Posts filed under ‘Desinfection and Sterilization’

Single-Dose Perioperative Antibiotics Do Not Increase the Risk of Surgical Site Infection in Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty

Journal of Arthroplasty July 2019 V.34 Supplement S327–S330

Background

Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is commonly performed as an outpatient procedure. To facilitate this process, a single-dose intravenous (IV) perioperative antibiotic administration is required compared to 24-hour IV antibiotic dosing schedules that are typical of most inpatient arthroplasty procedures. There is a paucity of literature to guide surgeons on the safety of single-dose perioperative antibiotic administration for arthroplasty procedures, particularly those that will be performed in the outpatient setting. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a large series of UKA performed with single-dose vs 24-hour IV antibiotic coverage to determine the impact on risk for surgical site infection (SSI).

Methods

All UKA cases were evaluated from 2007 to 2017 performed by a single surgeon at an academic institution. There were 296 UKAs in the cohort: 40 were outpatient procedures receiving single-dose antibiotics and 256 were inpatient procedures receiving 24-hour antibiotics. No patients were prescribed adjuvant oral antibiotics. Mean age was 64 years, 50% were female, mean body mass index was 32 kg/m2, and mean follow-up was 4.1 years (range 1.0-10.4). Perioperative antibiotic regimen was evaluated and SSI, defined as occurring within 1 year of surgery, was abstracted through a prospective total joint registry and manual chart review.

Results

SSI occurred in 2 of 296 cases (0.7%) in the entire cohort, 2 of 256 inpatient UKAs (0.8%), and 0 of 40 outpatient UKAs (0%) (P = 1.00). One SSI was a deep infection occurring 6 weeks postoperatively that required 2-stage exchange and conversion to total knee arthroplasty. The other was a superficial infection treated with 2 weeks of oral antibiotics.

Conclusion

This study demonstrates a low SSI risk (0.8% or less) following UKA with both single-dose and 24-hour IV antibiotics. Administering single-dose perioperative antibiotics is safe for UKA, which should alleviate that potential concern for outpatient surgery.

FULL TEXT

https://www.arthroplastyjournal.org/article/S0883-5403(19)30197-4/fulltext

PDF

https://www.arthroplastyjournal.org/article/S0883-5403(19)30197-4/pdf

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August 30, 2019 at 4:15 pm

In vitro pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of the combination of avibactam and aztreonam against MDR organisms.

J Antimicrob Chemother. July 2016 V.71 N.7 P.1866-80.

Sy SK1, Beaudoin ME2, Zhuang L1, Löblein KI1, Lux C1, Kissel M1, Tremmel R1, Frank C1, Strasser S1, Heuberger JA1, Mulder MB1, Schuck VJ2, Derendorf H3.

Author information

1 Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

2 AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA, USA.

3 Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA hartmut@cop.ufl.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The combination of aztreonam and avibactam has been proposed for the treatment of infections caused by metallo-β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative organisms, given the stability of aztreonam against metallo-β-lactamases plus the broad coverage of avibactam against AmpC β-lactamases and ESBLs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the combination against four clinical isolates with defined but diverse β-lactamase profiles.

METHODS:

The MICs of aztreonam were determined without and with avibactam (1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/L). Using the MIC values, the static time-kill kinetic studies were designed to encompass aztreonam concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 times the MIC at the respective avibactam concentrations from 0 to 8 mg/L. Aztreonam and avibactam concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS during the course of the time-kill kinetic studies to evaluate whether avibactam protects aztreonam from degradation.

RESULTS:

Three of the four isolates had aztreonam MICs ≥128 mg/L in monotherapy. Dramatically increasing susceptibility associated with a decrease in aztreonam MIC was observed with increasing avibactam concentration. Against all isolates, the combinations resulted in greater killing with a much lower dose requirement for aztreonam. The resulting changes in base-10 logarithm of cfu/mL at both the 10 h and 24 h references (versus 0 h) were synergistic. In contrast, a significantly higher concentration of aztreonam in the monotherapy was required to produce the same kill as that in the combination therapy, due to rapid aztreonam degradation in two isolates.

CONCLUSIONS:

The aztreonam/avibactam combination protects aztreonam from hydrolysis and provides synergy in antimicrobial activity against multiple β-lactamase-expressing strains with a wide MIC range.

abstract

https://academic.oup.com/jac/article/71/7/1866/1751177

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

August 25, 2019 at 11:36 am

Reduced rate of intensive care unit acquired gram-negative bacilli after removal of sinks and introduction of ‘water-free’ patient care.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. June 2017 V.6 P.59.

Hopman J#1, Tostmann A#1, Wertheim H1, Bos M1, Kolwijck E1, Akkermans R2, Sturm P1,3, Voss A1,4, Pickkers P5, Vd Hoeven H5.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Sinks in patient rooms are associated with hospital-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of removal of sinks from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patient rooms and the introduction of ‘water-free’ patient care on gram-negative bacilli colonization rates.

METHODS:

We conducted a 2-year pre/post quasi-experimental study that compared monthly gram-negative bacilli colonization rates pre- and post-intervention using segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series data. Five ICUs of a tertiary care medical center were included. Participants were all patients of 18 years and older admitted to our ICUs for at least 48 h who also received selective digestive tract decontamination during the twelve month pre-intervention or the twelve month post-intervention period. The effect of sink removal and the introduction of ‘water-free’ patient care on colonization rates with gram-negative bacilli was evaluated. The main outcome of this study was the monthly colonization rate with gram-negative bacilli (GNB). Yeast colonization rates were used as a ‘negative control’. In addition, colonization rates were calculated for first positive culture results from cultures taken ≥3, ≥5, ≥7, ≥10 and ≥14 days after ICU-admission, rate ratios (RR) were calculated and differences tested with chi-squared tests.

RESULTS:

In the pre-intervention period, 1496 patients (9153 admission days) and in the post-intervention period 1444 patients (9044 admission days) were included. Segmented regression analysis showed that the intervention was followed by a statistically significant immediate reduction in GNB colonization in absence of a pre or post intervention trend in GNB colonization. The overall GNB colonization rate dropped from 26.3 to 21.6 GNB/1000 ICU admission days (colonization rate ratio 0.82; 95%CI 0.67-0.99; P = 0.02). The reduction in GNB colonization rate became more pronounced in patients with a longer ICU-Length of Stay (LOS): from a 1.22-fold reduction (≥2 days), to a 1.6-fold (≥5 days; P = 0.002), 2.5-fold (for ≥10 days; P < 0.001) to a 3.6-fold (≥14 days; P < 0.001) reduction.

CONCLUSIONS:

Removal of sinks from patient rooms and introduction of a method of ‘water-free’ patient care is associated with a significant reduction of patient colonization with GNB, especially in patients with a longer ICU length of stay.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5466749/pdf/13756_2017_Article_213.pdf

June 3, 2019 at 6:20 pm

Still fighting prosthetic joint infection after knee replacement

LANCET Infectous Diseases June 2019 V.19 N.6

COMMENT – Still fighting prosthetic joint infection after knee replacement

We congratulate Erik Lenguerrand and colleagues on the publication of their paper in The Lancet Infectious Diseases1 and respect that it is a well-conducted study. In their large-scale observational study, the authors collected data from the UK National Joint Registry including a total of 679 010 primary knee arthroplasty cases and evaluated associations between patient, surgical, and healthcare system factors and the risk of revision for prosthetic joint infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest cohort study to date analysing the risk factors for periprosthetic joint infection following primary total knee replacement…

FULL TEXT

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(19)30067-2/fulltext?dgcid=raven_jbs_etoc_email

PDF

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S1473-3099%2819%2930067-2

 

 

LANCET Infectous Diseases June 2019 V.19 N.6

Risk factors associated with revision for prosthetic joint infection following knee replacement: an observational cohort study from England and Wales

Background

Prosthetic joint infection is a devastating complication of knee replacement. The risk of developing a prosthetic joint infection is affected by patient, surgical, and health-care system factors. Existing evidence is limited by heterogeneity in populations studied, short follow-up, inadequate power, and does not differentiate early prosthetic joint infection, most likely related to the intervention, from late infection, more likely to occur due to haematogenous bacterial spread. We aimed to assess the overall and time-specific associations of these factors with the risk of revision due to prosthetic joint infection following primary knee replacement.

Methods

In this cohort study, we analysed primary knee replacements done between 2003 and 2013 in England and Wales and the procedures subsequently revised for prosthetic joint infection between 2003 and 2014. Data were obtained from the National Joint Registry linked to the Hospital Episode Statistics data in England and the Patient Episode Database for Wales. Each primary replacement was followed for a minimum of 12 months until the end of the observation period (Dec 31, 2014) or until the date of revision for prosthetic joint infection, revision for another indication, or death (whichever occurred first). We analysed the data using Poisson and piecewise exponential multilevel models to assess the associations between patient, surgical, and health-care system factors and risk of revision for prosthetic joint infection.

Findings

Of 679 010 primary knee replacements done between 2003 and 2013 in England and Wales, 3659 were subsequently revised for an indication of prosthetic joint infection between 2003 and 2014, after a median follow-up of 4·6 years (IQR 2·6–6·9). Male sex (rate ratio [RR] for male vs female patients 1·8 [95% CI 1·7–2·0]), younger age (RR for age ≥80 years vs <60 years 0·5 [0·4–0·6]), higher American Society of Anaesthesiologists [ASA] grade (RR for ASA grade 3–5 vs 1, 1·8 [1·6–2·1]), elevated body-mass index (BMI; RR for BMI ≥30 kg/m2 vs <25 kg/m2 1·5 [1·3–1·6]), chronic pulmonary disease (RR 1·2 [1·1–1·3]), diabetes (RR 1·4 [1·2–1·5]), liver disease (RR 2·2 [1·6–2·9]), connective tissue and rheumatic diseases (RR 1·5 [1·3–1·7]), peripheral vascular disease (RR 1·4 [1·1–1·7]), surgery for trauma (RR 1·9 [1·4–2·6]), previous septic arthritis (RR 4·9 [2·7–7·6]) or inflammatory arthropathy (RR 1·4 [1·2–1·7]), operation under general anaesthesia (RR 1·1 [1·0–1·2]), requirement for tibial bone graft (RR 2·0 [1·3–2·7]), use of posterior stabilised fixed bearing prostheses (RR for posterior stabilised fixed bearing prostheses vs unconstrained fixed bearing prostheses 1·4 [1·3–1·5]) or constrained condylar prostheses (3·5 [2·5–4·7]) were associated with a higher risk of revision for prosthetic joint infection. However, uncemented total, patellofemoral, or unicondylar knee replacement (RR for uncemented vs cemented total knee replacement 0·7 [95% CI 0·6–0·8], RR for patellofemoral vs cemented total knee replacement 0·3 [0·2–0·5], and RR for unicondylar vs cemented total knee replacement 0·5 [0·5–0·6]) were associated with lower risk of revision for prosthetic joint infection. Most of these factors had time-specific effects, depending on the time period post-surgery.

Interpretation

We have identified several risk factors for revision for prosthetic joint infection following knee replacement. Some of these factors are modifiable, and the use of targeted interventions or strategies could lead to a reduced risk of revision for prosthetic joint infection. Non-modifiable factors and the time-specific nature of the effects we have observed will allow clinicians to appropriately counsel patients preoperatively and tailor follow-up regimens.

Funding

National Institute for Health Research.

FULL TEXT

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(18)30755- 2/fulltext?dgcid=raven_jbs_etoc_email

PDF

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S1473-3099%2818%2930755-2

May 24, 2019 at 7:39 am

The prevention of Prosthetic Joint Infection (PJI)- 12 modifiable risk factors

The Bone & Joint Journal January 2019 V.101-B N.1 Suppl.A P.3-9

K. Alamanda, B. D. Springer

Aims

Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a serious complication that is associated with high morbidity and costs. The aim of this study was to prepare a systematic review to examine patient-related and perioperative risk factors that can be modified in an attempt to reduce the rate of PJI.

Materials and Methods

A search of PubMed and MEDLINE was conducted for articles published between January 1990 and February 2018 with a combination of search terms to identify studies that dealt with modifiable risk factors for reducing the rate of PJI. An evidence-based review was performed on 12 specific risk factors: glycaemic control, obesity, malnutrition, smoking, vitamin D levels, preoperative Staphylococcus aureus screening, the management of anti-rheumatic medication, perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, presurgical skin preparation, the operating room environment, irrigant options, and anticoagulation.

Results

Poor glycaemic control, obesity, malnutrition, and smoking are all associated with increased rates of PJI. Vitamin D replacement has been shown in preliminary animal studies to decrease rates of PJI. Preoperative Staphylococcus aureus screening and appropriate treatment results in decreased rates of PJI. Perioperative variables, such as timely and appropriate dosage of prophylactic antibiotics, skin preparation with chlorohexidine-based solution, and irrigation with dilute betadine at the conclusion of the operation, have all been associated with reduced rates of PJI. Similarly, aggressive anticoagulation and increased operating room traffic should be avoided to help minimize risk of PJI.

Conclusion

PJI remains a serious complication of arthroplasty. Surgeons should be vigilant of the modifiable risk factors that can be addressed in an attempt to reduce the risk of PJI.

FULL TEXT

https://online.boneandjoint.org.uk/doi/full/10.1302/0301-620X.101B1.BJJ-2018-0233.R1

PDF

https://online.boneandjoint.org.uk/doi/pdf/10.1302/0301-620X.101B1.BJJ-2018-0233.R1

 

January 20, 2019 at 11:06 am

Healthcare-associated infections: bacteriological characterization of the hospital surfaces in the University Hospital of Abomey-Calavi/so-ava in South Benin (West Africa).

BMC Infect Dis. January 7, 2019 V.19 N.1 P.28.                   

 

Afle FCD1, Agbankpe AJ2, Johnson RC3, Houngbégnon O4, Houssou SC5, Bankole HS4.

Author information

1 Interfaculty Center of Training and Research in Environment for Sustainable Development, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01, PO, Box 1463, Cotonou, Benin. cyrafle@yahoo.fr.

2 Research Unit in Applied Microbiology and Pharmacology of Natural Substances, Research Laboratory in Applied Biology, Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi University, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01, PO, Box 2009, Cotonou, Benin.

3 Interfaculty Center of Training and Research in Environment for Sustainable Development, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01, PO, Box 1463, Cotonou, Benin.

4 Bacteriology Laboratory of the Ministry of Public Health, 01, PO, Box 418, Cotonou, Benin.

5 Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Abomey Calavi, Cotonou, Benin.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Healthcare-associated infections have become a public health problem, creating a new burden on medical care in hospitals. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria poses a difficult task for physicians, who have limited therapeutic options. The dissemination of pathogens depends on “reservoirs”, the different transmission pathways of the infectious agents and the factors favouring them. Contaminated environmental surfaces are an important potential reservoir for the transmission of many healthcare-associated pathogens. Pathogens can survive or persist in the environment for months and be a source of infection transmission when appropriate hygiene and disinfection procedures are inefficient. The aim of this study was to identify bacterial species from hospital surfaces in order to effectively prevent healthcare-associated infections.

METHODS:

Samples were taken from surfaces at the University Hospital of Abomey-Calavi/So-Ava in South Benin (West Africa). To achieve the objective of this study, 160 swab samples of hospital surfaces were taken as recommended by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 14698-1). These samples were analysed in the bacteriology section of the National Laboratory for Biomedical Analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS Statistics 21 software. A Chi Square Test was used to test the association between the Results of culture samples and different care units.

RESULTS:

Of the 160 surface samples, 65% were positive for bacteria. The frequency of isolation was predominant in Paediatrics (87.5%). The positive samples were 64.2% Gram-positive bacteria and 35.8% of Gram-negative bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus predominated (27.3%), followed by Bacillus spp. (23.3%). The proportion of other microorganisms was negligible. S. aureus and Staphylococcus spp. were present in all care units. There was a statistically significant association between the Results of culture samples and different care units (χ2 = 12.732; p = 0.048).

CONCLUSION:

The bacteria found on the surfaces of the University Hospital of Abomey-Calavi/So-Ava’s care environment suggest a risk of healthcare-associated infections. Adequate hospital hygiene measures are required. Patient safety in this environment must become a training priority for all caregivers.

FULL TEXT

https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-018-3648-x

PDF

https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s12879-018-3648-x

January 11, 2019 at 8:46 am

Molecular analysis of bacterial contamination on stethoscopes in an intensive care unit

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. December 12, 2018

Background

Culture-based studies, which focus on individual organisms, have implicated stethoscopes as potential vectors of nosocomial bacterial transmission. However, the full bacterial communities that contaminate in-use stethoscopes have not been investigated.

Methods

We used bacterial 16S rRNA gene deep-sequencing, analysis, and quantification to profile entire bacterial populations on stethoscopes in use in an intensive care unit (ICU), including practitioner stethoscopes, individual-use patient-room stethoscopes, and clean unused individual-use stethoscopes. Two additional sets of practitioner stethoscopes were sampled before and after cleaning using standardized or practitioner-preferred methods.

Results

Bacterial contamination levels were highest on practitioner stethoscopes, followed by patient-room stethoscopes, whereas clean stethoscopes were indistinguishable from background controls. Bacterial communities on stethoscopes were complex, and community analysis by weighted UniFrac showed that physician and patient-room stethoscopes were indistinguishable and significantly different from clean stethoscopes and background controls. Genera relevant to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) were common on practitioner stethoscopes, among which Staphylococcus was ubiquitous and had the highest relative abundance (6.8%–14% of contaminating bacterial sequences). Other HAI-related genera were also widespread although lower in abundance. Cleaning of practitioner stethoscopes resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial contamination levels, but these levels reached those of clean stethoscopes in only a few cases with either standardized or practitioner-preferred methods, and bacterial community composition did not significantly change.

Conclusions

Stethoscopes used in an ICU carry bacterial DNA reflecting complex microbial communities that include nosocomially important taxa. Commonly used cleaning practices reduce contamination but are only partially successful at modifying or eliminating these communities.

FULL TEXT

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/infection-control-and-hospital-epidemiology/article/molecular-analysis-of-bacterial-contamination-on-stethoscopes-in-an-intensive-care-unit/E5080DEC191CA8114D4CD564258CADE3/core-reader

December 31, 2018 at 1:03 pm

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