Posts filed under ‘FIEBRE y RASH’

CLINICAL PRACTICE – Measles

New England J of Medicine July 11, 2019

P.M. Strebel and W.A. Orenstein

A 38-year-old man presents to his primary care physician with a 3-day history of fever and cough. He is a father of two children, his wife is pregnant, and he has a history of recent travel outside the United States. The physical examination is notable for a body temperature of 39°C, conjunctivitis, and rhonchi on chest auscultation. The physician suspects bronchitis and prescribes antibiotic agents. Two days later, the patient returns with a red blotchy rash over his face and trunk. The physician becomes concerned about the possibility of measles. How should this case be further evaluated and managed? How might measles have been prevented, and what can be done to prevent the spread of the disease within the patient’s family and community? …..

FULL TEXT

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp1905181?query=TOC

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https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMcp1905181?articleTools=true

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July 11, 2019 at 3:54 pm

Gentamicin as an alternative treatment for gonorrhoea

LANCET June 22, 2019 V.393 N.10190 P.2474-2475

COMMENT

A high gonorrhoea disease burden, increasing rates, and growing antimicrobial resistance portend a developing global public health crisis.1 Gonorrhoea can cause reproductive complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility, blindness in infants born to infected mothers, and can facilitate HIV acquisition and transmission. Effective treatment prevents sequelae and transmission. Yet Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to each antimicrobial used for treatment.2 Development of new antimicrobials has not kept pace…..

FULL TEXT

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(19)30244-2/fulltext?dgcid=raven_jbs_etoc_email

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https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2819%2930244-2

 

LANCET June 22, 2019 V.393 N.10190 P.2511-2520

Gentamicin compared with ceftriaxone for the treatment of gonorrhoea (G-ToG): a randomised non-inferiority trial

Background

Gonorrhoea is a common sexually transmitted infection for which ceftriaxone is the current first-line treatment, but antimicrobial resistance is emerging. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of gentamicin as an alternative to ceftriaxone (both combined with azithromycin) for treatment of gonorrhoea.

Methods

G-ToG was a multicentre, parallel-group, pragmatic, randomised, non-inferiority trial comparing treatment with gentamicin to treatment with ceftriaxone for patients with gonorrhoea. The patients, treating physician, and assessing physician were masked to treatment but the treating nurse was not. The trial took place at 14 sexual health clinics in England. Adults aged 16–70 years were eligible for participation if they had a diagnosis of uncomplicated genital, pharyngeal, or rectal gonorrhoea. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a single intramuscular dose of either gentamicin 240 mg (gentamicin group) or ceftriaxone 500 mg (ceftriaxone group). All participants also received a single 1 g dose of oral azithromycin. Randomisation (1:1) was stratified by clinic and performed using a secure web-based system. The primary outcome was clearance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae at all initially infected sites, defined as a negative nucleic acid amplification test 2 weeks post treatment. Primary outcome analyses included only participants who had follow-up data, irrespective of the baseline visit N gonorrhoeae test result. The margin used to establish non-inferiority was a lower confidence limit of 5% for the risk difference. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN51783227.

Findings

Of 1762 patients assessed, we enrolled 720 participants between Oct 7, 2014, and Nov 14, 2016, and randomly assigned 358 to gentamicin and 362 to ceftriaxone. Primary outcome data were available for 306 (85%) of 362 participants allocated to ceftriaxone and 292 (82%) of 358 participants allocated to gentamicin. At 2 weeks after treatment, infection had cleared for 299 (98%) of 306 participants in the ceftriaxone group compared with 267 (91%) of 292 participants in the gentamicin group (adjusted risk difference −6·4%, 95% CI −10·4% to −2·4%). Of the 328 participants who had a genital infection, 151 (98%) of 154 in the ceftriaxone group and 163 (94%) of 174 in the gentamicin group had clearance at follow-up (adjusted risk difference −4·4%, −8·7 to 0). For participants with a pharyngeal infection, a greater proportion receiving ceftriaxone had clearance at follow-up (108 [96%] in the ceftriaxone group compared with 82 [80%] in the gentamicin group; adjusted risk difference −15·3%, −24·0 to −6·5). Similarly, a greater proportion of participants with rectal infection in the ceftriaxone group had clearance (134 [98%] in the ceftriaxone group compared with 107 [90%] in the gentamicin group; adjusted risk difference −7·8%, −13·6 to −2·0). Thus, we did not find that a single dose of gentamicin 240 mg was non-inferior to a single dose of ceftriaxone 500 mg for the treatment of gonorrhoea, when both drugs were combined with a 1 g dose of oral azithromycin. The side-effect profiles were similar between groups, although severity of pain at the injection site was higher for gentamicin (mean visual analogue pain score 36 of 100 in the gentamicin group vs 21 of 100 in the ceftriaxone group).

Interpretation

Gentamicin is not appropriate as first-line treatment for gonorrhoea but remains potentially useful for patients with isolated genital infection, or for patients who are allergic or intolerant to ceftriaxone, or harbour a ceftriaxone-resistant isolate. Further research is required to identify and test new alternatives to ceftriaxone for the treatment of gonorrhoea.

Funding

UK National Institute for Health Research.

FULL TEXT

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(18)32817-4/fulltext?dgcid=raven_jbs_etoc_email

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https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2818%2932817-4

 

 

June 22, 2019 at 7:59 pm

Meningococcal Disease Among College-Aged Young Adults: 2014–2016

Pediatrics January 2019  V.143  N.1

BACKGROUND:

Freshman college students living in residence halls have previously been identified as being at an increased risk for meningococcal disease. In this evaluation, we assess the incidence and characteristics of meningococcal disease in college-aged young adults in the United States.

METHODS:

The incidence and relative risk (RR) of meningococcal disease among college students compared with noncollege students aged 18 to 24 years during 2014–2016 were calculated by using data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System and enhanced meningococcal disease surveillance. Differences in demographic characteristics and clinical features of meningococcal disease cases were assessed. Available meningococcal isolates were characterized by using slide agglutination, polymerase chain reaction, and whole genome sequencing.

RESULTS:

From 2014 to 2016, 166 cases of meningococcal disease occurred in persons aged 18 to 24 years, with an average annual incidence of 0.17 cases per 100 000 population. Six serogroup B outbreaks were identified on college campuses, accounting for 30% of serogroup B cases in college students during this period. The RR of serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) disease in college students versus noncollege students was 3.54 (95% confidence interval: 2.21–5.41), and the RR of serogroups C, W, and Y combined was 0.56 (95% confidence interval: 0.27–1.14). The most common serogroup B clonal complexes identified were CC32/ET-5 and CC41/44 lineage 3.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although the incidence is low, among 18- to 24-year-olds, college students are at an increased risk for sporadic and outbreak-associated MenB disease. Providers, college students, and parents should be aware of the availability of MenB vaccines.

FULL TEXT

https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/143/1/e20182130

PDF

https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/143/1/e20182130.full.pdf

June 17, 2019 at 6:59 pm

Measles in 2019 — Going Backward

N Engl J of Medic April 18, 2019

C.I. Paules, H.D. Marston, and A.S. Fauci

In 2000, the United States achieved a historic public health goal: the elimination of measles, defined by the absence of sustained transmission of the virus for more than 12 months. This achievement resulted from a concerted effort by health care practitioners and families alike, working to protect the population through widespread immunization…..

FULL TEXT

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1905099?query=TOC

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https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMp1905099?articleTools

 

April 21, 2019 at 11:39 am

Disseminated Gonococcal Infection

N Engl J of Medic April 18, 2019 V.380 P.1565

IMAGES IN CLINICAL MEDICINE

Florez-Pollack and M.M. Mauskar

A 20-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a rash involving the arms, legs, trunk, and scalp, which had erupted that morning. She also reported generalized muscle aches, fever, and pain in both ankles. Two weeks earlier …

FULL TEXT

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMicm1811120?query=TOC

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https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMicm1811120?articleTools

April 21, 2019 at 11:37 am

Review – Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Antimicrobial Treatment of Acute Bacterial Meningitis.

Clinical Microbiology Review July 2010 V.23 N.3 P.467-492

Matthijs C. Brouwer, Allan R. Tunkel, Diederik van de Beek

The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has changed as a result of the widespread use of conjugate vaccines and preventive antimicrobial treatment of pregnant women.

Given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial meningitis, accurate information is necessary regarding the important etiological agents and populations at risk to ascertain public health measures and ensure appropriate management.

In this review, we describe the changing epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in the United States and throughout the world by reviewing the global changes in etiological agents followed by specific microorganism data on the impact of the development and widespread use of conjugate vaccines.

We provide recommendations for empirical antimicrobial and adjunctive treatments for clinical subgroups and review available laboratory methods in making the etiological diagnosis of bacterial meningitis.

Finally, we summarize risk factors, clinical features, and microbiological diagnostics for the specific bacteria causing this disease.

FULL TEXT

https://cmr.asm.org/content/23/3/467

PDF

https://cmr.asm.org/content/cmr/23/3/467.full.pdf

 

March 17, 2019 at 10:17 am

Increased Risk for Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease for Household Contacts of Scarlet Fever Cases, England, 2011–2016

Emerg Infect Dis March 2019 V.25 N.3

Watts et al.

The incidence of scarlet fever in England and Wales is at its highest in 50 years. We estimated secondary household risk for invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) disease within 60 days after onset of scarlet fever. Reports of scarlet fever in England during 2011–2016 were matched by residential address to persons with laboratory-confirmed iGAS infections. We identified 11 iGAS cases in ≈189,684 household contacts and a 60-day incidence rate of 35.3 cases/100,000 person-years, which was 12.2-fold higher than the background rate (2.89). Infants and contacts >75 years of age were at highest risk. Three cases were fatal; sepsis and cellulitis were the most common manifestations. Typing for 6 iGAS cases identified emm 1.0 (n = 4), emm 4.0 (n = 1), and emm 12.0 (n = 1). Although absolute risk in household contacts was low, clinicians assessing household contacts should be aware of the risk to expedite diagnosis and initiate life-saving treatment…

FULL TEXT

https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/25/3/18-1518_article

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https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/25/3/pdfs/18-1518.pdf

February 24, 2019 at 7:35 pm

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