Posts filed under ‘Hepatitis B’

Eliminating viral hepatitis: time to match visions with action

Lancet  November 11, 2017  V.390 N.10.108 P.2121

EDITORIAL

Eliminating viral hepatitis: time to match visions with action

 

PDF

http://thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140-6736(17)32856-8.pdf

 

 

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November 10, 2017 at 4:02 pm

Elimination of Perinatal Hepatitis B: Providing the First Vaccine Dose Within 24 Hours of Birth

Pediatrics September 2017 V. 140 N.3

COMMITTEE ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES, COMMITTEE ON FETUS AND NEWBORN

Kristi Watterberg, MD, FAAP, Chairperson, William Benitz, MD, FAAP, Ivan Hand, MD, FAAP, Eric Eichenwald, MD, FAAP, Brenda Poindexter, MD, FAAP, Dan L. Stewart, MD, FAAP, Susan W. Aucott, MD, FAAP, Karen M. Puopolo, MD, PhD, FAAP, Jay P. Goldsmith, MD, FAAP

Abstract

After the introduction of the hepatitis B vaccine in the United States in 1982, a greater than 90% reduction in new infections was achieved. However, approximately 1000 new cases of perinatal hepatitis B infection are still identified annually in the United States. Prevention of perinatal hepatitis B relies on the proper and timely identification of infants born to mothers who are hepatitis B surface antigen positive and to mothers with unknown status to ensure administration of appropriate postexposure immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine and immune globulin. To reduce the incidence of perinatal hepatitis B transmission further, the American Academy of Pediatrics endorses the recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that all newborn infants with a birth weight of greater than or equal to 2000 g receive hepatitis B vaccine by 24 hours of age.

FULL TEXT

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/140/3/e20171870

PDF

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/140/3/e20171870.full.pdf

September 22, 2017 at 8:02 am

Serum HBeAg and HBV DNA levels are not always proportional and only high levels of HBeAg most likely correlate with high levels of HBV DNA.

MEDICINE August 2017 V.96 N.33

Chen, Ping PhDa,b; Xie, Qinfen MSa; Lu, Xuan BAb; Yu, Chengbo PhDb; Xu, Kaijin PhDb; Ruan, Bing PhDb; Cao, Hongcui PhDb; Gao, Hainv PhDa; Li, Lanjuan MDb,*

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the correlation between quantitative hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels, and to determine whether semiquantitative measurement of HBeAg can indicate the extent of HBV replication in HBeAg-positive subjects in the immune tolerant phase.

A cross-sectional, community-based survey was carried out in 12 communities of 2 counties in Zhejiang Province, China.

A panel of 788 HBeAg-positive subjects was divided into 4 groups according to HBV DNA level.

Groups I (n = 111), II (n = 91), III (n = 124), and IV (n = 462) had HBV DNA levels below 103 copies/mL (PCR undetectable), between 103 and 105 copies/mL (PCR detectable), between 105 and 2 × 107 copies/mL (hybridization detectable), and >2 × 107 copies/mL, respectively.

The HBeAg level correlated well with the HBV DNA level (R2 = 0.658; P < .01) on a log scale.

The average HBeAg level in group IV was significantly higher than those in the other 3 groups, and the best HBeAg cut-off value for differentiating group IV from the other 3 groups was 768 S/CO, with a sensitivity of 94.4% and specificity of 91.1%.

Semiquantification of HBeAg could indicate a relative HBV DNA level in HBeAg-positive subjects in the immune tolerant phase.

FULL TEXT

http://journals.lww.com/md-journal/Fulltext/2017/08180/Serum_HBeAg_and_HBV_DNA_levels_are_not_always.22.aspx

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August 19, 2017 at 12:08 pm

Time to re-evaluate the effect of the adolescent booster of hepatitis B vaccine

International Journal of Infectious Diseases July 2017 V.60 N.7 P.88-90

Editorial –

Ellie Carmody

Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA

Neutralizing antibodies (anti-HBs) conferred by immunization with hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine against HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) have been found to wane or reach undetectable levels in many individuals after 10–15 years of the vaccination (Wainwright et al., 1997, Dentinger et al., 2005).

It is uncertain whether individuals with low or absent levels of anti-HBs remain protected against HBV infection.

HBV vaccine does elicit immunologic memory, in which memory B cells can appropriately generate a robust anamnestic response to HBsAg even if the anti-HBs titer falls below 10 mIU/mL (West and Calandra, 1996, Watson et al., 2001, van der Sande et al., 2007).

However, the duration and uniformity of this immunologic memory after primary vaccination at infancy is unclear. HBV breakthrough infection in young adults may occur if the immunologic memory to HBsAg is absent upon sexual, parenteral, or horizontal (household) HBV exposure….

PDF

http://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(17)30131-5/pdf

July 30, 2017 at 12:41 pm

Revisiones – Diagnóstico microbiológico de las hepatitis virales

Enf Infecc & Microbiol. Clínica Noviembre 2015 V.33 N.9 e53-e62

Roberto Alonso, Antonio Aguilera, Juan Córdoba, Antonio Fuertes

a Servicio de Microbiología y Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, España

b Servicio de Microbiología, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela, España

c Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Valencia, España

d LABCO QualityDiagnostics, Madrid, España

La inflamación hepática o hepatitis tiene causas diversas, tanto infecciosas como no infecciosas. Entre las primeras, cabe destacar la etiología viral que es la causa de, al menos, la mitad de todas las hepatitis en el mundo.

Se han descrito distintos virus con tropismo primario por el tejido hepático. Estos microorganismos se han ido nombrando sucesivamente con las letras del abecedario: A, B, C, D, E y G.

El objetivo de este artículo es revisar este grupo heterogéneo de virus en sus aspectos más básicos, sus implicaciones clínicas, su tratamiento, las principales medidas preventivas frente a estas infecciones y, con especial interés, las aproximaciones diagnósticas, tanto serológicas como moleculares, que se utilizan para su detección, cuantificación y caracterización

PDF

http://apps.elsevier.es/watermark/ctl_servlet?_f=10&pident_articulo=90443319&pident_usuario=0&pcontactid=&pident_revista=28&ty=51&accion=L&origen=zonadelectura&web=www.elsevier.es&lan=es&fichero=28v33n09a90443319pdf001.pdf

February 20, 2017 at 3:26 pm

Requirements for global elimination of hepatitis B: a modelling study

Lancet Infectious Diseases December 2016 V.16 N.12 P.1399–1408

Dr Shevanthi Nayagam, MBBS, Prof Mark Thursz, MD, Elisa Sicuri, PhD, Lesong Conteh, PhD, Stefan Wiktor, MD, Daniel Low-Beer, PhD, Prof Timothy B Hallett, PhD

Background

Despite the existence of effective prevention and treatment interventions, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to cause nearly 1 million deaths each year. WHO aspires to global control and elimination of HBV infection. We aimed to evaluate the potential impact of public health interventions against HBV, propose targets for reducing incidence and mortality, and identify the key developments required to achieve them.

Methods

We developed a simulation model of the global HBV epidemic, incorporating data on the natural history of HBV, prevalence, mortality, vaccine coverage, treatment dynamics, and demographics. We estimate the impact of current interventions and scaling up of existing interventions for prevention of infection and introducing wide-scale population screening and treatment interventions on the worldwide epidemic.

Findings

Vaccination of infants and neonates is already driving a large decrease in new infections; vaccination has already prevented 210 million new chronic infections by 2015 and will have averted 1·1 million deaths by 2030. However, without scale-up of existing interventions, our model showed that there will be a cumulative 63 million new cases of chronic infection and 17 million HBV-related deaths between 2015 and 2030 because of ongoing transmission in some regions and poor access to treatment for people already infected. A target of a 90% reduction in new chronic infections and 65% reduction in mortality could be achieved by scaling up the coverage of infant vaccination (to 90% of infants), birth-dose vaccination (to 80% of neonates), use of peripartum antivirals (to 80% of hepatitis B e antigen-positive mothers), and population-wide testing and treatment (to 80% of eligible people). These interventions would avert 7·3 million deaths between 2015 and 2030, including 1·5 million cases of cancer deaths. An elimination threshold for incidence of new chronic infections would be reached by 2090 worldwide. The annual cost would peak at US$7·5 billion worldwide ($3·4 billion in low-income and lower-middle-income countries), but decrease rapidly and this would be accelerated if a cure is developed.

Interpretation

Scale-up of vaccination coverage, innovations in scalable options for prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and ambitious population-wide testing and treatment are needed to eliminate HBV as a major public health threat. Achievement of these targets could make a major contribution to one of the Sustainable Development Goals of combating hepatitis.

Funding

Medical Research Council.

PDF

http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS1473-3099(16)30204-3.pdf

November 15, 2016 at 12:19 pm

Comment – Eliminating hepatitis B virus as a global health threat

Lancet Infectious Diseases December 2016 V.16 N.12 P.1313–1314

Grace Lai-Hung Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong

In The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Shevanthi Nayagam and colleagues1 report a modelling study on the effectiveness of different interventions on the incidence and mortality rate of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To appreciate the implications of this report, we need to understand the context. Chronic viral hepatitis is the seventh leading cause of death worldwide.2 Chronic HBV infection alone affects over 240 million people worldwide and is one of the most common causes of cirrhosis and liver cancer.3 In May, 2014, the World Health Assembly requested WHO to provide the necessary technical support to enable member states to develop robust national viral hepatitis prevention, diagnosis, and treatment strategies. In response, WHO set ambitious goals of reducing new cases of chronic viral hepatitis by 90%, and reducing mortality rates from these infections by 65% between 2015 and 2030.4 Achievement of these goals might at least eliminate chronic viral hepatitis as a major global health threat. What can we do to make this happen?

PDF

http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS1473-3099(16)30214-6.pdf

November 15, 2016 at 12:15 pm

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