Posts filed under ‘BIOFILM – BIOPELICULAS’

The Role of Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole in the Treatment of Infections Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae


Courtney L Luterbach; Ashley Boshe; Heather I Henderson; Eric Cober; Sandra S Richter

In the Consortium on Resistance Against Carbapenems in Klebsiella and other Enterobacteriaceae (CRACKLE), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) had a limited role in the treatment of less severe carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections, especially urinary tract infections. Of tested CRE, only 29% were susceptible to TMP-SMX. Development of resistance further limits the use of TMP-SMX in CRE infections.




January 20, 2019 at 12:18 pm

The prevention of Prosthetic Joint Infection (PJI)- 12 modifiable risk factors

The Bone & Joint Journal January 2019 V.101-B N.1 Suppl.A P.3-9

K. Alamanda, B. D. Springer


Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a serious complication that is associated with high morbidity and costs. The aim of this study was to prepare a systematic review to examine patient-related and perioperative risk factors that can be modified in an attempt to reduce the rate of PJI.

Materials and Methods

A search of PubMed and MEDLINE was conducted for articles published between January 1990 and February 2018 with a combination of search terms to identify studies that dealt with modifiable risk factors for reducing the rate of PJI. An evidence-based review was performed on 12 specific risk factors: glycaemic control, obesity, malnutrition, smoking, vitamin D levels, preoperative Staphylococcus aureus screening, the management of anti-rheumatic medication, perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, presurgical skin preparation, the operating room environment, irrigant options, and anticoagulation.


Poor glycaemic control, obesity, malnutrition, and smoking are all associated with increased rates of PJI. Vitamin D replacement has been shown in preliminary animal studies to decrease rates of PJI. Preoperative Staphylococcus aureus screening and appropriate treatment results in decreased rates of PJI. Perioperative variables, such as timely and appropriate dosage of prophylactic antibiotics, skin preparation with chlorohexidine-based solution, and irrigation with dilute betadine at the conclusion of the operation, have all been associated with reduced rates of PJI. Similarly, aggressive anticoagulation and increased operating room traffic should be avoided to help minimize risk of PJI.


PJI remains a serious complication of arthroplasty. Surgeons should be vigilant of the modifiable risk factors that can be addressed in an attempt to reduce the risk of PJI.




January 20, 2019 at 11:06 am

Osteomyelitis Complicating Sacral Pressure Ulcers: Whether or Not to Treat With Antibiotic Therapy

Clinical Infectious Diseases January 15, 2019 V.68 N.2 P.338–342


Darren Wong; Paul Holtom; Brad Spellberg

The treatment of osteomyelitis in patients with stage IV sacral pressure ulcers is controversial. We conducted a systematic literature review and did not find evidence of benefit of antibacterial therapy in this setting without concomitant surgical debridement and wound coverage. Furthermore, many patients with chronically exposed bone do not have evidence of osteomyelitis when biopsied, and magnetic resonance imaging may not accurately distinguish osteomyelitis from bone remodeling. The goal of therapy should be local wound care and assessment for the potential of wound closure. If the wound can be closed and osteomyelitis is present on bone biopsy, appropriate antibiotic therapy is reasonable. We find no data to support antibiotic durations of >6 weeks in this setting, and some authors recommend 2 weeks of therapy if the osteomyelitis is limited to cortical bone. If the wound will not be closed, we find no clear evidence supporting a role for antibiotic therapy.



January 20, 2019 at 11:03 am

First literature review of carbapenem-resistant Providencia.

New Microbes New Infect. 2018 Jun 4;25:16-23.

Abdallah M1, Balshi A2.

Author information

1 Pharmaceutical Care Services, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

2 Intensive Care Unit, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


Providencia species are Gram-negative bacteria that belong to the Enterobacteriaceae family. They have intrinsic resistance to colistin and tigecycline, which makes treatment of the multidrug-resistant strains of Providencia challenging. Carbapenem-resistant Providencia species are increasingly reported. In this review, patients’ characteristics, resistance mechanisms, treatment and infection control measures of carbapenem-resistant Providencia species in the literature are described.



January 18, 2019 at 9:37 am

First report of carbapenem-resistant Providencia stuartii in Saudi Arabia.

New Microbes New Infect. September 20, 2018 V.26 P.107-109.

Abdallah M1, Alhababi R2, Alqudah N3, Aldyyat B4, Alharthy A5.

Author information

1 Pharmaceutical Care Services, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

2 Microbiology Department, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

3 Prevention and Control of Infection Administration, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

4 Pharmacy Department, Dr. Sulaiman Al Habib Hospital (As-Suwaidi), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

5 Intensive Care Unit, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


We present the case of 31-year-old man who developed hospital-acquired pneumonia in the intensive care unit. Pathogens were identified to be carbapenem-resistant isolates of Providencia stuartii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The patient was treated with an extended infusion of double-dose meropenem (targeting the carbapenem-resistant P. stuartii) and colistin (targeting the carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae) for 2 weeks. The patient’s disease responded well to the prescribed regimen; his chest X-ray became normal, and all other signs of infection subsided. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the emergence of carbapenem-resistant P. stuartii due to AmpC hyperproduction in Saudi Arabia.


January 18, 2019 at 9:36 am

Providencia stuartii form biofilms and floating communities of cells that display high resistance to environmental insults.

PLoS One. March 23, 2017 V.12 N.3 P.e0174213.

El Khatib M1, Tran QT2, Nasrallah C1, Lopes J1, Bolla JM3, Vivaudou M1, Pagès JM3, Colletier JP1.

Author information

1 Institut de Biologie Structurale, Université Grenoble Alpes – Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique – Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Grenoble, France.

2 School of Biophysics, Jacobs University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.

3 Équipe Transporteurs Membranaires, Chimiorésistance et Drug-Design, Université Aix-Marseille – Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Marseille, France.


Biofilms are organized communities of bacterial cells that are responsible for the majority of human chronic bacterial infections. Providencia stuartii is a Gram-negative biofilm-forming bacterium involved in high incidence of urinary tract infections in catheterized patients. Yet, the structuration of these biofilms, and their resistance to environmental insults remain poorly understood. Here, we report on planktonic cell growth and biofilm formation by P. stuartii, in conditions that mimic its most common pathophysiological habitat in humans, i.e. the urinary tract. We observed that, in the planktonic state, P. stuartii forms floating communities of cells, prior to attachment to a surface and subsequent adoption of the biofilm phenotype. P. stuartii planktonic and biofilm cells are remarkably resistant to calcium, magnesium and to high concentrations of urea, and show the ability to grow over a wide range of pHs. Experiments conducted on a P. stuartii strain knocked-out for the Omp-Pst2 porin sheds light on the role it plays in the early stages of growth, as well as in the adaptation to high concentration of urea and to varying pH.


January 18, 2019 at 9:34 am

What Is the Role of Repeat Aspiration in the Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Hip Infection?

Journal of Arthropasty January 2019 V.34 N.1 P.126–131

Jeffrey D. Hassebrock, Michael G. Fox, Mark J. Spangehl, Matthew R. Neville, Adam J. Schwartz


The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons clinical practice guideline currently recommends repeat joint aspiration when workup of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) reveals conflicting data. This guideline is based on a single study of 31 patients published 25 years ago. We sought to determine the correlation between first and second aspirations and factors that may play a role in variability between them.


Sixty patients with less than 90 days between aspirations and no intervening surgery were identified at our institution and classified by Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria as infected, not infected, or not able to determine after both aspirations. Culture results from both aspirations were recorded. The rates of change and correlation in clinical diagnosis and culture results between aspirations were determined.


Repeat aspiration changed the diagnosis in 26 cases (43.3%, 95% confidence interval 31.6-55.9, kappa coefficient 0.32, P < .001), and the culture results in 25 cases (41.7%, 95% confidence interval 30.1-54.3, kappa coefficient 0.27, P < .01). Among patients initially MSIS negative, the proportion who changed to MSIS positive was greater for those with a history of prior PJI compared to those without (66.7% vs 0%, P < .05), and the first aspiration mean volume was higher for those changed to MSIS positive compared to those that remained MSIS negative (12.0 vs 3.0 mL, P < .01). Among patients initially MSIS positive, the proportion of patients who changed to MSIS negative was greater for those with a history of adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) to metal debris compared to patients without suspicion of ALTR (100% vs 7.7%, P < .05).


Repeat aspiration is particularly useful in patients with conflicting clinical data and prior history of PJI, suspicion of ALTR, or with high clinical suspicion of infection.


January 12, 2019 at 10:54 am

Older Posts


February 2019
« Jan    

Posts by Month

Posts by Category