Posts filed under ‘Health Care-Associated Infections’

JULY 2018 – Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection After Cholecystectomy

Background.

There are limited data on risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Methods.

A retrospective cohort of commercially insured persons aged 18–64 years was assembled using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedure or Current Procedural Terminology, 4th edition codes for cholecystectomy from December 31, 2004 to December 31, 2010. Complex procedures and patients (eg, cancer, end-stage renal disease) and procedures with pre-existing infection were excluded. Surgical site infections within 90 days after cholecystectomy were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent risk factors for SSI.

Results.

Surgical site infections were identified after 472 of 66566 (0.71%) cholecystectomies; incidence was higher after open (n = 51, 4.93%) versus laparoscopic procedures (n = 421, 0.64%; P < .001). Independent risk factors for SSI included male gender, preoperative chronic anemia, diabetes, drug abuse, malnutrition/weight loss, obesity, smoking-related diseases, previous Staphylococcus aureus infection, laparoscopic approach with acute cholecystitis/obstruction (hazards ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–1.96), open approach with (HR, 4.29; 95% CI, 2.45–7.52) or without acute cholecystitis/obstruction (HR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.96–8.34), conversion to open approach with (HR, 4.71; 95% CI, 2.74–8.10) or without acute cholecystitis/obstruction (HR, 7.11; 95% CI, 3.87–13.08), bile duct exploration, postoperative chronic anemia, and postoperative pneumonia or urinary tract infection.

Conclusions.

Acute cholecystitis or obstruction was associated with significantly increased risk of SSI with laparoscopic but not open cholecystectomy. The risk of SSI was similar for planned open and converted procedures. These findings suggest that stratification by operative factors is important when comparing SSI rates between facilities.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/ofid/article/4/2/ofx036/3044173

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

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July 15, 2018 at 4:00 pm

Bloodstream infections in cancer patients. Risk factors associated with mortality

International Journal of Infectious Diseases June 2018 V.71 P.59-64

Beda Islas-Muñoz, Patricia Volkow-Fernández, Cynthia Ibanes-Gutiérrez, Alberto Villamar-Ramírez, Diana Vilar-Compte, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez

Highlights

  • Bloodstream infections (BSI) cause severe complications in cancer patients.
  • Secondary BSI and central-related BSI were the most common in solid tumors.
  • Primary BSI and mucosal barrier injury BSI were described in hematological patients.
  • Mortality at 30-days was increased with multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
  • Inappropriate antimicrobial treatment in the first 24 h was related with mortality.

Objective

The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with mortality in cancer patients with bloodstream infections (BSI), analyzing multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR).

Methods

We conducted a prospective observational study at a cancer referral center from August 2016 to July 2017, which included all BSI.

Results

4220 patients were tested with blood cultures; 496 were included. Mean age was 48 years. In 299 patients with solid tumors, secondary BSI and Central Line-Associated BSI (CLABSI) were the most common (55.9% and 31.8%, respectively). In 197 hematologic patients, primary and mucosal barrier injury (MBI) BSI were the main type (38.6%). Gram-negative were the most frequent bacteria (72.8%), with Escherichia coli occupying the first place (n = 210, 42.3%), 48% were Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producers, and 1.8% were resistant to carbapenems. Mortality at day 30, was 22%, but reached 70% when patients did not receive an appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that progression or relapse of the oncologic disease, inappropriate antimicrobial treatment, and having resistant bacteria were independently associated with 30-day mortality.

Conclusions

Emergence of MDR bacteria is an important healthcare problem worldwide. Patients with BSI, particularly those patients with MDR bacteria have a higher mortality risk.

PDF

https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(18)30081-X/pdf

July 14, 2018 at 7:25 pm

Influence of multidrug resistant organisms on the outcome of diabetic foot infection

International Journal of Infectious Diseases May 2018 V.70 P.10-14

Nese Saltoglu, Onder Ergonul, Necla Tulek, Mucahit Yemisen, Ayten Kadanali, Gul Karagoz, Ayse Batirel, Oznur Ak, Cagla Sonmezer, Haluk Eraksoy, Atahan Cagatay, Serkan Surme, Salih A. Nemli, Tuna Demirdal, Omer Coskun, Derya Ozturk, Nurgul Ceran, Filiz Pehlivanoglu, Gonul Sengoz, Turan Aslan, Yasemin Akkoyunlu, Oral Oncul, Hakan Ay, Lutfiye Mulazımoglu, Buket Erturk, Fatma Yilmaz, Gulsen Yoruk, Nuray Uzun, Funda Simsek, Taner Yildirmak, Kadriye Kart Yaşar, Meral Sonmezoglu, Yasar Küçükardali, Nazan Tuna, Oguz Karabay, Nail Ozgunes, Fatma Sargın, Turkish Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Diabetic Foot Infections Study Group

Objectives

We described the clinical outcomes of the diabetic patients who had foot infections with multidrug resistant organisms.

Methods

We included the patients with diabetic foot infections (DFI) from 19 centers, between May 2011 and December 2015. Infection was defined according to IDSA DFI guidelines. Patients with severe infection, complicated moderate infection were hospitalized. The patients were followed-up for 6 months after discharge.

Results

In total, 791 patients with DFI were included, 531(67%) were male, median age was 62 (19–90). Severe infection was diagnosed in 85 (11%) patients. Osteomyelitis was diagnosed in 291(36.8%) patients. 536 microorganisms were isolated, the most common microorganisms were S. aureus (20%), P. aeruginosa (19%) and E. coli (12%). Methicillin resistance (MR) rate among Staphylococcus aureus isolates was 31%. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected in 21% of P. aeruginosa isolates. ESBL (+) Gram negative bacteria (GNB) was detected in 38% of E. coli and Klebsiella isolates. Sixty three patients (8%) were re-hospitalized. Of the 791 patiens, 127 (16%) had major amputation, and 24 (3%) patients died. In multivariate analysis, significant predictors for fatality were; dialysis (OR: 8.3, CI: 1.82–38.15, p = 0.006), isolation of Klebsiella spp. (OR:7.7, CI: 1.24–47.96, p = 0.028), and chronic heart failure (OR: 3, CI: 1.01–9.04, p = 0.05). MR Staphylococcus was detected in 21% of the rehospitalized patients, as the most common microorganism (p < 0.001).

Conclusion

Among rehospitalized patients, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus infections was detected as the most common agent, and Klebsiella spp. infections were found to be significantly associated with fatality.

PDF

https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(18)30049-3/pdf

July 14, 2018 at 7:19 pm

Healthcare-associated sepsis and the role of clean hands: When we do not see the trees for the forest

International Journal of Infectious Diseases May 2018 V.70 P.101-103

Editorial

Healthcare-associated sepsis and the role of clean hands: When we do not see the trees for the forest

Alexandra Peters, Sarah Masson-Roy, Didier Pittet

As of this past year, sepsis has been redefined as a “life threatening organ dysfunction caused by a deregulated host response to infection”, which often leads to high rates of morbidity and mortality (Singer et al., 2016). Although the real burden of this challenging condition is unknown, a systematic review estimated that there are around 30 million cases and 6 million deaths attributed to sepsis per year (Fleischmann et al., 2016). There is a distinct possibility that this estimate, although immense, is low, as the condition disproportionally affects the developing world. In areas where information gathering is often limited, the real incidence of sepsis is difficult to quantify. (“Recognizing Sepsis as a Global Health Priority — A WHO Resolution | NEJM, ” n.d). “The burden of sepsis in the developing world is enormous, outcomes are often …

PDF

https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(18)30053-5/pdf

July 14, 2018 at 7:14 pm

Clinical response and mortality in tigecycline complicated intra-abdominal infection and complicated skin and soft-tissue infection trials

Internat J of Antimicrob Agents september 2015 V.46 N.3

Matteo Bassetti, Paul C. McGovern, Christoph Wenisch, R. Daniel Meyer, Jean Li Yan, Michele Wible, Scott T. Rottinghaus, Alvaro Quintana

Highlights

  • These analyses provide valuable insights into clinical response and mortality with tigecycline use.
  • These analyses suggest tigecycline is not a significant factor for clinical failure.
  • The cIAI analyses suggest tigecycline is not a significant factor for death.

An imbalance in all-cause mortality was noted in tigecycline phase 3 and 4 comparative clinical trials across all studied indications. We investigated clinical failure and mortality in phase 3 and 4 complicated skin and soft-tissue infection (cSSTI) and complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI) tigecycline trials using descriptive analyses of a blinded adjudication of mortality and multivariate regression analyses. Attributable mortality analyses of cSSTI revealed death due to infection in 0.1% of each treatment group (P = 1.000). In cIAI, there were no significant differences between tigecycline (1.2%) and comparator (0.7%) subjects who died due to infection (P = 0.243). For cIAI clinical failure, treatment interaction with organ dysfunction was observed with no difference observed between clinical cure for tigecycline (85.4%) and comparator (76.7%) treatment groups (odds ratio = 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.28–1.19). Tigecycline-treated subjects had more adverse events of secondary pneumonias (2.1% vs. 1.2%) and more adverse events of secondary pneumonias with an outcome of death (0.5% vs. 0.1%). These analyses do not suggest that tigecycline is a factor either for failure (cSSTI and cIAI studies) or for death (cIAI studies).

FULL TEXT

https://www.ijaaonline.com/article/S0924-8579(15)00216-2/fulltext

PDF

https://www.ijaaonline.com/article/S0924-8579(15)00216-2/pdf

July 8, 2018 at 5:55 pm

β-Lactam antibiotics and vancomycin inhibit the growth of planktonic and biofilm Candida spp.: An additional benefit of antibiotic-lock therapy?

Internat J of Antimicrob Agents April 2015 V.45 N.4

José J.C. Sidrim, Carlos E.C. Teixeira, Rossana A. Cordeiro, Raimunda S.N. Brilhante, Débora S.C.M. Castelo-Branco, Silviane P. Bandeira, Lucas P. Alencar, Jonathas S. Oliveira, André J. Monteiro, José L.B. Moreira, Tereza J.P.G. Bandeira, Marcos F.G. Rocha

Highlights

  • β-Lactams and vancomycin reduced Candida biofilm formation.
  • β-Lactams and vancomycin inhibited the maintenance of mature Candida biofilms.
  • Antibiotic-lock therapy with these drugs might control Candida biofilm formation and maintenance.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cefepime, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) and vancomycin on strains of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis in planktonic and biofilm forms. Twenty azole-derivative-resistant strains of C. albicans (n = 10) and C. tropicalis (n = 10) were tested. The susceptibility of planktonic Candida spp. to the antibacterial agents was investigated by broth microdilution. The XTT reduction assay was performed to evaluate the viability of growing and mature biofilms following exposure to these drugs. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.5 mg/mL to 2 mg/mL for cefepime, TZP and vancomycin and from 0.5 mg/mL to 1 mg/mL for meropenem and the drugs also caused statistically significant reductions in biofilm cellular activity both in growing and mature biofilm. Since all of the tested drugs are commonly used in patients with hospital-acquired infections and in those with catheter-related infections under antibiotic-lock therapy, it may be possible to obtain an additional benefit from antibiotic-lock therapy with these drugs, namely the control of Candida biofilm formation.

FULL TEXT

https://www.ijaaonline.com/article/S0924-8579(15)00006-0/fulltext

PDF

https://www.ijaaonline.com/article/S0924-8579(15)00006-0/pdf

July 8, 2018 at 5:50 pm

REVIEW – Inhaled antibiotics beyond aminoglycosides, polymyxins and aztreonam: A systematic review

Internat J of Antimicrob Agents March 2015 V.45 N.3

Matthew E. Falagas, Kyriakos K. Trigkidis, Konstantinos Z. Vardakas

Highlights

  • Evaluation of published evidence regarding uncommon inhaled antibiotics.
  • Clinical and microbiological outcomes.
  • Future prospects.

We sought to evaluate published evidence regarding clinical or microbiological outcomes related to the use of inhaled antibiotics other than aminoglycosides, polymyxins and aztreonam. A systematic search of PubMed and Scopus databases as well as bibliographies of eligible articles was performed. In total, 34 eligible studies were identified. Among several inhaled β-lactams, ceftazidime was used with varying success in the prevention and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and improved clinical outcomes in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) or bronchiectasis. Inhaled vancomycin, as an adjunctive therapy, was effective in treating Gram-positive VAP, whilst inhaled levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and an inhaled combination of fosfomycin and tobramycin were associated with improved microbiological or clinical outcomes in chronic LRTI in patients with CF or bronchiectasis. In conclusion, published evidence is heterogeneous with regard to antibiotics used, studied indications, patient populations and study designs. Therefore, although the currently available data are encouraging, no safe conclusion regarding the effectiveness and safety of the drugs in question can be reached.

FULL TEXT

https://www.ijaaonline.com/article/S0924-8579(14)00329-X/fulltext

PDF

https://www.ijaaonline.com/article/S0924-8579(14)00329-X/pdf

July 8, 2018 at 5:46 pm

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