Posts filed under ‘HIV/SIDA Complicaciones’

Fiebre de origen desconocido en pacientes HIV positivos

ANALES DE MEDICINA INTERNA (Madrid), 2001 V.18 N.4 P.181-186

BARBA, J. GÓMEZ-RODRIGO, J. MARCO, P. RONDÓN, G. EROLES,

LÓPEZ-VARAS, R. TORRES

Departamento de Medicina Interna y Enfermedades Infecciosas. Hospital Severo Ochoa.

Leganés. Madrid

RESUMEN

Objetivos

Describir la presentación clínica y la utilidad de los de tests diagnósticos habitualmente recomendados en el estudio de la fiebre de origen desconocido (FOD) en los pacientes VIH positivos.

Pacientes y métodos

Incluimos en el estudio a los 54 pacientes con infección por el VIH que ingresaron en nuestro Hospital por FOD durante un periodo de 23 meses. La FOD fue definida de acuerdo con los criterios modificados de Petersdorf´s.

Resultados

La causa de la fiebre se identificó en 48 casos (89%). La tuberculosis, la micobacteriosis atípica y la leishmaniasis pueden explicar el 68% de los casos. El aspirado de médula ósea, la punción aspiración o la biopsia de los ganglios linfáticos y los cultivos para micobacterias fueron las pruebas diagnósticas más rentables.

Conclusiones

La infección por micobacterias debe ser el primer diagnóstico de sospecha en los pacientes VIH positivos con FOD. Es posible precedir el diagnóstico de tuberculosis con una alta precisión (90,5%) con un modelo de regresión logística basado en datos clínicos y analíticos fácilmente obtenibles.

PDF

http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/ami/v18n4/original2.pdf

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November 21, 2017 at 8:41 am

FIEBRE DE ORIGEN DESCONOCIDO EN PACIENTES INFECTADOS CON EL VIRUS DE LA INMUNODEFICIENCIA HUMANA

MEDICINA (Buenos Aires) 2000 V.60 N.5 P.623-630

SEBASTIAN A. MATHURIN, SERGIO LUPO, HECTOR O. ALONSO

Primera Cátedra de Clínica Médica y Terapéutica, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario; Hospital Provincial del Centenario, Rosario

La fiebre de origen desconocido (FOD) es frecuente en pacientes infectados por el HIV. Existen numerosas causas que pueden originar FOD y su frecuencia relativa depende de múltiples factores. Usualmente se debe a una infección oportunista agregada.

La evaluación diagnóstica depende de la presentación clínica y del estadio de la infección por HIV. Existe una asociación entre el recuento de linfocitos CD4 y ciertas enfermedades oportunistas que pueden originar FOD.

El área geográfica y la prevalencia local de infecciones endémicas es un factor importante. Las infecciones de distribución mundial como la tuberculosis siempre deben ser consideradas y otras como la histoplasmosis diseminada son causa frecuente de FOD en áreas endémicas como la Argentina.

La mayor utilidad diagnóstica se obtiene con los cultivos de esputo y hemocultivos para micobacterias, y entre los métodos invasivos con cultivos a partir de la aspiración/biopsia de ganglio linfático, la biopsia de médula ósea y la biopsia hepática.

La eficacia del tratamiento empírico ha sido documentada en ciertas infecciones.

FULL TEXT

http://www.medicinabuenosaires.com/revistas/vol60-00/5-1/fiebredeorigen.htm

November 21, 2017 at 8:34 am

2017 HIV Medicine Association of Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Chronic Pain in Patients Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Clinical Infectious Diseases November 15, 2015 V.65 N.10 P.1601–1606

Bruce RD1, Merlin J2, Lum PJ3, Ahmed E4, Alexander C5, Corbett AH6, Foley K7, Leonard K8, Treisman GJ9, Selwyn P10.

Author information

1 Department of Medicine, Cornell Scott-Hill Health Center and Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

2 Divisions of Infectious Diseases and Gerontology, Geriatrics and Palliative Care, University of Alabama at Birmingham.

3 Division of HIV, Infectious Disease, and Global Medicine, University of California San Francisco.

4 St. Johns University College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Metropolitan Jewish Health System Institute for Innovation in Palliative Care, New York, New York.

5 University of Maryland School of Medicine, Institute of Human Virology, Baltimore.

6 Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

7 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

8 Division of Neuroscience and Clinical Pharmacology, Cornell University, New York, New York.

9 Division of HIV Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland.

10 Department of Family and Social Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York.

Abstract

Pain has always been an important part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and its experience for patients. In this guideline, we review the types of chronic pain commonly seen among persons living with HIV (PLWH) and review the limited evidence base for treatment of chronic noncancer pain in this population. We also review the management of chronic pain in special populations of PLWH, including persons with substance use and mental health disorders. Finally, a general review of possible pharmacokinetic interactions is included to assist the HIV clinician in the treatment of chronic pain in this population.It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. The Infectious Diseases Society of American considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient’s individual circumstances.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/cid/cix848

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

November 7, 2017 at 7:19 am

2017-07 Guidelines for the managing advanced HIV disease and rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy. WHO 56 pags

Overview

The objectives of these guidelines are to provide recommendations outlining a public health approach to managing people presenting with advanced HIV disease, and to provide guidance on the timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all people living with HIV.

The first set of recommendations addresses the specific needs of people with advanced HIV disease and defines a package of interventions aimed at reducing HIV-associated morbidity and mortality. WHO recommends that a package of screening, prophylaxis, rapid ART initiation and intensified adherence interventions be offered to everyone living with HIV presenting with advanced disease. This is a strong recommendation that applies to all populations and age groups. The guidelines also include an algorithm to support decision making for providing care for people with advanced HIV disease.

The second set of recommendations defines how rapidly ART should be initiated within the context of the “treat all” policy, especially when coinfections are present. WHO strongly recommends that rapid ART initiation should be offered to people living with HIV following confirmed diagnosis and clinical assessment. Rapid initiation of ART is defined as within seven days of HIV diagnosis. WHO further strongly recommends ART initiation on the same day as HIV diagnosis based on the person’s willingness and readiness to start ART immediately, unless there are clinical reasons to delay treatment. Both of these recommendations apply to all populations and age groups. People with advanced HIV disease should be given priority for clinical assessment and treatment initiation.

PDF

http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/255884/1/9789241550062-eng.pdf?ua=1

August 7, 2017 at 9:56 am

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia: comparative study of cases in HIV-infected patients and immunocompromised non-HIV-infected patients.

Rev Chilena Infectol. August 2014 V.31 N.4 P.417-24.

[Article in Spanish]

Cerón I, Rabagliati R, Langhaus J, Silva F, Guzmán AM, Lagos M.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although P. jiroveci pneumonia affects immunocompromised (IC) patients of any etiology, clinical features and prognostic outcomes are different depending if they are patients with HIV infection or other causes of IC.

OBJECTIVES:

To compare clinical and laboratory features as well as outcomes of P. jiroveci pneumonia in HIV versus non-HIV patients.

METHODS:

Retrospective review of clinical records of HIV and non-HIV patients with P. jiroveci pneumonia managed at the Hospital Clínico Universidad Católica in Santiago, Chile, between 2005 and 2007.

RESULTS:

We included 28 HIV and 45 non-HIV patients with confirmed P. jiroveci pneumonia. The non-HIV population was older (65 vs 36,2 years, p < 0,01), had shorter duration of symptoms (7 [1-21] vs 14 [2-45] days, p < 0,01), required more invasive techniques (60 vs 21%, p < 0,01) and RT-PCR to confirm the diagnosis (93 vs 68%, p < 0,01), were more frequently treated at intensive care units (58 vs. 25%, p < 0,01) requiring artificial ventilation (56 vs 11%, p < 0,01), and had a higher attributable mortality (33% vs 0%, p < 0,01).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study confirmed that P. jiroveci pneumonia in non-HIV IC patients is more severe, more difficult to diagnose and has higher mortality that in HIV patients. Therefore, it is mandatory to optimize diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for this patients group

PDF

http://www.scielo.cl/pdf/rci/v31n4/art07.pdf

July 18, 2017 at 3:44 pm

Pneumocystis pneumonia in hospitalized patients: a detailed examination of symptoms, management, and outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-uninfected persons.

Transpl Infect Dis. 2012 Oct;14(5):510-8.

McKinnell JA1, Cannella AP, Kunz DF, Hook EW 3rd, Moser SA, Miller LG, Baddley JW, Pappas PG.

Author information

1 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening infection for immunocompromised individuals. Robust data and clear guidelines are available for prophylaxis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related PCP (HIV-PCP), yet few data and no guidelines are available for non-HIV-related PCP (NH-PCP). We postulated that prevention and inpatient management of HIV-PCP differed from NH-PCP.

METHODS:

We performed a retrospective case review of all pathologically confirmed cases of PCP seen at the University of Alabama Medical Center from 1996 to 2008. Data on clinical presentation, hospital course, and outcome were collected using a standardized data collection instrument. Bivariate analysis compared prophylaxis, adjunctive corticosteroids, and clinical outcomes between patients with HIV-PCP and NH-PCP.

RESULTS:

Our analysis of the cohort included 97 cases of PCP; 65 HIV and 32 non-HIV cases. Non-HIV cases rarely received primary prophylaxis (4% vs. 38%, P = 0.01) and received appropriate antibiotics later in the course of hospitalization (5.2 days vs. 1.1 days, P < 0.005). Among transplant patients, NH-PCP was diagnosed a mean of 1066 days after transplantation and most patients were on low-dose corticosteroids (87%) at the time of disease onset. No significant differences in adjunctive corticosteroid use (69% vs. 77%, P = 0.39) and 90-day mortality (41% vs. 28%, P = 0.20) were detected.

CONCLUSIONS:

Patients who have undergone organ or stem cell transplant remain at risk for PCP for many years after transplantation. In our cohort, patients who developed NH-PCP were rarely given prophylaxis, and initiation of appropriate antibiotics was significantly delayed compared to cases of HIV-PCP. Medical providers should be aware of the ongoing risk for NH-PCP, even late after transplantation, and consider more aggressive approaches to both prophylaxis and earlier empirical therapy for PCP.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3889465/pdf/nihms-536426.pdf

July 18, 2017 at 3:43 pm

Aspergilosis. Formas clínicas y tratamiento

Enf Infecciosas & Microbiologia Clínica Abril 2012 V.30 N.4

Jesús Fortún, Yolanda Meije, Gema Fresco, Santiago Moreno.

Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, España

Resumen

La aspergilosis invasiva junto con la aspergilosis crónica pulmonar y la aspergilosis broncopulmonar alérgica, constituyen las formas clínicas de aspergilosis.

Aunque el número de especies de Aspergillus spp. es muy numeroso, Aspergillus fumigatus-complex es el agente etiológico más frecuente, independientemente de la forma clínica y la afección de base del paciente.

El incremento de los diferentes tratamientos inmunosupresores y el mayor uso de corticoides en pacientes con enfermedad obstructiva crónica han condicionado un mayor protagonismo de la aspergilosis en los últimos años.

El uso de galactomanano y las pruebas de imagen complementan las limitaciones microbiológicas en el diagnóstico de estos pacientes. Voriconazol y anfotericina liposomal constituyen la base del tratamiento en todas las formas de aspergilosis, y posaconazol, itraconazol, caspofungina y otras equinocandinas son alternativas eficaces.

El pronóstico depende de la forma clínica y las características del huésped, pero es sombrío fundamentalmente en las formas invasivas diseminadas.

abstract

http://www.elsevier.es/es-revista-enfermedades-infecciosas-microbiologia-clinica-28-articulo-aspergilosis-formas-clinicas-tratamiento-S0213005X12000316

PDF (hacer CLIC en “DESCARGAR PDF”)

July 17, 2017 at 8:11 am

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