Posts filed under ‘Infecciones de transmision sexual’

“Utilización de penicilina benzatínica como tratamiento para la prevención de sífilis congénita en el primer nivel de atención de la salud.” 36 pags

Organización Panamericana de la Salud

Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Buenos Aires – Argentina

Dirección Provincial de Programas Sanitarios

Dirección HIV/SIDA/ITS

Este documento fue escrito por Mariana Ceriotto (Médica especialista en Infectología y Salud Pública. Diplomada en Gestión Pública. Experta en prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de las infecciones perinatales).

La revisión técnica fue realizada por: Marcelo Vila (Asesor Subregional para el Cono Sur- Unidad de VIH, hepatitis, TBC e ITS- OPS/OMS); Adriana Duran (Directora de Programas Sanitarios- Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Buenos Aires) y Mónica Moyano (Directora de VIH-ITS y Hepatitis virales- Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Buenos Aires).

Avalan este documento:

  • Asociación Argentina de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica (AAAeIC)
  • Sociedad Argentina de Infectología (SADI)
  • Sociedad de Ginecología Y Obstetricia de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (SOGBA)
  • Dirección de SIDA y ETS- Ministerio de Salud de la Nación

Esta publicación contó con apoyo financiero de la OPS/OMS.

Contenido

  1. La persistencia del problema de la sífilis congénita como problema de salud pública en Argentina y la región de las Américas
  2. El tratamiento de la embarazada con diagnóstico de sífilis
  3. Alergia a beta-lactámicos
  4. Uso de penicilina benzatínica en el primer nivel de atención
  5. Recomendaciones
  6. Cuestionario para la evaluación de los factores de riesgo
  7. Evaluación de los factores de riesgo de alergia a penicilina
  8. Protocolo de diagnóstico y tratamiento inicial de reacciones anafilácticas
  9. Referencias bibliográficas

 

PDF

http://www.paho.org/arg/images/gallery/PenicilinaFinal.pdf

May 10, 2017 at 7:59 am

Genomic Epidemiology of Gonococcal Resistance to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins, Macrolides, and Fluoroquinolones in the United States, 2000–2013

Journal of Infectious Diseases November 15, 2016 V.214 N.10 P.1579-1587

Yonatan H. Grad, Simon R. Harris, Robert D. Kirkcaldy, Anna G. Green, Debora S. Marks, Stephen D. Bentley, David Trees, and Marc Lipsitch

1Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases

2Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health

3Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School

4Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

5Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

6Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton

7Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge and Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Background

Treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is empirical and based on population-wide susceptibilities. Increasing antimicrobial resistance underscores the potential importance of rapid diagnostic tests, including sequence-based tests, to guide therapy. However, the usefulness of sequence-based diagnostic tests depends on the prevalence and dynamics of the resistance mechanisms.

Methods

We define the prevalence and dynamics of resistance markers to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones in 1102 resistant and susceptible clinical N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from 2000 to 2013 via the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project.

Results

Reduced extended-spectrum cephalosporin susceptibility is predominantly clonal and associated with the mosaic penA XXXIV allele and derivatives (sensitivity 98% for cefixime and 91% for ceftriaxone), but alternative resistance mechanisms have sporadically emerged. Reduced azithromycin susceptibility has arisen through multiple mechanisms and shows limited clonal spread; the basis for resistance in 36% of isolates with reduced azithromycin susceptibility is unclear. Quinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae has arisen multiple times, with extensive clonal spread.

Conclusions

Quinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae and reduced cefixime susceptibility appear amenable to development of sequence-based diagnostic tests, whereas the undefined mechanisms of resistance to ceftriaxone and azithromycin underscore the importance of phenotypic surveillance. The identification of multidrug-resistant isolates highlights the need for additional measures to respond to the threat of untreatable gonorrhea.

PDF

http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/214/10/1579.full.pdf+html

December 22, 2016 at 8:18 am

Correlation between pubic hair grooming and STIs: results from a nationally representative probability sample

BMJ Journals Sexually Transmitted Infections

E Charles Osterberg1,2, Thomas W Gaither1, Mohannad A Awad1, Matthew D Truesdale1, Isabel Allen3, Siobhan Sutcliffe4, Benjamin N Breyer1,3

Department of Urology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA

Department of Surgery, University of Texas—Dell Medical School, Austin, Texas, USA

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA

Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of Surgery, Washington University—St. Louis, Missouri, USA

Abstract

Objective

STIs are the most common infections among adults. Concurrently, pubic hair grooming is prevalent. Small-scale studies have demonstrated a relationship between pubic hair grooming and STIs. We aim to examine this relationship in a large sample of men and women.

Design

We conducted a probability survey of US residents aged 18–65 years. The survey ascertained self-reported pubic hair grooming practices, sexual behaviours and STI history. We defined extreme grooming as removal of all pubic hair more than 11 times per year and high-frequency grooming as daily/weekly trimming. Cutaneous STIs included herpes, human papillomavirus, syphilis and molluscum. Secretory STIs included gonorrhoea, chlamydia and HIV. We analysed lice separately.

Results

Of 7580 respondents who completed the survey, 74% reported grooming their pubic hair, 66% of men and 84% of women. After adjusting for age and lifetime sexual partners, ever having groomed was positively associated with a history of self-reported STIs (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.2), including cutaneous STIs (OR 2.6; CI 1.8 to 3.7), secretory STIs (OR 1.7; CI 1.3 to 2.2) and lice (OR 1.9; CI 1.3 to 2.9). These positive associations were stronger for extreme groomers (OR 4.4; CI 2.9 to 6.8) and high-frequency groomers (OR 3.5; CI 2.3 to 5.4) with cutaneous STIs, and for non-extreme groomers (OR 2.0; CI 1.3 to 3.0) and low-frequency groomers (OR 2.0; CI 1.3 to 3.1) with lice.

Conclusions

Among a representative sample of US residents, pubic hair grooming was positively related to self-reported STI history. Further research is warranted to gain insight into STI risk-reduction strategies.

FULL TEXT

http://stibeta.bmj.com/content/early/2016/10/31/sextrans-2016-052687

December 12, 2016 at 7:54 am

Case of secondary syphilis presenting with unusual complications: syphilitic proctitis, gastritis, and hepatitis.

J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Dec;49(12):4394-6.

Adachi E1, Koibuchi T, Okame M, Sato H, Imai K, Shimizu S, Tsurita G, Oyaizu N, Iwamoto A, Fujii T.

Author information

1Department of Infectious Diseases and Applied Immunology, Research Hospital of The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

Abstract

We report the first known case of syphilis with simultaneous manifestations of proctitis, gastritis, and hepatitis. The diagnosis of syphilitic proctitis and gastritis was established by the demonstration of spirochetes with anti-Treponema pallidum antibody staining in biopsy specimens. Unusual manifestations of secondary syphilis completely resolved after 4 weeks of antibiotic therapy.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3233005/pdf/zjm4394.pdf

December 11, 2016 at 12:17 pm

Editor’s Choice – The Molecular Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Australia: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study, 2012

Clinical Infectious Diseases December 15, 2016 V.63 N.12 P.1591-1598

Ella Trembizki, Handan Wand, Basil Donovan, Marcus Chen, Christopher K. Fairley, Kevin Freeman, Rebecca Guy, John M. Kaldor, Monica M. Lahra, Andrew Lawrence, Colleen Lau, Julie Pearson, David G. Regan, Nathan Ryder, Helen Smith, Kerrie Stevens, Jiunn-Yih Su, James Ward, and David M. Whiley

1UQ Centre for Clinical Research, The University of Queensland, Brisbane

2Kirby Institute, UNSW Australia, Sydney

3Sydney Sexual Health Centre, Sydney Hospital, New South Wales

4Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Alfred Health, Carlton

5Central Clinical School Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria

6Microbiology Laboratory, Pathology Department, Royal Darwin Hospital, Northern Territory

7WHO Collaborating Centre for STD, Microbiology Department, South Eastern Area Laboratory Services, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales

8Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Department, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, North Adelaide, South Australia

9Department of Global Health, Research School of Population Health, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory

10PathWest Laboratory Medicine-WA, Royal Perth Hospital, Western Australia

11HNE Sexual Health, Hunter New England Local Health District, New South Wales

12Public Health Microbiology, Communicable Disease, Queensland Health Forensic and Scientific Services, Archerfield

13Microbiological Diagnostic Unit, Public Health Laboratory, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, at The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Victoria

14Sexual Health and Blood Borne Virus Unit, Centre for Disease Control, Darwin, Northern Territory

15South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia

16Pathology Queensland Central Laboratory, Herston, Australia

Background

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) by Neisseria gonorrhoeae is considered a serious global threat.

Methods

In this nationwide study, we used MassARRAY iPLEX genotyping technology to examine the epidemiology of N. gonorrhoeae and associated AMR in the Australian population. All available N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 2452) received from Australian reference laboratories from January to June 2012 were included in the study. Genotypic data were combined with phenotypic AMR information to define strain types.

Results

A total of 270 distinct strain types were observed. The 40 most common strain types accounted for over 80% of isolates, and the 10 most common strain types accounted for almost half of all isolates. The high male to female ratios (>94% male) suggested that at least 22 of the top 40 strain types were primarily circulating within networks of men who have sex with men (MSM). Particular strain types were also concentrated among females: two strain types accounted for 37.5% of all isolates from females. Isolates harbouring the mosaic penicillin binding protein 2 (PBP2)—considered a key mechanism for cephalosporin resistance—comprised 8.9% of all N. gonorrhoeae isolates and were primarily observed in males (95%).

Conclusions

This large scale epidemiological investigation demonstrated that N. gonorrhoeae infections are dominated by relatively few strain types. The commonest strain types were concentrated in MSM in urban areas and Indigenous heterosexuals in remote areas, and we were able to confirm a resurgent epidemic in heterosexual networks in urban areas. The prevalence of mosaic PBP2 harboring N. gonorrhoeae strains highlight the ability for new N. gonorrhoeae strains to spread and become established across populations.

PDF

https://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/63/12/1591.full.pdf+html

December 11, 2016 at 12:03 pm

Likely sexual transmission of Zika virus from a man with no symptoms of infection — Maryland, 2016

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep September 2, 2016  V.65 N.34 P.915–916

Brooks RB et al

In June 2016, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DHMH) was notified of a nonpregnant woman who sought treatment for a subjective fever and an itchy rash, which was described as maculopapular by her provider. Laboratory testing at the Maryland DHMH Laboratories Administration confirmed Zika virus infection. Case investigation revealed that the woman had not traveled to a region with ongoing transmission of Zika virus, but did have sexual contact with a male partner who had recently traveled to the Dominican Republic. The male partner reported exposure to mosquitoes while traveling, but no symptoms consistent with Zika virus infection either before or after returning to the United States. The woman reported no other sex partners during the 14 days before onset of her symptoms and no receipt of blood products or organ transplants….

PDF

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/pdfs/mm6534e2.pdf

September 19, 2016 at 8:08 am

Mycoplasma genitalium Prevalence, Coinfection, and Macrolide Antibiotic Resistance Frequency in a Multicenter Clinical Study Cohort in the United States

Journal of Clinical Microbiology September 2016 V.54 N.9 P.2278-2283

Damon Getman, Alice Jiang, Meghan O’Donnell, and Seth Cohen

Damon Getmana, Alice Jianga, Meghan O’Donnella and Seth Cohenb*

aHologic, Inc., San Diego, California, USA

bOccidental College, Los Angeles, California, USA

Patel, Editor

Mayo Clinic

The prevalence rates of Mycoplasma genitalium infections and coinfections with other sexually transmitted organisms and the frequency of a macrolide antibiotic resistance phenotype were determined in urogenital specimens collected from female and male subjects enrolled in a multicenter clinical study in the United States. Specimens from 946 subjects seeking care from seven geographically diverse clinical sites were tested for M. genitalium and for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Sequencing was used to assess macrolide antibiotic resistance among M. genitalium-positive subjects. M. genitalium prevalence rates were 16.1% for females and 17.2% for males. Significant risk factors for M. genitalium infections were black race, younger age, non-Hispanic ethnicity, and female symptomatic status. Female M. genitalium infections were significantly more prevalent than C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections, while the M. genitalium infection rate in males was significantly higher than the N. gonorrhoeae and T. vaginalis infection rates. The macrolide-resistant phenotype was found in 50.8% of females and 42% of males. These results show a high prevalence of M. genitalium single infections, a lower prevalence of coinfections with other sexually transmitted organisms, and high rates of macrolide antibiotic resistance in a diverse sample of subjects seeking care across a wide geographic area of the United States.

PDF

http://jcm.asm.org/content/54/9/2278.full.pdf+html

September 1, 2016 at 2:24 pm

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