Posts filed under ‘Infecciones en diabeticos’

Emergent Invasive Group A Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, US 2015–2018

Emerging Infectious Diseases July 2019

The term group A Streptococcus is considered synonymous for the species Streptococcus pyogenes. We describe an emergent invasive S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis lineage that obtained the group A antigen through a single ancestral recombination event between a group C S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strain and a group A S. pyogenes strain.

FULL TEXT

https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/25/8/18-1758_article?deliveryName=DM4767

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July 21, 2019 at 7:43 pm

Treatment duration and associated outcomes for skin and soft tissue infections in patients with obesity and heart failure.

Open Forum Infectious Diseases June 2019 V.6 N.6

Ihm C et al. 

Background

Although existing literature supports durations of 5–7 days for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), longer durations are commonly used. Obesity and heart failure (HF) have been associated with increased risk for treatment failure of SSTIs; however, whether prolonged antibiotic durations reduce the risk of treatment failure is unknown. We evaluated practice patterns for SSTIs in patients with obesity and/or HF and whether short antibiotic durations (≤8 days) were associated with treatment failure.

Methods

We performed a single-center, retrospective cohort study of inpatients between January 1, 2006, and December 30, 2016, with SSTIs based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding, and obesity and/or HF. Charts were manually reviewed to collect demographic, clinical, treatment, and outcome data. Propensity score matching was used to estimate the risk of treatment failure between the 2 groups. Secondary outcomes included length of stay, 30-day readmission, and Clostridium difficile infection rates.

Results

A total of 207 patients were included. Forty-nine (23.7%) received a short antibiotic duration and 158 (76.3%) a long duration. The median duration of therapy (interquartile range [IQR]) was 7 (7–8) days in the short group and 14 (10–15) days in the long group. In the propensity score–matched cohort, 28 (28.6%) treatment failures occurred in the long group, as compared with 5 (10.2%) in the short group (P = .02), as well as a shorter length of stay (IQR) in the short- vs long-duration group (2 [2–3] vs 3 [2–5] days, respectively; P = .002). There was no difference in other secondary outcomes.

Conclusions

The majority of patients with obesity or HF received a longer antibiotic course for SSTIs; however, a longer antibiotic course was not associated with lower treatment failure rates. Higher failure rates in the long-duration group may be reflective of clinical decisions made in the face of diagnostic uncertainty and warrant further evaluation.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/ofid/article/6/6/ofz217/5486403

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June 20, 2019 at 12:20 pm

Chile: Primer reporte de colonización por Candida auris uris en un paciente procedente de India

Sociedad Chilena de Infectología

Microbiólogos e infectólogos del Hospital del Salvador, de Santiago, reportaron el 1er aislamiento en Chile de Candida auris en un paciente de nacionalidad india y radicado en Chile hace 30 años. El paciente es diabético tipo II de larga data.

En agosto 2018 evolucionó con signos de isquemia y posteriormente necrosis del 4to dedo izquierdo asociado a celulitis del mismo pie.

Sus familiares decidieron el traslado a Mumbay (India), para su tratamiento.

Fue amputado en un hospital en Mumbay el 20/agosto/2018. Completó 24 días de hospitalización por dificultad en el manejo de su diabetes mellitus, y posteriormente continuó con curaciones ambulatorias en el mismo centro.

Una semana antes de volver a Chile, en octubre 2018, notó signos compatibles con necrosis en la falange distal del 3er dedo ipsilateral.

Consultó a su regreso a Chile en el Servicio de Urgencia de un centro privado. Fue derivado al Hospital del Salvador, donde se estudió y derivó a cirugía vascular para amputación del 3er y 5to dedos  izquierdos con diagnóstico de pie diabético con complicaciones vasculares, sin signos de infección.

El 26/diciembre/2018 ingresó a pabellón, donde se tomaron cultivos de tejido del lecho de amputación y de una úlcera plantar en relación a la base del 5to dedo.

Luego de 48 hs de incubación no hubo crecimiento de colonias en el cultivo corriente, por lo que se realizó un traspaso final desde el caldo tioglicolato a un agar sangre.

El 31/12/2018 se estudió una colonia blanca pequeña, la que es identificada como Kokuria kristinae (98% de concordancia). Se realizó tinción de Gram de dicha colonia, observándose levaduras.

El 2/enero/2019 se procesó nuevamente, dando como resultado C. auris con 99% de concordancia.

En función de los resultados obtenidos, se envió la cepa al Instituto de Salud Pública (ISP), quien el 17/enero/2019 confirmó la identificación.

El paciente no fue tratado con antifúngicos debido a que este hallazgo fue interpretado como una colonización, al no existir síntomas ni signos inflamatorios en el sitio quirúrgico.

En controles posteriores, un mes después de la amputación, se evidenciaron elementos compatibles con infección del sitio quirúrgico (ISQ) realizándose toilette de la zona en la cual se aislaron Klebsiella pneumoniae (en tejido óseo y partes blandas) y Staphylococcus aureus (partes blandas), pero no se ha vuelto a aislar C. auris en muestras de tejido y hueso del paciente.

Producto del patrón de susceptibilidad de los agentes identificados, se hospitalizó para tratamiento ATB IV, siendo sometido finalmente a una amputación trans-metatarsiana el 19/febrero/2019.

En dicho procedimiento se tomaron cultivos óseos y de tejidos blandos adyacentes con resultados negativos.

Durante esta hospitalización, se obtuvieron hisopados nasal, orofaríngeo, axilar e inguinorrectal para estudio de portación de C. auris, con resultados negativos.

Para los procesos de atención clínica, el paciente fue manejado con precauciones de contacto (unidad individual, uso de elementos de protección personal, aseo de unidad supervisado de acuerdo a protocolo interno).

Candida auris es un hongo emergente considerado una seria amenaza para la salud pública. La preocupación mundial por C. auris se debe principalmente a tres razones:

1) la resistencia que presenta a múltiples antifúngicos comúnmente utilizados para tratar las infecciones por Candida;

2) los errores en la identificación con los métodos de laboratorio estándar;

3) ser causa de brotes intrahospitalarios en los cinco continentes.

Por esta razón, es importante identificar rápidamente la presencia de C. auris en un paciente hospitalizado, para que se puedan tomar las precauciones especiales para detener su propagación. Dado el gran potencial de diseminación de esta Candida, es muy importante reforzar las medidas de control para reducir el riesgo de transmisión.

Fuente:

Primer reporte en Chile de colonización por Candida auris en un paciente procedente de India.

Sociedad Chilena de Infectología (Chile)

PDF

http://www.sochinf.cl/portal/templates/sochinf2008/documentos/2019/Primer_reporte_Chile_colonizacion_Candida_auris_India.pdf

April 15, 2019 at 8:35 am

Culture of Bone Biopsy Specimens Overestimates Rate of Residual Osteomyelitis After Toe or Forefoot Amputation.

J Bone Joint Surg Am. September 5, 2018 V.100 N.17 P.1448-1454.

Mijuskovic B1, Kuehl R1, Widmer AF1, Jundt G1, Frei R1, Gürke L1, Wolff T1.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Guidelines recommend both histological analysis and culture for definite diagnosis of osteomyelitis. It is not clear if histological and culture criteria can be used interchangeably in the clinical scenario of toe amputation. We therefore prospectively compared the results of intraoperative culture and those of histological examination in this setting.

METHODS:

Consecutive patients requiring toe or forefoot amputation at the University Hospital Basel during a 2-year period were included in the study. Biopsy specimens from the residual bone were cultured according to microbiological standards. Histological analysis was performed using standardized criteria for osteomyelitis. Clinical outcomes were assessed retrospectively via chart review.

RESULTS:

Of 51 patients included in the study, 33 (65%) had a positive culture of residual bone and 14 (27%) showed histological signs of osteomyelitis. A negative histological result but a positive culture was found for 21 (41%) of the patients, suggesting that culture has a high false-positive rate if histological analysis is used as the reference to rule out osteomyelitis. The recommended criteria of both positive histological findings and positive culture were fulfilled by 12 (24%) of the 51 patients.

CONCLUSIONS:

Positive cultures of residual bone after forefoot or toe amputation overestimate the true rate of osteomyelitis as defined by histological analysis, presumably because of contamination from soft tissue at the time of surgery. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the indications for, and the duration of, antibiotic treatment according to these findings.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE:

Our results cast doubt on the strategy of relying solely on culture of bone biopsy specimens when deciding whether antibiotic treatment for osteomyelitis is necessary after toe or forefoot amputation.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6125752/pdf/jbjsam-100-1448.pdf

 

October 11, 2018 at 8:15 am

Vibrio vulnificus Infection

New England Journal of Medicine July 2018

Images in Clinical Medicine

Jin Park, M.D., Ph.D., and Chang-Seop Lee, M.D., Ph.D.

A 71-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of fever and excruciating pain in his left hand that had developed 12 hours after eating raw seafood. He had a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension and was undergoing hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease. At the time of presentation …

FULL TEXT

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMicm1716464?query=TOC

PDF

https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMicm1716464

July 26, 2018 at 8:35 am

Influence of multidrug resistant organisms on the outcome of diabetic foot infection

International Journal of Infectious Diseases May 2018 V.70 P.10-14

Nese Saltoglu, Onder Ergonul, Necla Tulek, Mucahit Yemisen, Ayten Kadanali, Gul Karagoz, Ayse Batirel, Oznur Ak, Cagla Sonmezer, Haluk Eraksoy, Atahan Cagatay, Serkan Surme, Salih A. Nemli, Tuna Demirdal, Omer Coskun, Derya Ozturk, Nurgul Ceran, Filiz Pehlivanoglu, Gonul Sengoz, Turan Aslan, Yasemin Akkoyunlu, Oral Oncul, Hakan Ay, Lutfiye Mulazımoglu, Buket Erturk, Fatma Yilmaz, Gulsen Yoruk, Nuray Uzun, Funda Simsek, Taner Yildirmak, Kadriye Kart Yaşar, Meral Sonmezoglu, Yasar Küçükardali, Nazan Tuna, Oguz Karabay, Nail Ozgunes, Fatma Sargın, Turkish Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Diabetic Foot Infections Study Group

Objectives

We described the clinical outcomes of the diabetic patients who had foot infections with multidrug resistant organisms.

Methods

We included the patients with diabetic foot infections (DFI) from 19 centers, between May 2011 and December 2015. Infection was defined according to IDSA DFI guidelines. Patients with severe infection, complicated moderate infection were hospitalized. The patients were followed-up for 6 months after discharge.

Results

In total, 791 patients with DFI were included, 531(67%) were male, median age was 62 (19–90). Severe infection was diagnosed in 85 (11%) patients. Osteomyelitis was diagnosed in 291(36.8%) patients. 536 microorganisms were isolated, the most common microorganisms were S. aureus (20%), P. aeruginosa (19%) and E. coli (12%). Methicillin resistance (MR) rate among Staphylococcus aureus isolates was 31%. Multidrug resistant bacteria were detected in 21% of P. aeruginosa isolates. ESBL (+) Gram negative bacteria (GNB) was detected in 38% of E. coli and Klebsiella isolates. Sixty three patients (8%) were re-hospitalized. Of the 791 patiens, 127 (16%) had major amputation, and 24 (3%) patients died. In multivariate analysis, significant predictors for fatality were; dialysis (OR: 8.3, CI: 1.82–38.15, p = 0.006), isolation of Klebsiella spp. (OR:7.7, CI: 1.24–47.96, p = 0.028), and chronic heart failure (OR: 3, CI: 1.01–9.04, p = 0.05). MR Staphylococcus was detected in 21% of the rehospitalized patients, as the most common microorganism (p < 0.001).

Conclusion

Among rehospitalized patients, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus infections was detected as the most common agent, and Klebsiella spp. infections were found to be significantly associated with fatality.

PDF

https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(18)30049-3/pdf

July 14, 2018 at 7:19 pm

Antibiotic therapy of pneumonia in the obese patient: dosing and delivery

Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 27(2):165-173, April 2014.

Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.; Al Harbi, Shmylan A.; Arabi, Yaseen M.

Purpose of review

Obesity has been shown to be associated with antibiotic underdosing and treatment failure. This article reviews the recent literature on antibiotic dosing in obese patients with pneumonia.

Recent findings

Obesity is associated with several alterations in antibiotic pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, including increases in the antibiotic volume of distribution and clearance. These alterations necessitate changes in the dosing of certain antibiotics. However, data on antibiotic dosing for pneumonia in obese patients are limited and come mainly from observational studies. Additionally, dosing recommendations are often extrapolated from healthy obese volunteers and from the studies of antibiotics given for other indications.

Summary

Recognizing obesity-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic alterations is important in treating obese patients with pneumonia. Studies that evaluate such alterations and assess the impact of antibiotic dosing and delivery on the clinical outcomes of this patient population are needed.

FULL TEXT

https://journals.lww.com/co-infectiousdiseases/Fulltext/2014/04000/Antibiotic_therapy_of_pneumonia_in_the_obese.9.aspx?WT.mc_id=HPxADx20100319xMP

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June 30, 2018 at 10:47 am

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