Posts filed under ‘GUIDELINES’

Guidelines for the screening, care and treatment of persons with hepatitis C infection – WHO

Authors: WHO

Publication date: April 2014

Number of pages: 124

Languages: English


These are the first guidelines dealing with hepatitis C treatment produced by the World Health Organization (WHO) and complement existing guidance on the prevention of transmission of bloodborne viruses, including HCV.

They are intended for policy-makers, government officials, and others working in low- and middleincome countries who are developing programmes for the screening, care and treatment of persons with HCV infection.

These guidelines serve as a framework that can allow the expansion of clinical services to patients with HCV infection, as they provide key recommendations in these areas and discuss considerations for implementation.

The guidelines are also intended for health-care providers who care for persons with HCV infection in low- and middle-countries and provide them guidance in the management of patients infected with HCV.


April 14, 2014 at 8:08 am

Antiretroviral treatment French guidelines 2013: economics influencing science

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy My 2014 V.69 N.5 P.1158-1161

F. Raffi1,* and J. Reynes2

1Infectious Diseases, University Hospital, Nantes, France

2Infectious Diseases, University Hospital, Montpellier, France

*Corresponding author. Tel: +33-240-083-372; Fax: +33-240-083-335; E-mail:

Guidelines for the preferred choice of initial combination antiretroviral therapy in those living with HIV are provided by several national and international committees.

Following the recent presentation of the 2013 French guidelines on antiretroviral therapy, there has been a debate regarding whether and/or how economics should influence guideline decisions and to what extent this should counterbalance valid scientific evidence.

We discuss here the reasons for the unique nature of some of the proposals made by the French guidelines panel. Indeed, some recommendations are debatable.

In the new French guidelines, economic considerations significantly influence and, in some instances, take precedence over the scientific evidence, leading to guidelines that are significantly different from those of other national and international committees.



April 8, 2014 at 1:53 pm

Effect of Surgical Safety checklist implementation on the occurrence of postoperative complications in orthopedic patients.

Isr Med Assoc J. 2014 Jan;16(1):20-5.

Boaz M1, Bermant A2, Ezri T3, Lakstein D2, Berlovitz Y4, Laniado I3, Feldbrin Z2.

1Epidemiology Research Unit, Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel.

2Department of Orthopedics, Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel.

3Department of Anesthesiology and Surgery, Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel.

4Directorate, Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel.



Surgical adverse events are errors that emerge during perioperative patient care. The World Health Organization recently published “Guidelines for Safe Surgery.”


To estimate the effect of implementation of a safety checklist in an orthopedic surgical department.


We conducted a single-center cross-sectional study to compare the incidence of complications prior to and following implementation of the Guidelines for Safe Surgery checklist. The medical records of all consecutive adult patients admitted to the orthopedics department at Wolfson Medical Center during the period 1 July 2008 to 1 January 2009 (control group) and from 1 January 2009 to 1 July 2009 (study group) were reviewed. The occurrences of all complications were compared between the two groups.


The records of 760 patients (380 in each group) hospitalized during this 12 month period were analyzed. Postoperative fever occurred in 5.3% versus 10.6% of patients with and without the checklist respectively (P = 0.008). Significantly more patients received only postoperative prophylactic antibiotics rather than both pre-and postoperative antibiotic treatment prior to implementation of the checklist (3.2% versus 0%, P = 0.004). In addition, a statistically non-significant 34% decrease in the rate of surgical wound infection was also detected in the checklist group. In a logistic regression model of postoperative fever, the checklist emerged as a significant independent predictor of this outcome: odds ratio 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.29-0.96, P = 0.037.


A significant reduction in postoperative fever after the implementation of the surgical safety checklist occurred. It is possible that the improved usage of preoperative prophylactic antibiotics may explain the reduction in postoperative fever.


April 6, 2014 at 4:37 pm

Antimicrobial prophylaxis in adults.

Mayo Clin Proc. 2011 Jul V.86 N.7  P.686-701.

Enzler MJ, Berbari E, Osmon DR.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.


Antimicrobial prophylaxis is commonly used by clinicians for the prevention of numerous infectious diseases, including herpes simplex infection, rheumatic fever, recurrent cellulitis, meningococcal disease, recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis, influenza, infective endocarditis, pertussis, and acute necrotizing pancreatitis, as well as infections associated with open fractures, recent prosthetic joint placement, and bite wounds.

Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis is recommended for various surgical procedures to prevent surgical site infections. Optimal antimicrobial agents for prophylaxis should be bactericidal, nontoxic, inexpensive, and active against the typical pathogens that can cause surgical site infection postoperatively. To maximize its effectiveness, intravenous perioperative prophylaxis should be administered within 30 to 60 minutes before the surgical incision.

Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be of short duration to decrease toxicity and antimicrobial resistance and to reduce cost



April 6, 2014 at 12:12 pm

Diagnosis and management of complicated intra-abdominal infection in adults and children: guidelines by the Surgical Infection Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

Clin Infect Dis 2010 Jan 15; 50(2) :133-64.

Solomkin JS, Mazuski JE, Bradley JS, et al.

Department of Surgery, the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0558, USA.

Evidence-based guidelines for managing patients with intra-abdominal infection were prepared by an Expert Panel of the Surgical Infection Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

These updated guidelines replace those previously published in 2002 and 2003. The guidelines are intended for treating patients who either have these infections or may be at risk for them.

New information, based on publications from the period 2003-2008, is incorporated into this guideline document. The panel has also added recommendations for managing intra-abdominal infection in children, particularly where such management differs from that of adults; for appendicitis in patients of all ages; and for necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates.



March 22, 2014 at 7:34 pm

Current progress toward eradicating Helicobacter pylori in East Asian countries: Differences in the 2013 revised guidelines between China, Japan, and South Korea.

World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Feb 14;20(6):1493-1502.

Lee SY.

Sun-Young Lee, Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul 143-729, South Korea.


New 2013 guidelines on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been published in China, Japan, and South Korea.

Like the previous ones, these new guidelines differ between the three countries with regard to the indications for H. pylori eradication, diagnostic methods, and treatment regimens.

The most profound change among all of the guidelines is that the Japanese national health insurance system now covers the expenses for all infected subjects up to second-line treatment. This makes the Japanese indications for eradication much wider than those in China and South Korea.

With regard to the diagnosis, a serum H. pylori antibody test is not recommended in China, whereas it is considered to be the most reliable method in Japan. A decrease relative to the initial antibody titer of more than 50% after 6-12 mo is considered to be the most accurate method for determining successful eradication in Japan.

In contrast, only the urea breath test is recommended after eradication in China, while either noninvasive or invasive methods (except the bacterial culture) are recommended in South Korea. Due to the increased rate of antibiotics resistance, first-line treatment is omitted in China and South Korea in cases of clarithromycin resistance.

Notably, the Japanese regimen consists of a lower dose of antibiotics for a shorter duration (7 d) than in the other countries. There is neither 14 d nor bismuth-based regimen in the first-line and second-line treatment in Japan.

Such differences among countries might be due to differences in the approvals granted by the governments and national health insurance system in each country. Further studies are required to achieve the best results in the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection based on cost-effectiveness in East Asian countries.



March 21, 2014 at 7:01 pm

Clostridium difficile infection in children hospitalized due to diarrhea

European J of Clinical Micriobiol & Inf Diseases February 2014 V.33 N.2 P.201-209

K. Dulęba, M. Pawłowska, M. Wietlicka-Piszcz

The frequency of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)-related hospitalizations is increasing.

The aim of this study was to determine the extent of CDI among children hospitalized with diarrhea, risk factors or predictors for severe CDI, the prevalence of NAP1, and to compare the course of CDI depending on bacteria toxicity profile.

A retrospective analysis of case records of 64 children (age range 3 months–16 years, median age 2.12 years) with CDI as defined by diarrheal disease and positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test (Xpert C. difficile) was conducted.

Modified national adult guidelines were used to assess the severity of CDI. CDIs represented 2.7 % of patients with diarrhea (13.5 cases per 1,000 admissions).

Thirty-three CDIs (52 %) were community-associated. Antibacterial use preceded CDI in 61 patients (95 %). Seventeen cases (27 %) were binary toxin-positive (CDT+), 13 of which were NAP1 (20.5 %).

Over 75 % of CDIs with NAP1 was hospital-acquired, and more often proceeded with generalized infection (p<0.05).

Risk factors for severe CDI (34 %) included NAP1 [odds ratio (OR), 4.85; 95 % confidence interval (Cl), 1.23, 21.86) and co-morbidities (OR, 4.25; 95 % Cl, 1.34, 14.38).

Diarrhea ≥10 stools daily was associated with severe CDI (p=0.01).

Recurrence occurred in three patients (4.5 %). There was no mortality. C. difficile is an important factor of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. Co-morbidities and NAP1 predispose to severe CDI.


March 17, 2014 at 2:24 pm

Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis – 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

Clin Infect Dis 2012 Nov 15; 55(10) :1279-82.

Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, et al.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

The guideline is intended for use by healthcare providers who care for adult and pediatric patients with group A streptococcal pharyngitis.

The guideline updates the 2002 Infectious Diseases Society of America guideline and discusses diagnosis and management, and recommendations are provided regarding antibiotic choices and dosing.

Penicillin or amoxicillin remain the treatments of choice, and recommendations are made for the penicillin-allergic patient, which now include clindamycin.


March 17, 2014 at 2:21 pm

Complicated urinary tract infection in adults.

Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2005 Nov;16(6):349-60.

Nicolle LE; AMMI Canada Guidelines Committee*.



Complicated urinary tract infection occurs in individuals with functional or structural abnormalities of the genitourinary tract.


To review current knowledge relevant to complicated urinary tract infection, and to provide evidence-based recommendations for management.


The literature was reviewed through a PubMed search, and additional articles were identified by journal reference review. A draft guideline was prepared and critically reviewed by members of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada Guidelines Committee, with modifications incorporated following the review.


Many urological abnormalities may be associated with complicated urinary infection. There is a wide spectrum of potential infecting organisms, and isolated bacteria tend to be more resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Morbidity and infection outcomes in subjects with complicated urinary infection are principally determined by the underlying abnormality rather than the infection. Principles of management include uniform collection of a urine specimen for culture before antimicrobial therapy, characterization of the underlying genitourinary abnormality, and nontreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria except before an invasive genitourinary procedure. The antimicrobial regimen is determined by clinical presentation, patient tolerance, renal function and known or anticipated infecting organisms. If the underlying abnormality contributing to the urinary infection cannot be corrected, then early post-treatment recurrence of infection is anticipated.


The management of complicated urinary infection is individualized depending on patient variables and the infecting organism. Further clinical investigations are necessary to assist in determining optimal antimicrobial regimens.


March 6, 2014 at 8:09 pm

Recommendations for the empirical treatment of complicated urinary tract infections using surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance in the Netherlands.

PLoS One. 2014 Jan 28;9(1):e86634.

Koningstein M1, van der Bij AK2, de Kraker ME1, Monen JC1, Muilwijk J1, de Greeff SC1, Geerlings SE3, van Hall MA4; ISIS-AR Study Group.

1Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

2Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands ; Department of Medical Microbiology, Reinier de Graaf Groep, Delft, The Netherlands.

3Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Centre for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

4Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands ; Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Prevention, Bronovo Hospital, The Hague, the Netherlands.



Complicated urinary tract infections (c-UTIs) are among the most common nosocomial infections and a substantial part of the antimicrobial agents used in hospitals is for the treatment of c-UTIs. Data from surveillance can be used to guide the empirical treatment choices of clinicians when treating c-UTIs. We therefore used nation-wide surveillance data to evaluate antimicrobial coverage of agents for the treatment of c-UTI in the Netherlands.


We included the first isolate per patient of urine samples of hospitalised patients collected by the Infectious Disease Surveillance Information System for Antibiotic Resistance (ISIS-AR) in 2012, and determined the probability of inadequate coverage for antimicrobial agents based on species distribution and susceptibility. Analyses were repeated for various patient groups and hospital settings.


The most prevalent bacteria in 27,922 isolates of 23,357 patients were Escherichia coli (47%), Enterococcus spp. (14%), Proteus mirabilis (8%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7%). For all species combined, the probability of inadequate coverage was <5% for amoxicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combined with gentamicin and the carbapenems. When including gram-negative bacteria only, the probability of inadequate coverage was 4.0%, 2.7%, 2.3% and 1.7%, respectively, for amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, a second or a third generation cephalosporin in combination with gentamicin, and the carbapenems (0.4%). There were only small variations in results among different patient groups and hospital settings.


When excluding Enterococcus spp., considered as less virulent, and the carbapenems, considered as last-resort drugs, empirical treatment for c-UTI with the best chance of adequate coverage are one of the studied beta-lactam-gentamicin combinations. This study demonstrates the applicability of routine surveillance data for up-to-date clinical practice guidelines on empirical antimicrobial therapy, essential in patient care given the evolving bacterial susceptibility.


March 6, 2014 at 8:06 pm

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