherwise healthy outpatients with acute uncomplicated influenza. After a dose-ranging (10 to 40 mg) placebo-controlled trial, we undertook a placebo- and oseltamivir-controlled trial of single, weight-based doses of baloxavir (40 or 80 mg) in patients 12 to 64 years of age during the 2016–2017 season. The dose of oseltamivir was 75 mg twice daily for 5 days. The primary efficacy end point was the time to alleviation of influenza symptoms in the intention-to-treat infected population.

RESULTS

In the phase 2 trial, the median time to alleviation of influenza symptoms was 23.4 to 28.2 hours shorter in the baloxavir groups than in the placebo group (P<0.05). In the phase 3 trial, the intention-to-treat infected population included 1064 patients; 84.8 to 88.1% of patients in each group had influenza A(H3N2) infection. The median time to alleviation of symptoms was 53.7 hours (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.5 to 58.5) with baloxavir, as compared with 80.2 hours (95% CI, 72.6 to 87.1) with placebo (P<0.001). The time to alleviation of symptoms was similar with baloxavir and oseltamivir. Baloxavir was associated with greater reductions in viral load 1 day after initiation of the regimen than placebo or oseltamivir. Adverse events were reported in 20.7% of baloxavir recipients, 24.6% of placebo recipients, and 24.8% of oseltamivir recipients. The emergence of polymerase acidic protein variants with I38T/M/F substitutions conferring reduced susceptibility to baloxavir occurred in 2.2% and 9.7% of baloxavir recipients in the phase 2 trial and phase 3 trial, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Single-dose baloxavir was without evident safety concerns, was superior to placebo in alleviating influenza symptoms, and was superior to both oseltamivir and placebo in reducing the viral load 1 day after initiation of the trial regimen in patients with uncomplicated influenza. Evidence for the development of decreased susceptibility to baloxavir after treatment was also observed. (Funded by Shionogi; JapicCTI number, 153090, and CAPSTONE-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02954354. opens in new tab.)

FULL TEXT

https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa1716197

 

FDA approves new drug to treat influenza [press release].

Silver Spring, MD: U.S. Food and Drug Administration; Oct 24, 2018. https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm624226.htm

December 27, 2019 at 8:23 am

2018 European Guideline on the organization of a consultation for Sexually Transmitted Infections.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. August 2019 V.33 N.8 P.1452-1458.

Gamoudi D, Flew S, Cusini M, Benardon S, Poder A, Radcliffe K.

This is an update of the 2012 IUSTI guideline. In this new version, we have expanded the sections on sexual history taking to include PEP and PrEP use, intimate partner and gender‐based violence, chemsex, swinging and psychosexual problems. We highlight the potential for the use of technology in the context of sexual health to facilitate sexual history taking and partner notification. We have explained the principle of safeguarding young and other vulnerable people who may present to services.

This guideline is primarily aimed at services provided in mainstream clinic/office environments, but increasingly many countries are seeing an era of rapid transition of sexual health services in which satellite clinics and online service provision are centre stage. Services are moving away from the main hospitals/clinics into smaller peripheral sites and various non‐traditional or outreach type settings such as saunas, brothels, bars, clubs, educational facilities, prisons and gay pride events. The advantage of such services is that it might allow hard‐to‐reach groups to be engaged with clinical services.1 We need a cohesive, multiagency approach to addressing the challenges associated with this style of service provision, if we are to harness the potential for decentralization of sexual health services while safeguarding the most vulnerable and remaining true to the founding principles of sexual health care.

FULL TEXT

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jdv.15577

PDF

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/jdv.15577

August 14, 2019 at 3:49 pm

2018 European guideline on the organization of a consultation for sexually transmitted infections

Journal of The European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology

New in the 2018 guidelines

This is an update of the 2012 IUSTI guideline. In this new version, we have expanded the sections on sexual history taking to include PEP and PrEP use, intimate partner and gender‐based violence, chemsex, swinging and psychosexual problems. We highlight the potential for the use of technology in the context of sexual health to facilitate sexual history taking and partner notification. We have explained the principle of safeguarding young and other vulnerable people who may present to services.

This guideline is primarily aimed at services provided in mainstream clinic/office environments, but increasingly many countries are seeing an era of rapid transition of sexual health services in which satellite clinics and online service provision are centre stage. Services are moving away from the main hospitals/clinics into smaller peripheral sites and various non‐traditional or outreach type settings such as saunas, brothels, bars, clubs, educational facilities, prisons and gay pride events. The advantage of such services is that it might allow hard‐to‐reach groups to be engaged with clinical services.1 We need a cohesive, multiagency approach to addressing the challenges associated with this style of service provision, if we are to harness the potential for decentralization of sexual health services while safeguarding the most vulnerable and remaining true to the founding principles of sexual health care….

FULL TEXT

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jdv.15577

PDF

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/jdv.15577

June 17, 2019 at 10:39 am

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