Posts filed under ‘Bacteriemias’

Papel de daptomicina en el tratamiento empírico y dirigido de infecciones por cocos grampositivos del paciente crítico

Revista Española de Quimioterapia Marzo 2011 V.24 N.1 P.14-24

GARNACHO-MONTERO, R. AMAYA-VILLAR, M. L. GÓMEZ-GRANDE, V. JEREZ, L. LORENTE-RAMOS, A. LOZA, A. MARTÍNEZ, J. C. POZO, R. SIERRA, J. POMARES, M. V. DE LA TORRE, C. ORTIZ

Las infecciones graves causadas por bacterias grampositivas son un problema grave y que se asocia a una elevada mortalidad. Entre ellas, hay que resaltar las causadas por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina siendo la bacteriemia primaria o asociada a catéter o a endocarditis las principales presentaciones.

Vancomicina ha sido tradicionalmente el tratamiento de elección para estas infecciones pero su actividad no es satisfactoria especialmente en caso de SARM con concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) >1mg/L.

Daptomicina es un antibiótico lipopéptido cuyo espectro de acción son las bacterias grampositivas incluyendo SARM y Enterococcus spp resistente a glucopéptido.

Destacar también que frente a S.aureus sensible a meticilina, daptomicina es rápidamente bactericida y más activo que vancomicina y al menos tan activo como las penicilinas isoxazólicas.

En el presente artículo se discute el papel de este antibiótico en el tratamiento empírico y dirigido de las infecciones por bacterias grampositivas que afectan a los pacientes críticos.

PDF

http://seq.es/seq/0214-3429/24/1/garnacho.pdf

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September 3, 2017 at 7:01 pm

Comparison Between Carbapenems and β-Lactam/β-Lactamase Inhibitors in the Treatment for Bloodstream Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Open Forum Infectious Diseases April 2017 V.4 N.2

Maged Muhammed; Myrto Eleni Flokas; Marios Detsis; Michail Alevizakos; Eleftherios Mylonakis

Background.

Carbapenems are widely used for the management of bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE). However, the wide use of carbapenems has been associated with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae development.

Methods.

We searched the PubMed and Scopus databases (last search date was on June 1, 2016) looking for studies that reported mortality in adult patients with ESBL-PE BSIs that were treated with carbapenems or β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors (BL/BLIs).

Results.

Fourteen studies reported mortality data in adult patients with ESBL-PE BSI that were treated with carbapenems or BL/BLIs. Among them, 13 studies reported extractable data on empiric therapy, with no statistically significant difference in mortality of patients with ESBL-PE BSI that were treated empirically with carbapenems (22.1%; 121 of 547), compared with those that received empiric BL/BLIs (20.5%; 109 of 531; relative risk [RR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83–1.37; I2 = 20.7%; P = .241). In addition, 7 studies reported data on definitive therapy. In total, 767 patients (79.3%) received carbapenems and 199 patients (20.6%) received BL/BLIs as definitive therapy, and there was again no statistically significant difference (RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.25–1.52; I2 = 84.6%; P < .001). Regarding specific pathogens, the use of empiric BL/BLIs in patients with BSI due to ESBL-Escherichia coli was not associated with a statistically significant difference in mortality (RR, 1.014; 95% CI, 0.491–2.095; I2 = 62.5%; P = .046), compared with the use of empiric carbapenems.

Conclusions.

These data do not support the wide use of carbapenems as empiric therapy, and BL/BLIs might be effective agents for initial/empiric therapy for patients with BSI caused by likely ESBL-PE, and especially ESBL-E coli.

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September 3, 2017 at 6:57 pm

Antibiotic Prescribing for Adults Hospitalized in the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community Study

Open Forum Infectious Diseases April 2017 V.4 N.2

Sara Tomczyk; Seema Jain; Anna M Bramley; Wesley H Self; Evan J Anderson …

Background

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) 2007 guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) recommend a respiratory fluoroquinolone or beta-lactam plus macrolide as first-line antibiotics for adults hospitalized with CAP. Few studies have assessed guideline-concordant antibiotic use for patients hospitalized with CAP after the 2007 IDSA/ATS guidelines. We examine antibiotics prescribed and associated factors in adults hospitalized with CAP.

Methods

From January 2010 to June 2012, adults hospitalized with clinical and radiographic CAP were enrolled in a prospective Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community study across 5 US hospitals. Patients were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire, and medical charts were reviewed. Antibiotics prescribed were classified according to defined nonrecommended CAP antibiotics. We assessed factors associated with nonrecommended CAP antibiotics using logistic regression.

Results

Among enrollees, 1843 of 1874 (98%) ward and 440 of 446 (99%) ICU patients received ≥1 antibiotic ≤24 hours after admission. Ward patients were prescribed a respiratory fluoroquinolone alone (n = 613; 33%), or beta-lactam plus macrolide (n = 365; 19%), beta-lactam alone (n = 240; 13%), among other antibiotics, including vancomycin (n = 235; 13%) or piperacillin/tazobactam (n = 157; 8%) ≤24 hours after admission. Ward patients with known risk for healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP), recent outpatient antibiotic use, and in-hospital antibiotic use <6 hours after admission were significantly more likely to receive nonrecommended CAP antibiotics.

Conclusions

Although more than half of ward patients received antibiotics concordant with IDSA/ATS guidelines, a number received nonrecommended CAP antibiotics, including vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam; risk factors for HCAP, recent outpatient antibiotic, and rapid inpatient antibiotic use contributed to this. This hypothesis-generating descriptive epidemiology analysis could help inform antibiotic stewardship efforts, reinforces the need to harmonize guidelines for CAP and HCAP, and highlights the need for improved diagnostics to better equip clinicians.

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September 3, 2017 at 6:54 pm

Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Results From a Retrospective Series and Implications for the Design of Prospective Clinical Trials

Open Forum Infectious Diseases April 2017 V.4 N.2

Elizabeth L. Alexander; Jeffery Loutit; Mario Tumbarello; Richard Wunderink; Tim Felton …

Background.

The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant Gram negatives, such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), has resulted in a critical need for new antimicrobials. Most studies of new antimicrobials have been performed in patients with nondrug-resistant pathogens. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with CRE infections to inform the design of phase 3 clinical trials.

Methods.

This was a retrospective study at 22 centers in 4 countries. Baseline data, treatment, and outcomes were collected in patients with complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI)/acute pyelonephritis (AP), hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP), ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (VABP), and bacteremia due to CRE.

Results.

Two hundred fifty-six cases of CRE infection were identified: 75 cUTI/AP, 21 HABP, 20 VABP, and 140 bacteremia. The patient population had significant comorbidities: 32.8% had chronic renal insufficiency, and 26.2% were immunocompromised. Illness severity at presentation was high: 29.3% presented with septic shock. Treatment regimens varied widely; however, a majority of patients received combination therapy. Outcomes were universally poor (28-day mortality was 28.1%) across all sites of infection, particularly in dialysis patients and those with sepsis.

Conclusions.

The CRE infections occured in patients with substantial comorbidities and were associated with high mortality and low rates of clinical cure with available antibiotics. Patients with these comorbidities are often excluded from enrollment in clinical trials for registration of new drugs. These results led to changes in the inclusion/exclusion criteria of a phase 3 trial to better represent the patient population with CRE infections and enable enrollment. Observational studies may become increasingly important to guide clinical trial design, inform on the existing standard of care, and provide an external control for subsequent trials.

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September 3, 2017 at 6:51 pm

Comparative Sensitivity of Transthoracic and Transesophageal Echocardiography in Diagnosis of Infective Endocarditis Among Veterans With Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

Open Forum Infectious Diseases April 2017 V.4 N.2

Poorani Sekar; James R. Johnson; Joseph R. Thurn; Dimitri M. Drekonja; Vicki A. Morrison …

Background.

Echocardiography is fundamental for diagnosing infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB), but whether all such patients require transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is controversial.

Methods.

We identified SAB cases between February 2008 and April 2012. We compared sensitivity and specificity of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and TEE for evidence of IE, and we determined impacts of IE risk factors and TTE image quality on comparative sensitivities of TTE and TEE and their impact on clinical decision making.

Results.

Of 215 evaluable SAB cases, 193 (90%) had TTE and 130 (60%) had TEE. In 119 cases with both tests, IE was diagnosed in 29 (24%), for whom endocardial involvement was evident in 25 (86%) by TEE, vs only 6 (21%) by TTE (P < .001). Transesophageal echocardiography was more sensitive than TTE regardless of risk factors. Even among the 66 cases with adequate or better quality TTE images, sensitivity was only 4 of 17 (24%) for TTE, vs 16 of 17 (94%) for TEE (P < .001). Among 130 patients with TEE, the TEE results, alone or with TTE results, influenced treatment duration in 56 (43%) cases and led to valve surgery in at least 4 (6%). It is notable that, despite vigorous efforts to obtain both tests routinely, TEE was not done in 86 cases (40%) for various reasons, including pathophysiological contraindications (14%), patient refusal or other patient-related factors (16%), and provider declination or system issues (10%).

Conclusions.

Patients with SAB should undergo TEE when possible to detect evidence for IE, especially if the results might affect management.

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September 3, 2017 at 6:46 pm

Ceftaroline for Severe Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections: A Systematic Review

Open Forum Infectious Diseases April  2017 V.4 N.2

Reese A. Cosimi; Nahal Beik; David W. Kubiak; Jennifer A. Johnson

This article reviews and evaluates the existing literature describing clinical outcomes and safety of ceftaroline in severe methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

Ceftaroline is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, including cases with concurrent bacteremia. Use for serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections has risen for a multitude of reasons.

The aim of this article is to review the literature evaluating clinical outcomes and safety of ceftaroline prescribed for serious MRSA infections. We conducted a literature search in Ovid (Medline) and PubMed for reputable case reports, clinical trials, and reviews focusing on the use of ceftaroline for treatment of MRSA infections.

Twenty-two manuscripts published between 2010 and 2016 met inclusion criteria. Mean clinical cure was 74% across 379 patients treated with ceftaroline for severe MRSA infections. Toxicities were infrequent. Ceftaroline treatment resulted in clinical and microbiologic cure for severe MRSA infections. Close monitoring of hematological parameters is necessary with prolonged courses of ceftaroline.

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September 3, 2017 at 6:40 pm

Susceptibility of Colistin-Resistant, Gram-Negative Bacteria to Antimicrobial Peptides and Ceragenins

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Sept 2017 V.61 N.9

Marjan M. Hashemi, John Rovig, Scott Weber, Brian Hilton, Mehdi M. Forouzan, and Paul B. Savage

aDepartment of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA

bDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA

The susceptibility of colistin-resistant clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae to ceragenins and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) suggests that there is little to no cross-resistance between colistin and ceragenins/AMPs and that lipid A modifications are found in bacteria with modest changes in susceptibility to ceragenins and with high levels of resistance to colistin.

These results suggest that there are differences in the resistance mechanisms to colistin and ceragenins/AMPs

PDF

http://aac.asm.org/content/61/8/e00292-17.full.pdf+html

August 30, 2017 at 8:18 am

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