Posts filed under ‘GUIDELINES’
Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2017 Report: GOLD Executive Summary
European Respiratory Journal March 2017 V.49 N.3
Claus F. Vogelmeier, Gerard J. Criner, Fernando J. Martinez, Antonio Anzueto, Peter J. Barnes, Jean Bourbeau, Bartolome R. Celli, Rongchang Chen, Marc Decramer, Leonardo M. Fabbri, Peter Frith, David M.G. Halpin, M. Victorina López Varela, Masaharu Nishimura, Nicolas Roche, Roberto Rodriguez-Roisin, Don D. Sin, Dave Singh, Robert Stockley, Jørgen Vestbo, Jadwiga A. Wedzicha, Alvar Agusti
This Executive Summary of the Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD (GOLD) 2017 Report focuses primarily on the revised and novel parts of the document. The most significant changes include: 1) the assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been refined to separate the spirometric assessment from symptom evaluation. ABCD groups are now proposed to be derived exclusively from patient symptoms and their history of exacerbations; 2) for each of the groups A to D, escalation strategies for pharmacological treatments are proposed; 3) the concept of de-escalation of therapy is introduced in the treatment assessment scheme; 4) nonpharmacologic therapies are comprehensively presented and; 5) the importance of comorbid conditions in managing COPD is reviewed.
Management of COPD exacerbations: a European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society guideline
European Respiratory Journal March 2017 V.49 N.3
Jadwiga A. Wedzicha, (ERS co-chair), Marc Miravitlles, John R. Hurst, Peter M.A. Calverley, Richard K. Albert, Antonio Anzueto, Gerard J. Criner, Alberto Papi, Klaus F. Rabe, David Rigau, Pawel Sliwinski, Thomy Tonia, Jørgen Vestbo, Kevin C. Wilson, and Jerry A. Krishnan, (ATS co-chair)
This document provides clinical recommendations for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations.
Comprehensive evidence syntheses, including meta-analyses, were performed to summarise all available evidence relevant to the Task Force’s questions. The evidence was appraised using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach and the results were summarised in evidence profiles. The evidence syntheses were discussed and recommendations formulated by a multidisciplinary Task Force of COPD experts.
After considering the balance of desirable and undesirable consequences, quality of evidence, feasibility, and acceptability of various interventions, the Task Force made: 1) a strong recommendation for noninvasive mechanical ventilation of patients with acute or acute-on-chronic respiratory failure; 2) conditional recommendations for oral corticosteroids in outpatients, oral rather than intravenous corticosteroids in hospitalised patients, antibiotic therapy, home-based management, and the initiation of pulmonary rehabilitation within 3 weeks after hospital discharge; and 3) a conditional recommendation against the initiation of pulmonary rehabilitation during hospitalisation.
The Task Force provided recommendations related to corticosteroid therapy, antibiotic therapy, noninvasive mechanical ventilation, home-based management, and early pulmonary rehabilitation in patients having a COPD exacerbation. These recommendations should be reconsidered as new evidence becomes available.
European Respiratory Journal March 2017 V.49 N.3
Dennis Falzon, Holger J. Schünemann, Elizabeth Harausz, Licé González-Angulo, Christian Lienhardt, Ernesto Jaramillo, and Karin Weyer
Antimicrobial resistance is a major global concern. Tuberculosis (TB) strains resistant to rifampicin and other TB medicines challenge patient survival and public health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has published treatment guidelines for drug-resistant TB since 1997 and last updated them in 2016 based on reviews of aggregated and individual patient data from published and unpublished studies. An international expert panel formulated recommendations following the GRADE approach. The new WHO guidelines recommend a standardised 9–12 months shorter treatment regimen as first choice in patients with multidrug- or rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB) strains not resistant to fluoroquinolones or second-line injectable agents; resistance to these two classes of core second-line medicines is rapidly detectable with molecular diagnostics also approved by WHO in 2016. The composition of longer regimens for patients ineligible for the shorter regimen was modified. A first-ever meta-analysis of individual paediatric patient data allowed treatment recommendations for childhood MDR/RR-TB to be made. Delamanid is now also recommended in patients aged 6–17 years. Partial lung resection is a recommended option in MDR/RR-TB care. The 2016 revision highlighted the continued shortage of high-quality evidence and implementation research, and reiterated the need for clinical trials and best-practice studies to improve MDR/RR-TB patient treatment outcomes and strengthen policy.
2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America’s Clinical Practice Guidelines for Healthcare-Associated Ventriculitis and Meningitis
Clinical Infectious Diseases March 15, 2017 V.64 N.6
Allan R. Tunkel; Rodrigo Hasbun; Adarsh Bhimraj; Karin Byers; Sheldon L. Kaplan
The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Standards and Practice Guidelines Committee collaborated with partner organizations to convene a panel of 10 experts on healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis. The panel represented pediatric and adult specialists in the field of infectious diseases and represented other organizations whose members care for patients with healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis (American Academy of Neurology, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, and Neurocritical Care Society). The panel reviewed articles based on literature reviews, review articles and book chapters, evaluated the evidence and drafted recommendations. Questions were reviewed and approved by panel members. Subcategories were included for some questions based on specific populations of patients who may develop healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis after the following procedures or situations: cerebrospinal fluid shunts, cerebrospinal fluid drains, implantation of intrathecal infusion pumps, implantation of deep brain stimulation hardware, and general neurosurgery and head trauma. Recommendations were followed by the strength of the recommendation and the quality of the evidence supporting the recommendation. Many recommendations, however, were based on expert opinion because rigorous clinical data are not available. These guidelines represent a practical and useful approach to assist practicing clinicians in the management of these challenging infections.
Medicina (B. Aires) Julio/Agosto 2003 V.63 N.4
Luna C. M.1, Calmaggi A.2, Caberloto O.1, Gentile J.2, Valentín R.1, 3, Ciruzzi J.1 , Clara L.2, Rizzo O.1, Lasdica S.1, 3, Blumenfeld M.2, Benchetrit G.2, Famiglietti A.4, ApezteguIa C.1, 3, Monteverde A.1 y Grupo Argentino de Estudio de la NAC
1 Asociación Argentina de Medicina Respiratoria (AAMR),
2 Sociedad Argentina de Infectología (SADI),
3 Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva (SATI),
4 Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología Clínica (SADEBAC), Asociación Argentina de Microbiología (AAM),
5 Sociedad Argentina de Virología (SAV),
6 Sociedad Argentina de Medicina (SAM), Buenos Aires
Las guías para neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (NAC) contribuyen a ordenar el manejo de los pacientes. La NAC presenta cambios en su etiología, epidemiología y sensibilidad a antibióticos que obligan a la revisión periódica de las guías. Un comité intersociedades elaboró esta guía dividida en tópicos y basada en guías y estudios clínicos recientes. La NAC afecta anualmente al 1% de la población; la mayoría de los pacientes requiere atención ambulatoria, en otros reviste gravedad (representa la 6ª causa de muerte en Argentina). La etiología es diferente si el paciente es ambulatorio, requiere internación en sala general o en terapia intensiva, pero no hay forma segura de predecirla clínicamente. Los predictores de mala evolución son: edad, antecedentes personales y comorbilidades y hallazgos del examen físico, del laboratorio y de la radiografía de tórax. Entre 10 y 25% de los pacientes que se internan deben hacerlo en terapia intensiva para ventilación mecánica o soporte hemodinámico (NAC grave), tanto inicialmente como durante su evolución. Estos pacientes presentan alta mortalidad; algunos criterios ayudan a reconocerlos. Embarazo, EPOC e internación en institutos geriátricos requieren consideraciones especiales. El diagnóstico es clínico, los métodos complementarios ayudan a determinar la etiología y la gravedad: la radiografía de tórax debe practicarse en todos los pacientes; el resto de los estudios están indicados en internados. El tratamiento inicial es empírico y debe iniciarse precozmente usando antibióticos activos frente a los gérmenes blanco, evitando el uso inapropiado que induce el desarrollo de resistencias. El tratamiento no debe prolongarse innecesariamente. Hidratación, nutrición, oxígeno y el manejo de las complicaciones complementan al tratamiento antibiótico. La prevención se basa en la profilaxis antinfluenza y antineumocóccica, evitar la aspiración y medidas generales.
Prevention and Control of Healthcare-Associated Infections in Primary and Community Care – Partial Update of NICE Clinical Guideline 2. March 2012 220 pags
Editors: National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).
Source: London: Royal College of Physicians (UK)
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence: Guidance.
Since the publication of the NICE clinical guideline on the prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) in primary and community care in 2003, many changes have occurred within the NHS that place the patient firmly at the centre of all activities.
First, the NHS Constitution for England defines the rights and pledges that every patient can expect regarding their care.
To support this, the Care Quality Commission (CQC), the independent regulator of all health and adult social care in England, ensures that health and social care is safe, and monitors how providers comply with established standards.
In addition, the legal framework that underpins the guidance has changed since 2003.
New guidance is needed to reflect the fact that, as a result of the rapid turnover of patients in acute care settings, complex care is increasingly being delivered in the community.
New standards for the care of patients and the management of devices to prevent related healthcare-associated infections are needed that will also reinforce the principles of asepsis.
This clinical guideline is a partial update of ‘Infection control: prevention of healthcare-associated infection in primary and community care’ (NICE clinical guideline 2; 2003), and addresses areas in which clinical practice for preventing HCAI in primary and community care has changed, where the risk of HCAI is greatest or where the evidence has changed.
The Guideline Development Group (GDG) recognise the important contribution that surveillance makes to monitoring infection, but it is not within the scope of this guideline to make specific recommendations about this subject.
Where high-quality evidence is lacking, the GDG has highlighted areas for further research.
Am Fam Physician. 2011 Jun 1;83(11):1299-1306.
RICHARD R. WATKINS, MD, MS, Akron General Medical Center, Akron, Ohio
TRACY L. LEMONOVICH, MD, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is diagnosed by clinical features (e.g., cough, fever, pleuritic chest pain) and by lung imaging, usually an infiltrate seen on chest radiography. Initial evaluation should determine the need for hospitalization versus outpatient management using validated mortality or severity prediction scores. Selected diagnostic laboratory testing, such as sputum and blood cultures, is indicated for inpatients with severe illness but is rarely useful for outpatients. Initial outpatient therapy should include a macrolide or doxycycline. For outpatients with comorbidities or who have used antibiotics within the previous three months, a respiratory fluoroquinolone (levofloxacin, gemifloxacin, or moxifloxacin), or an oral beta-lactam antibiotic plus a macrolide should be used. Inpatients not admitted to an intensive care unit should receive a respiratory fluoroquinolone, or a beta-lactam antibiotic plus a macrolide.
Patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia or who are admitted to the intensive care unit should be treated with a beta-lactam antibiotic, plus azithromycin or a respiratory fluoroquinolone. Those with risk factors for Pseudomonas should be treated with a beta-lactam antibiotic (piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem/cilastatin, meropenem, doripenem, or cefepime), plus an aminoglycoside and azithromycin or an antipseudomonal fluoroquinolone (levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin). Those with risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus should be given vancomycin or linezolid. Hospitalized patients may be switched from intravenous to oral antibiotics after they have clinical improvement and are able to tolerate oral medications, typically in the first three days. Adherence to the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia has been shown to improve patient outcomes. Physicians should promote pneumococcal and influenza vaccination as a means to prevent community-acquired pneumonia and pneumococcal bacteremia.