Posts filed under ‘Infecciones de transmision sexual’

American trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease – Sexual transmission

International Journal of Infectious Diseases April 2019 V.81 N.4 P.81-84

Clever Gomes, Adriana B. Almeida, Ana C. Rosa, Perla F. Araujo, Antonio R.L. Teixeira

Highlights

  • Trypanosoma cruzi infection can be transmitted sexually from males and females to naïve mates.
  • T. cruzi parasites were detected in semen ejaculates from individuals with Chagas disease by nucleic acid techniques.
  • Semen aliquots from humans with Chagas disease instilled into the vagina of naïve female mice resulted in T. cruzi infections.
  • Breeding T. cruzi-infected male and female mice vertically transmitted the infection to progeny mice.

Objective

To contribute to the discussion on the research findings indicating the sexual transmission of American trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease in humans.

Methods

A review of the literature was performed to investigate the routes of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites and to evaluate the distribution of Chagas disease, which is now found across five continents.

Results

The epidemiological profile of American trypanosomiasis, which is still considered a neglected disease of the poor people of Latin America, has changed over time. A family-based study demonstrated that the blood protozoan T. cruzi can be transmitted sexually from infected males and females to naïve mates.

Conclusions

Evidence that Chagas disease can be transmitted sexually, coupled with the migration of individuals with Chagas disease to previously non-endemic countries and increased travel to endemic countries, has implications for public health. Improved screening of blood supplies and prenatal care are required to prevent congenital spread.

FULL TEXT

https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(19)30032-3/fulltext

PDF

https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(19)30032-3/pdf

June 30, 2019 at 12:18 pm

Gentamicin as an alternative treatment for gonorrhoea

LANCET June 22, 2019 V.393 N.10190 P.2474-2475

COMMENT

A high gonorrhoea disease burden, increasing rates, and growing antimicrobial resistance portend a developing global public health crisis.1 Gonorrhoea can cause reproductive complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility, blindness in infants born to infected mothers, and can facilitate HIV acquisition and transmission. Effective treatment prevents sequelae and transmission. Yet Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to each antimicrobial used for treatment.2 Development of new antimicrobials has not kept pace…..

FULL TEXT

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(19)30244-2/fulltext?dgcid=raven_jbs_etoc_email

PDF

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2819%2930244-2

 

LANCET June 22, 2019 V.393 N.10190 P.2511-2520

Gentamicin compared with ceftriaxone for the treatment of gonorrhoea (G-ToG): a randomised non-inferiority trial

Background

Gonorrhoea is a common sexually transmitted infection for which ceftriaxone is the current first-line treatment, but antimicrobial resistance is emerging. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of gentamicin as an alternative to ceftriaxone (both combined with azithromycin) for treatment of gonorrhoea.

Methods

G-ToG was a multicentre, parallel-group, pragmatic, randomised, non-inferiority trial comparing treatment with gentamicin to treatment with ceftriaxone for patients with gonorrhoea. The patients, treating physician, and assessing physician were masked to treatment but the treating nurse was not. The trial took place at 14 sexual health clinics in England. Adults aged 16–70 years were eligible for participation if they had a diagnosis of uncomplicated genital, pharyngeal, or rectal gonorrhoea. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a single intramuscular dose of either gentamicin 240 mg (gentamicin group) or ceftriaxone 500 mg (ceftriaxone group). All participants also received a single 1 g dose of oral azithromycin. Randomisation (1:1) was stratified by clinic and performed using a secure web-based system. The primary outcome was clearance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae at all initially infected sites, defined as a negative nucleic acid amplification test 2 weeks post treatment. Primary outcome analyses included only participants who had follow-up data, irrespective of the baseline visit N gonorrhoeae test result. The margin used to establish non-inferiority was a lower confidence limit of 5% for the risk difference. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN51783227.

Findings

Of 1762 patients assessed, we enrolled 720 participants between Oct 7, 2014, and Nov 14, 2016, and randomly assigned 358 to gentamicin and 362 to ceftriaxone. Primary outcome data were available for 306 (85%) of 362 participants allocated to ceftriaxone and 292 (82%) of 358 participants allocated to gentamicin. At 2 weeks after treatment, infection had cleared for 299 (98%) of 306 participants in the ceftriaxone group compared with 267 (91%) of 292 participants in the gentamicin group (adjusted risk difference −6·4%, 95% CI −10·4% to −2·4%). Of the 328 participants who had a genital infection, 151 (98%) of 154 in the ceftriaxone group and 163 (94%) of 174 in the gentamicin group had clearance at follow-up (adjusted risk difference −4·4%, −8·7 to 0). For participants with a pharyngeal infection, a greater proportion receiving ceftriaxone had clearance at follow-up (108 [96%] in the ceftriaxone group compared with 82 [80%] in the gentamicin group; adjusted risk difference −15·3%, −24·0 to −6·5). Similarly, a greater proportion of participants with rectal infection in the ceftriaxone group had clearance (134 [98%] in the ceftriaxone group compared with 107 [90%] in the gentamicin group; adjusted risk difference −7·8%, −13·6 to −2·0). Thus, we did not find that a single dose of gentamicin 240 mg was non-inferior to a single dose of ceftriaxone 500 mg for the treatment of gonorrhoea, when both drugs were combined with a 1 g dose of oral azithromycin. The side-effect profiles were similar between groups, although severity of pain at the injection site was higher for gentamicin (mean visual analogue pain score 36 of 100 in the gentamicin group vs 21 of 100 in the ceftriaxone group).

Interpretation

Gentamicin is not appropriate as first-line treatment for gonorrhoea but remains potentially useful for patients with isolated genital infection, or for patients who are allergic or intolerant to ceftriaxone, or harbour a ceftriaxone-resistant isolate. Further research is required to identify and test new alternatives to ceftriaxone for the treatment of gonorrhoea.

Funding

UK National Institute for Health Research.

FULL TEXT

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(18)32817-4/fulltext?dgcid=raven_jbs_etoc_email

PDF

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2818%2932817-4

 

 

June 22, 2019 at 7:59 pm

2018 European guideline on the organization of a consultation for sexually transmitted infections

Journal of The European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology

New in the 2018 guidelines

This is an update of the 2012 IUSTI guideline. In this new version, we have expanded the sections on sexual history taking to include PEP and PrEP use, intimate partner and gender‐based violence, chemsex, swinging and psychosexual problems. We highlight the potential for the use of technology in the context of sexual health to facilitate sexual history taking and partner notification. We have explained the principle of safeguarding young and other vulnerable people who may present to services.

This guideline is primarily aimed at services provided in mainstream clinic/office environments, but increasingly many countries are seeing an era of rapid transition of sexual health services in which satellite clinics and online service provision are centre stage. Services are moving away from the main hospitals/clinics into smaller peripheral sites and various non‐traditional or outreach type settings such as saunas, brothels, bars, clubs, educational facilities, prisons and gay pride events. The advantage of such services is that it might allow hard‐to‐reach groups to be engaged with clinical services.1 We need a cohesive, multiagency approach to addressing the challenges associated with this style of service provision, if we are to harness the potential for decentralization of sexual health services while safeguarding the most vulnerable and remaining true to the founding principles of sexual health care….

FULL TEXT

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jdv.15577

PDF

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/jdv.15577

June 17, 2019 at 10:39 am

Performance of Treponemal Tests for the Diagnosis of Syphilis

Clinical Infectious Diseases March 15, 2019 V.68 N.6 P.913–918

Performance of Treponemal Tests for the Diagnosis of Syphilis

We compared performance of 5 treponemal immunoassays, the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA), and the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS). FTA-ABS was less sensitive for primary syphilis (78%) than the immunoassays or TPPA (94%–96% sensitivity). TPPA was 100% specific.

Background

Treponemal immunoassays are increasingly used for syphilis screening with the reverse sequence algorithm. There are few data describing performance of treponemal immunoassays compared to traditional treponemal tests in patients with and without syphilis.

Methods

We calculated sensitivity and specificity of 7 treponemal assays: (1) ADVIA Centaur (chemiluminescence immunoassay [CIA]); (2) Bioplex 2200 (microbead immunoassay); (3) fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS); (4) INNO-LIA (line immunoassay); (5) LIAISON CIA; (6) Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA); and (7) Trep-Sure (enzyme immunoassay [EIA]), using a reference standard combining clinical diagnosis and serology results. Sera were collected between May 2012–January 2013. Cases were characterized as: (1) current clinical diagnosis of syphilis: primary, secondary, early latent, late latent; (2) prior treated syphilis only; (3) no evidence of current syphilis, no prior history of syphilis, and at least 4 of 7 treponemal tests negative.

Results

Among 959 participants, 262 had current syphilis, 294 had prior syphilis, and 403 did not have syphilis. FTA-ABS was less sensitive for primary syphilis (78.2%) than the immunoassays or TPPA (94.5%–96.4%) (all P ≤ .01). All immunoassays were 100% sensitive for secondary syphilis, 95.2%–100% sensitive for early latent disease, and 86.8%–98.5% sensitive in late latent disease. TPPA had 100% specificity.

Conclusions

Treponemal immunoassays demonstrated excellent sensitivity for secondary, early latent, and seropositive primary syphilis. Sensitivity of FTA-ABS in primary syphilis was poor. Given its high specificity and superior sensitivity, TPPA is preferred to adjudicate discordant results with the reverse sequence algorithm over the FTA-ABS.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/68/6/913/5050740

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

 

Clinical Infectious Diseases March 15, 2019 V.68 N.6 P.934–939

Syphilis Testing Among Sexually Active Men Who Have Sex With Men and Who Are Receiving Medical Care for Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the United States: Medical Monitoring Project, 2013–2014

Among sexually active HIV-positive men who have sex with men in the United States receiving medical care for HIV, nearly one-third were not tested for syphilis at least annually and many at increased risk were not tested at recommended frequencies.

Background

Guidelines recommend that sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM) including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive MSM be tested at least annually for syphilis, with testing every 3–6 months for MSM at elevated risk. We examined the proportion of HIV-positive MSM tested for syphilis in the past 3, 6, and 12 months by their HIV care provider during 2013–2014.

Methods

Using data from the Medical Monitoring Project, a population-based HIV surveillance system, we evaluated the proportion of MSM who had documentation of being tested for syphilis by their HIV care provider in the past 3, 6, and 12 months.

Results

During 2013–2014, 71% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69%–73%) of sexually active HIV-positive MSM were tested for syphilis in the past year. This proportion was higher among MSM reporting condomless sex: (75%; 95% CI: 72%–78%), and among MSM reporting ≥ 2 sex partners (77%; 95% CI: 74%–79%), in the past 12 months. Among MSM reporting condomless sex, 49% (95% CI: 45%–53%) were tested in the past 6 months, and 26% (95% CI: 22%–30%) in the past 3 months. Among MSM reporting ≥ 2 sex partners, 49% (95% CI: 44%–54%) were tested in the past 6 months and 26% (95% CI: 22%–29%) in the past 3 months.

Conclusions

Nearly one-third of sexually active HIV-positive MSM were not tested annually, and many at increased risk were not tested at recommended frequencies. Efforts to improve compliance with screening guidelines for high-risk HIV-positive MSM are warranted.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/68/6/934/5050272

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

May 4, 2019 at 12:08 pm

Disseminated Gonococcal Infection

N Engl J of Medic April 18, 2019 V.380 P.1565

IMAGES IN CLINICAL MEDICINE

Florez-Pollack and M.M. Mauskar

A 20-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a rash involving the arms, legs, trunk, and scalp, which had erupted that morning. She also reported generalized muscle aches, fever, and pain in both ankles. Two weeks earlier …

FULL TEXT

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMicm1811120?query=TOC

PDF

https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMicm1811120?articleTools

April 21, 2019 at 11:37 am

Neisseria gonorrhoeae — Rising Infection Rates, Dwindling Treatment Options

N Engl J Med November 8, 2018 V.379 P.1795

Blank and D.C. Daskalakis

Gnorrhea infection is the second most commonly reported notifiable condition in the United States, and case rates have been increasing since 2009. In 2017, a total of 555,608 cases of gonorrhea were reported nationally, the largest number since 1991 and an 18.6% increase over 2016 (see graph).1

In 2015, the Obama administration deemed Clostridium difficile, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae the most urgent infectious public health threats to national security, given the accelerating emergence of antibiotic resistance in these organisms.2 Though gonorrhea ranked third on this list, the number of cases of gonorrhea dwarfs those of the other two infections. Worldwide, gonorrhea cases have persistently affected young adults. Without a concerted global effort to mitigate antibiotic resistance, infected persons (primarily, sexually active young adults, who tend to be otherwise healthy) may require extended hospital stays and additional follow-up visits for an infection that can currently be managed on an outpatient basis. Such a shift could impose a serious burden on health care systems and societal productivity internationally. In the United States, this concern is compounded by the fact that for decades, gonorrhea infections have disproportionately affected black Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, and Hispanic Americans….

FULL TEXT

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1812269?query=infectious-disease

PDF

https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMp1812269

December 4, 2018 at 7:00 pm

Gepotidacin for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Urogenital Gonorrhea: A Phase 2, Randomized, Dose-Ranging, Single-Oral Dose Evaluation

Clinical Infectious Diseases August 15, 2018 V.67 N.4 P.505-512

Stephanie N Taylor; David H Morris; Ann K Avery; Kimberly A Workowski; Byron E Batteiger

In this phase 2 study, single oral doses of gepotidacin were ≥95% effective for bacterial eradication in culture-proven uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea. New antibiotics for drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae are urgently needed. With additional evaluation, gepotidacin may provide an alternative therapeutic option.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/67/4/504/4958398

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

November 4, 2018 at 8:25 am

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