Posts filed under ‘Infecciones de transmision sexual’

Increase in Reported Prevalence of Microcephaly in Infants Born to Women Living in Areas with Confirmed Zika Virus Transmission During the First Trimester of Pregnancy — Brazil, 2015

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65(Early Release)

Wanderson Kleber de Oliveira, MSc; Juan Cortez-Escalante, MD; Wanessa Tenório Gonçalves Holanda De Oliveira, MSc; et al.

Widespread transmission of Zika virus by Aedes mosquitoes has been recognized in Brazil since late 2014, and in October 2015, an increase in the number of reported cases of microcephaly was reported to the Brazil Ministry of Health.

By January 2016, a total of 3,530 suspected microcephaly cases had been reported, many of which occurred in infants born to women who lived in or had visited areas where Zika virus transmission was occurring, suggesting a relationship between these two epidemiologic events.

PDF

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/pdfs/mm6509e2er.pdf

March 9, 2016 at 7:48 am

Transmission of Zika Virus Through Sexual Contact with Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission — Continental United States, 2016

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65:215–216

Susan L. Hills, MBBS; Kate Russell, MD; Morgan Hennessey, DVM; et al.

Zika virus is a flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. Although spread is primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus have been reported (1,2), and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia (3). On February 5, 2016, CDC published recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus (4). Updated prevention guidelines were published on February 23.* During February 6–22, 2016, CDC received reports of 14 instances of suspected sexual transmission of Zika virus. Among these, two laboratory-confirmed cases and four probable cases of Zika virus disease have been identified among women whose only known risk factor was sexual contact with a symptomatic male partner with recent travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Two instances have been excluded based on additional information, and six others are still under investigation. State, territorial, and local public health departments, clinicians, and the public should be aware of current recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus, particularly to pregnant women (4). Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission and have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy …..

PDF

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/pdfs/mm6508e2.pdf

 

March 4, 2016 at 11:57 am

Infección por Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Puesta a punto

Enf Inf & Microb Clin ENERO 2016 V.34 N.1

PDF

http://apps.elsevier.es/watermark/ctl_servlet?_f=10&pident_articulo=90446764&pident_usuario=0&pcontactid=&pident_revista=28&ty=76&accion=L&origen=zonadelectura&web=www.elsevier.es&lan=en&fichero=28v34n01a90446764pdf001.pdf

February 18, 2016 at 2:19 pm

Potential sexual transmission of Zika virus.

Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Feb;21(2):359-61.

Musso D, Roche C, Robin E, Nhan T, Teissier A, Cao-Lormeau VM.

Erratum in

Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Mar;21(3):552.

Abstract

In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

PDF

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/2/pdfs/14-1363.pdf

February 3, 2016 at 10:01 pm

Probable non-vector-borne transmission of Zika virus, Colorado, USA.

Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 May;17(5):880-2.

Foy BD1, Kobylinski KC, Chilson Foy JL, Blitvich BJ, Travassos da Rosa A, Haddow AD, Lanciotti RS, Tesh RB.

Author information

1Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1692, USA. brian.foy@colostate.edu

Abstract

Clinical and serologic evidence indicate that 2 American scientists contracted Zika virus infections while working in Senegal in 2008.

One of the scientists transmitted this arbovirus to his wife after his return home.

Direct contact is implicated as the transmission route, most likely as a sexually transmitted infection.

PDF

http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/17/5/pdfs/10-1939.pdf

February 3, 2016 at 10:00 pm

Azithromycin versus Doxycycline for Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

N Engl J Med 2015 Dec 24; V.373  N.26 P.2512-2521

William M. Geisler, M.D., M.P.H., Apurva Uniyal, M.A., Jeannette Y. Lee, Ph.D., Shelly Y. Lensing, M.S., Shacondra Johnson, B.S.P.H., Raymond C.W. Perry, M.D., M.S.H.S., Carmel M. Kadrnka, D.O., and Peter R. Kerndt, M.D., M.P.H.

From the Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (W.M.G.); the Departments of Preventive Medicine (A.U., P.R.K.) and Internal Medicine (P.R.K), University of Southern California, and Los Angeles County Department of Health Services, Juvenile Court Health Services  R.C.W.P., C.M.K.) — both in Los Angeles; the Department of Biostatistics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (J.Y.L., S.Y.L.); and FHI 360, Durham, NC (S.J.). Address reprint requests to Dr. Geisler at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, 703 19th St. S., 242 Zeigler Research Bldg., Birmingham, AL 35294-0007, or at wgeisler@uab.edu.  

BACKGROUND

Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection remains prevalent and causes substantial reproductive morbidity. Recent studies have raised concern about the efficacy of azithromycin for the treatment of chlamydia infection.

METHODS

We conducted a randomized trial comparing oral azithromycin with doxycycline for the treatment of urogenital chlamydia infection among adolescents in youth correctional facilities, to evaluate the noninferiority of azithromycin (1 g in one dose) to doxycycline (100 mg twice daily for 7 days). The treatment was directly observed. The primary end point was treatment failure at 28 days after treatment initiation, with treatment failure determined on the basis of nucleic acid amplification testing, sexual history, and outer membrane protein A (OmpA) genotyping of C. trachomatis strains.

RESULTS

Among the 567 participants enrolled, 284 were randomly assigned to receive azithromycin, and 283 were randomly assigned to receive doxycycline. A total of 155 participants in each treatment group (65% male) made up the per-protocol population. There were no treatment failures in the doxycycline group. In the azithromycin group, treatment failure occurred in 5 participants (3.2%; 95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 7.4%). The observed difference in failure rates between the treatment groups was 3.2 percentage points, with an upper boundary of the 90% confidence interval of 5.9 percentage points, which exceeded the prespecified absolute 5-percentage-point cutoff for establishing the noninferiority of azithromycin.

CONCLUSIONS

In the context of a closed population receiving directly observed treatment for urogenital chlamydia infection, the efficacy of azithromycin was 97%, and the efficacy of doxycycline was 100%. The noninferiority of azithromycin was not established in this setting. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00980148.)

PDF

http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa1502599

 

EDITORIAL

Treatment for Chlamydia Infection — Doxycycline versus Azithromycin

Thomas C. Quinn, M.D., and Charlotte A. Gaydos, Dr.P.H.

From the Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (T.C.Q.), and the Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore (T.C.Q., C.A.G.) — both in Maryland.

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the United States. In 2013, a total of 1.4 million cases were reported, and 3 million persons were estimated to be infected. Worldwide, 131 million persons are estimated to be infected with C. trachomatis. Untreated infections in women can result in pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. In men, the infection can be associated with urethritis, epididymitis, and, in men who have sex with men, proctitis. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all sexually active women younger than 25 years of age undergo annual chlamydia screening.1 However, less than half of women 16 to 24 years of age who are enrolled in medical care programs were screened in 2013…..

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December 24, 2015 at 8:18 am

Epidemiology of Mycoplasma genitalium in British men and women aged 16–44 years: evidence from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3)

International Journal of Epidemiology

Pam Sonnenberg1,*, Catherine A. Ison2, Soazig Clifton1,3, Nigel Field1, Clare Tanton1, Kate Soldan4, Simon Beddows5, Sarah Alexander2, Rumena Khanom2, Pamela Saunders2, Andrew J. Copas1, Kaye Wellings6, Catherine H. Mercer1 and Anne M. Johnson1

1Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, UK

2Sexually Transmitted Bacteria Reference Unit, Public Health England, London, UK

3NatCen Social Research, London, UK

4Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control (CIDSC)

5Virus Reference Department, Public Health England, London, UK

6Department of Social and Environmental Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK

*Corresponding author. Reader in Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, Mortimer Market Centre, London WC1E 6JB, UK. E-mail: p.sonnenberg@ucl.ac.uk

Background

There are currently no large general population epidemiological studies of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), which include prevalence, risk factors, symptoms and co-infection in men and women across a broad age range.

Methods

In 2010-–12, we conducted the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), a probability sample survey in Britain. Urine from 4507 sexually-experienced participants, aged 16–44 years, was tested for MG.

Results

MG prevalence was 1.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7–1.8%] in men and 1.3% (0.9–1.9%) in women. There were no positive MG tests in men aged 16–19, and prevalence peaked at 2.1% (1.2–3.7%) in men aged 25–34 years. In women, prevalence was highest in 16–19 year olds, at 2.4% (1.2–4.8%), and decreased with age. Men of Black ethnicity were more likely to test positive for MG [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 12.1; 95% CI: 3.7–39.4). For both men and women, MG was strongly associated with reporting sexual risk behaviours (increasing number of total and new partners, and unsafe sex, in the past year). Women with MG were more likely to report post-coital bleeding (AOR 5.8; 95%CI 1.4–23.3). However, the majority of men (94.4%), and over half of women (56.2%) with MG did not report any sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms. Men with MG were more likely to report previously diagnosed gonorrhoea, syphilis or non-specific urethritis, and women previous trichomoniasis.

Conclusions

This study strengthens evidence that MG is an STI. MG was identified in over 1% of the population, including in men with high-risk behaviours in older age groups that are often not included in STI prevention measures.

PDF

http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/10/30/ije.dyv194.full.pdf

December 16, 2015 at 8:12 am

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