Posts filed under ‘GUIDELINES’

2020-01 Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Adults and Adolescents with HIV 378 pag DHHS

Developed by the DHHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents – A Working Group of the Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council (OARAC)

What’s New in the Guidelines? (Last updated December 18, 2019 and last reviewed December 18, 2019)

* Antiretroviral Therapy to Prevent Sexual Transmission of HIV (Treatment as Prevention)

* Dolutegravir Recommendations for Individuals of Childbearing Potential

* Laboratory Testing for Initial Assessment and Monitoring of People with HIV Receiving Antiretroviral   Therapy

* Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy

* What to Start

* Optimizing Antiretroviral Therapy in the Setting of Virologic Suppression

* Acute and Recent (Early) HIV Infection

* HIV and the Older Person

* Tuberculosis/HIV Coinfection

* Cost Considerations and Antiretroviral Therapy

* Table Updates

PDF

https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/adultandadolescentgl.pdf

January 10, 2020 at 7:32 am

Recommendations for Providing Quality Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinical Services, 2020 

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Recommendations and Reports January 3, 2020 V.68 N.5 P.1–20

                                          

This report (hereafter referred to as STD QCS) provides CDC recommendations to U.S. health care providers regarding quality clinical services for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) for primary care and STD specialty care settings. These recommendations complement CDC’s Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2015 (hereafter referred to as the STD Guidelines), a comprehensive, evidence-based reference for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of STDs. STD QCS differs from the STD Guidelines by specifying operational determinants of quality services in different types of clinical settings, describing on-site treatment and partner services, and indicating when STD-related conditions should be managed through consultation with or referral to a specialist. These recommendations might also help in the development of clinic-level policies (e.g., standing orders, express visits, specimen panels, and reflex testing) that can facilitate implementation of the STD Guidelines. CDC organized the recommendations for STD QCS into eight sections: 1) sexual history and physical examination, 2) prevention, 3) screening, 4) partner services, 5) evaluation of STD-related conditions, 6) laboratory, 7) treatment, and 8) referral to a specialist for complex STD or STD-related conditions.

CDC developed the recommendations by synthesizing relevant, evidence-based guidelines and recommendations issued by other experts; reviewing current practice in the United States; soliciting Delphi ratings by subject matter experts on STD care in primary care and STD specialty care settings; discussing the scientific evidence supporting the proposed recommendations at a consultation meeting of experts and institutional stakeholders held November 20, 2015, in Atlanta, Georgia; conducting peer reviews of draft recommendations and supporting evidence; and discussing draft recommendations and supporting evidence during meetings of the CDC/Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Committee on HIV, Viral Hepatitis, and STD Prevention and Treatment STD Work Group. These recommendations are intended to help health care providers in primary care or STD specialty care settings offer STD services at their clinical settings and to help the persons seeking care live safer, healthier lives by preventing and treating STDs and related complications.

FULL TEXT

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/rr/rr6805a1.htm?s_cid=rr6805a1_w&deliveryName=USCDC_921-DM16420

PDF

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/rr/pdfs/rr6805a1-H.pdf

 

January 2, 2020 at 3:33 pm

Highlights of Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria: 2019 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice November 2019 V.27  N.6  P.308-309

CLINICAL GUIDELINES

Politis, Paula A.; File, Thomas M. Jr

Asymptomatic bacteriuria is a common cause of unnecessary antimicrobial use. The Infectious Diseases Society of America has published an update of the clinical practice guideline for the management of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The guideline provides recommendations for avoidance of antimicrobial use for the great majority of patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Included in the recommendations is to refrain from screening with urinalysis and/or urine culture for older patients with cognitive impairment or fall and rather to look for alternative causes of altered mental status (eg, dehydration, metabolic causes, medication effects).

FULL TEXT

https://journals.lww.com/infectdis/Fulltext/2019/11000/Highlights_of_Clinical_Practice_Guideline_for_the.2.aspx

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

December 29, 2019 at 2:17 pm

Use of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Among Adults Aged ≥ 65 Years: Updated Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. November 22, 2019 V.68 N.46 P.1069-1075.

Matanock A, Lee G, Gierke R, Kobayashi M, Leidner A, Pilishvili T.

Abstract

Two pneumococcal vaccines are currently licensed for use in adults in the United States: a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 [Prevnar 13, Pfizer, Inc.]) and a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23 [Pneumovax 23, Merck and Co., Inc.]).

In 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* recommended routine use of PCV13 in series with PPSV23 for all adults aged ≥65 years based on demonstrated PCV13 safety and efficacy against PCV13-type pneumonia among adults aged ≥65 years (1).

At that time, ACIP recognized that there would be a need to reevaluate this recommendation because it was anticipated that PCV13 use in children would continue to reduce disease burden among adults through reduced carriage and transmission of vaccine serotypes from vaccinated children (i.e., PCV13 indirect effects).

On June 26, 2019, after having reviewed the evidence accrued during the preceding 3 years (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/recs/grade/PCV13.html), ACIP voted to remove the recommendation for routine PCV13 use among adults aged ≥65 years and to recommend administration of PCV13 based on shared clinical decision-making for adults aged ≥65 years who do not have an immunocompromising condition,† cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, or cochlear implant, and who have not previously received PCV13.

ACIP recognized that some adults aged ≥65 years are potentially at increased risk for exposure to PCV13 serotypes, such as persons residing in nursing homes or other long-term care facilities and persons residing in settings with low pediatric PCV13 uptake or traveling to settings with no pediatric PCV13 program, and might attain higher than average benefit from PCV13 vaccination.

When patients and vaccine providers§ engage in shared clinical decision-making for PCV13 use to determine whether PCV13 is right for a particular person, considerations might include both the person’s risk for exposure to PCV13 serotypes and their risk for developing pneumococcal disease as a result of underlying medical conditions.

All adults aged ≥65 years should continue to receive 1 dose of PPSV23. If the decision is made to administer PCV13, it should be given at least 1 year before PPSV23.

ACIP continues to recommend PCV13 in series with PPSV23 for adults aged ≥19 years with an immunocompromising condition, CSF leak, or cochlear implant (2).

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6871896/pdf/mm6846a5.pdf

 

 

December 19, 2019 at 7:46 am

APSIC GUIDELINES for the prevention of SSI.  

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. November 12, 2019 V.8 P.174.

Ling ML, Apisarnthanarak A, Abbas A, et al.

Background

The Asia Pacific Society of Infection Control (APSIC) launched the APSIC Guidelines for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections in 2018. This document describes the guidelines and recommendations for the setting prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs). It aims to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist healthcare facilities at Asia Pacific region in achieving high standards in preoperative, perioperative and postoperative practices.

Method

The guidelines were developed by an appointed workgroup comprising experts in the Asia Pacific region, following reviews of previously published guidelines and recommendations relevant to each section.

Results

It recommends that healthcare facilities review specific risk factors and develop effective prevention strategies, which would be cost effective at local levels. Gaps identified are best closed using a quality improvement process. Surveillance of SSIs is recommended using accepted international methodology. The timely feedback of the data analysed would help in the monitoring of effective implementation of interventions.

Conclusions

Healthcare facilities should aim for excellence in safe surgery practices. The implementation of evidence-based practices using a quality improvement process helps towards achieving effective and sustainable results.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6852795/pdf/13756_2019_Article_638.pdf

December 13, 2019 at 7:15 am

Vaccination Guidelines for Patients with Immune-Mediated Disorders on Immunosuppressive Therapies-Executive Summary. 

Journal of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology  December 2019 V.2 N.4 P.149-152.

Papp KA, Haraoui B, Kumar D, Marshall JK, Bissonnette R, Bitton A, et al.

The use of immunosuppressive therapies for immune-mediated disease (IMD) is associated with an elevated risk of infections and related comorbidities. While many infectious diseases can generally be prevented by vaccines, immunization rates in this specific patient population remain suboptimal, due in part to uncertainty about their efficacy or safety under these clinical situations. To address this concern, a multidisciplinary group of Canadian physicians with expertise in dermatology, gastroenterology, infectious diseases and rheumatology developed evidence-based clinical guidelines on vaccinations featuring 13 statements that are aimed at reducing the risk of preventable infections in individuals exposed to immunosuppressive agents.

FULL TEXT

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6785689/

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6785689/pdf/gwy069.pdf

November 15, 2019 at 8:13 am

Diagnosis and Treatment of Adults with Community-acquired Pneumonia. An Official Clinical Practice Guideline of the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. October 1, 2019  V.200 N.7  e45-e67.

Metlay JP, Waterer GW, Long AC, Anzueto A, Brozek J, Crothers K, et al.

Background

This document provides evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on the management of adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

Methods

A multidisciplinary panel conducted pragmatic systematic reviews of the relevant research and applied Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology for clinical recommendations.

Results

The panel addressed 16 specific areas for recommendations spanning questions of diagnostic testing, determination of site of care, selection of initial empiric antibiotic therapy, and subsequent management decisions. Although some recommendations remain unchanged from the 2007 guideline, the availability of results from new therapeutic trials and epidemiological investigations led to revised recommendations for empiric treatment strategies and additional management decisions.

Conclusions

The panel formulated and provided the rationale for recommendations on selected diagnostic and treatment strategies for adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

 

Este documento proporciona pautas de práctica clínica basadas en evidencia sobre el manejo de pacientes adultos con NAC.

Métodos

Un panel multidisciplinario realizó revisiones sistemáticas pragmáticas de la investigación relevante y aplicó la metodología de calificación de recomendaciones, evaluación, desarrollo y evaluación para recomendaciones clínicas.

Resultados

El panel abordó 16 áreas específicas para recomendaciones que abarcan preguntas sobre pruebas de diagnóstico, determinación del sitio de atención, selección de terapia ATB empírica inicial y decisiones de manejo posteriores. Aunque algunas recomendaciones permanecen sin cambios con respecto a la guía de 2007, la disponibilidad de resultados de nuevos ensayos terapéuticos e investigaciones epidemiológicas condujo a recomendaciones revisadas para estrategias de tratamiento empírico y decisiones de manejo adicionales.

Conclusiones

El panel formuló y proporcionó la justificación de las recomendaciones sobre estrategias seleccionadas de diagnóstico y tratamiento para pacientes adultos con NAC.

FULL TEXT

https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/10.1164/rccm.201908-1581ST#_i6

PDF

https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1164/rccm.201908-1581ST

November 15, 2019 at 7:59 am

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