Posts filed under ‘Infecciones en embarzadas’

Transplacental transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection

Case Reports  Nat Commun. July 14, 2020 V.11 N.1 P.3572. 

El brote de SARS-CoV-2 es la primera pandemia del siglo.

La infección por SARS-CoV-2 se transmite a través de gotas, se hipotetizan otras rutas de transmisión pero no se confirman.

Hasta ahora, no está claro si y cómo el SARS-CoV-2 puede transmitirse de la madre al feto.

Demuestran la transmisión transplacentaria de SARS-CoV-2 en un recién nacido nacido de una madre infectada en el último trimestre y que presenta compromiso neurológico.

La transmisión se confirma mediante exhaustivas investigaciones virológicas y patológicas.

En detalle, el SARS-CoV-2 causa:

(1) viremia materna,

(2) infección placentaria demostrada por inmunohistoquímica y carga viral muy alta; inflamación     placentaria, como lo demuestra el examen histológico y la inmunohistoquímica, y

(3) viremia neonatal después de la infección placentaria.

El recién nacido se estudia clínicamente, a través de imágenes y se realiza un seguimiento. El neonato presentó manifestaciones neurológicas, similares a las descritas en pacientes adultos.


August 6, 2020 at 4:31 pm

COVID-19 and newborn health: systematic review

Rev Panam Salud Publica. APRIL 2020 V.44 P.54. 


To describe perinatal and neonatal outcomes in newborns exposed to SARS-CoV-2.


A systematic review was conducted by searching PubMed Central, LILACS, and Google Scholar using the keywords ‘covid ‘ AND ‘newborn’ OR ‘child’ OR ‘infant,’ on 18 March 2020, and again on 17 April 2020. One researcher conducted the search and extracted data on demographics, maternal outcomes, diagnostic tests, imaging, and neonatal outcomes.


Of 256 publications identified, 20 met inclusion criteria and comprised neonatal outcome data for 222 newborns whose mothers were suspected or confirmed to be SARS-CoV-2 positive perinatally (17 studies) or of newborns referred to hospital with infection/pneumonia (3 studies). Most (12 studies) were case-series reports; all were from China, except three (Australia, Iran, and Spain). Of the 222 newborns, 13 were reported as positive for SARS-CoV-2; most of the studies reported no or mild symptoms and no adverse perinatal outcomes. Two papers among those from newborns who tested positive reported moderate or severe clinical characteristics. Five studies using data on umbilical cord blood, placenta, and/or amniotic fluid reported no positive results. Nine studies reported radiographic imaging, including 5 with images of pneumonia, increased lung marking, thickened texture, or high-density nodular shadow. Minor, non-specific changes in biochemical variables were reported. Studies that tested breast milk reported negative SARS-CoV-2 results.


Given the paucity of studies at this time, vertical transmission cannot be confirmed or denied. Current literature does not support abstaining from breastfeeding nor separating mothers and newborns. Further evidence and data collection networks, particularly in the Americas, are needed for establishing definitive guidelines and recommendations.



August 1, 2020 at 10:27 am

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Pregnancy: Responding to a Rapidly Evolving Situation

Obstet Gynecol. May 2020 V.135 N.5 P.999-1002. 

As the world confronts coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an illness caused by yet another emerging pathogen (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]), obstetric care providers are asking what this means for pregnant women. The global spread has been swift, and many key questions remain. The case-fatality rate for persons cared for in the United States and whether asymptomatic persons transmit the virus are examples of questions that need to be answered to inform public health control measures. There are also unanswered questions specific to pregnant women, such as whether pregnant women are more severely affected and whether intrauterine transmission occurs. Although guidelines for pregnant women from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have been rapidly developed based on the best available evidence, additional information is critically needed to inform key decisions, such as whether pregnant health care workers should receive special consideration, whether to temporarily separate infected mothers and their newborns, and whether it is safe for infected women to breastfeed. Some current recommendations are well supported, based largely on what we know from seasonal influenza: patients should avoid contact with ill persons, avoid touching their face, cover coughs and sneezes, wash hands frequently, disinfect contaminated surfaces, and stay home when sick. Prenatal clinics should ensure all pregnant women and their visitors are screened for fever and respiratory symptoms, and symptomatic women should be isolated from well women and required to wear a mask. As the situation with COVID-19 rapidly unfolds, it is critical that obstetricians keep up to date.


August 1, 2020 at 10:25 am

REVIEW – Guidance on breastfeeding during the Covid-19 pandemic

Rev Assoc Med Bras April 2020 V.66 N.4 P.541-546. 


These recommendations aim to provide guidance on breastfeeding for mothers with suspected or confirmed Covid-19.


We performed a review of the recent medical literature on breastfeeding mothers with suspected or confirmed Covid-19, focusing on the neonatal period.


We analyzed 20 recent publications on breastfeeding, Covid-19, and its transmission through breastmilk. We presented possible options for breastfeeding and their consequences for the mother and the child.


All maternal decisions in relation to breastfeeding are justifiable since the infection by Covid-19 is still poorly known. However, puerperal women and their families must be very well informed to make a conscious choice based on the information available in the literature so far.


August 1, 2020 at 10:24 am

REVIEW – Novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in newborns and infants: what we know so far

Ital J Pediatr. April 29, 2020 V.46 N.1 P.56. 

Recently, an outbreak of viral pneumonitis in Wuhan, Hubei, China successively spread as a global pandemia, led to the identification of a novel betacoronavirus species, the 2019 novel coronavirus, successively designated 2019-nCoV then SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 causes a clinical syndrome designated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) with a spectrum of manifestations ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infection to severe pneumonitis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and death. Few cases have been observed in children and adolescents who seem to have a more favorable clinical course than other age groups, and even fewer in newborn babies. This review provides an overview of the knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology, transmission, the associated clinical presentation and outcomes in newborns and infants up to 6 months of life.


August 1, 2020 at 10:22 am

REVIEW – Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and pregnancy

Am J Obstet Gynecol. June 2020 V.222 N.6 P.521-531. 

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading globally at an accelerated rate, with a basic reproduction number (R0) of 2-2.5, indicating that 2-3 persons will be infected from an index patient. A serious public health emergency, it is particularly deadly in vulnerable populations and communities in which healthcare providers are insufficiently prepared to manage the infection. As of March 16, 2020, there are more than 180,000 confirmed cases of COVID-19 worldwide, with more than 7000 related deaths. The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been isolated from asymptomatic individuals, and affected patients continue to be infectious 2 weeks after cessation of symptoms. The substantial morbidity and socioeconomic impact have necessitated drastic measures across all continents, including nationwide lockdowns and border closures. Pregnant women and their fetuses represent a high-risk population during infectious disease outbreaks. To date, the outcomes of 55 pregnant women infected with COVID-19 and 46 neonates have been reported in the literature, with no definite evidence of vertical transmission. Physiological and mechanical changes in pregnancy increase susceptibility to infections in general, particularly when the cardiorespiratory system is affected, and encourage rapid progression to respiratory failure in the gravida. Furthermore, the pregnancy bias toward T-helper 2 (Th2) system dominance, which protects the fetus, leaves the mother vulnerable to viral infections, which are more effectively contained by the Th1 system. These unique challenges mandate an integrated approach to pregnancies affected by SARS-CoV-2. Here we present a review of COVID-19 in pregnancy, bringing together the various factors integral to the understanding of pathophysiology and susceptibility, diagnostic challenges with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, therapeutic controversies, intrauterine transmission, and maternal-fetal complications. We discuss the latest options in antiviral therapy and vaccine development, including the novel use of chloroquine in the management of COVID-19. Fetal surveillance, in view of the predisposition to growth restriction and special considerations during labor and delivery, is addressed. In addition, we focus on keeping frontline obstetric care providers safe while continuing to provide essential services. Our clinical service model is built around the principles of workplace segregation, responsible social distancing, containment of cross-infection to healthcare providers, judicious use of personal protective equipment, and telemedicine. Our aim is to share a framework that can be adopted by tertiary maternity units managing pregnant women in the flux of a pandemic while maintaining the safety of the patient and healthcare provider at its core.


August 1, 2020 at 10:21 am

Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records.

Lancet. March 7, 2020 V.395 N.10226 P.809-815.   

Chen H1, Guo J1, Wang C2, Luo F3, Yu X1, Zhang W4, Li J1, Zhao D5, Xu D1, Gong Q1, Liao J1, Yang H6, Hou W7, Zhang Y8.



Previous studies on the pneumonia outbreak caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were based on information from the general population. Limited data are available for pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy and the intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection.


Clinical records, laboratory results, and chest CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for nine pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia (ie, with maternal throat swab samples that were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, from Jan 20 to Jan 31, 2020. Evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission was assessed by testing for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal throat swab samples. Breastmilk samples were also collected and tested from patients after the first lactation.


All nine patients had a caesarean section in their third trimester. Seven patients presented with a fever. Other symptoms, including cough (in four of nine patients), myalgia (in three), sore throat (in two), and malaise (in two), were also observed. Fetal distress was monitored in two cases. Five of nine patients had lymphopenia (<1·0 × 10⁹ cells per L). Three patients had increased aminotransferase concentrations. None of the patients developed severe COVID-19 pneumonia or died, as of Feb 4, 2020. Nine livebirths were recorded. No neonatal asphyxia was observed in newborn babies. All nine livebirths had a 1-min Apgar score of 8-9 and a 5-min Apgar score of 9-10. Amniotic fluid, cord blood, neonatal throat swab, and breastmilk samples from six patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and all samples tested negative for the virus.


The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant adult patients who developed COVID-19 pneumonia. Findings from this small group of cases suggest that there is currently no evidence for intrauterine infection caused by vertical transmission in women who develop COVID-19 pneumonia in late pregnancy.

FUNDING: Hubei Science and Technology Plan, Wuhan University Medical Development Plan.


March 13, 2020 at 3:43 pm

Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Updated Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices – US 2019

MMWR January 24, 2020 V.69 N.3 P.77–83


What is already known about this topic?

Repeat doses of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine at 5- and 10-year intervals are safe and immunogenic.

What is added by this report?

ACIP recommendations have been updated to allow either tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccine or Tdap to be used for the decennial Td booster, tetanus prophylaxis for wound management, and for additional required doses in the catch-up immunization schedule if a person has received at least 1 Tdap dose.

What are the implications for public health practice?

Allowing either Tdap or Td to be used in situations where Td only was previously recommended increases provider point-of-care flexibility.



January 24, 2020 at 7:27 am

Predictors of Viremia in Postpartum Women on Antiretroviral Therapy.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. January 1, 2020 V.83 N.1 P.72-80.


HIV-infected, postpartum women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) have high rates of viremia. We examined predictors of postpartum viremia in the PROMISE study.


Women with pre-ART CD4+ T-cell counts ≥400 cells/mm3 who started ART during pregnancy were randomized postpartum to continue ART (CTART) or discontinue ART (DCART). Viral load and self-reported adherence were collected every 12 weeks, up to 144 weeks. Women in DCART reinitiated therapy when clinically indicated. Viremia was defined as 2 consecutive viral loads >1000 copies/mL after 24 weeks on ART. Adherence was dichotomized as missing versus not missing ART doses in the past 4 weeks. Predictors of viremia were examined using Cox proportional hazards regression with adherence as a time-varying covariate.


Among 802 women in the CTART arm, median age at entry was 27 years and median CD4+ T-cell count 696 cells/mm3. Of 175 women in CTART with viremia (22%), 141 had resistance data, and 12% had resistance to their current regimen. There was an estimated 0.12 probability of viremia by week 48 and 0.25 by week 144. Predictors of viremia included missed ART doses within the past 4 weeks, younger age, shorter duration of pre-entry ART, and being from the South American/Caribbean region. Of 137 women in DCART who reinitiated therapy, probability of viremia was similar to CTART (0.24 by week 96; 0.27 by week 144).


Rates of postpartum viremia are high and viremia is more likely in younger postpartum women who start ART later in pregnancy. Interventions should target these higher-risk women.



January 1, 2020 at 11:39 am

Prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of infection after operative vaginal delivery (ANODE): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

LANCET June 15, 2019 V.393 N.10.189 P.2395–2403

Prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of infection after operative vaginal delivery (ANODE): a multicentre randomised controlled trial


Risk factors for maternal infection are clearly recognised, including caesarean section and operative vaginal birth. Antibiotic prophylaxis at caesarean section is widely recommended because there is clear systematic review evidence that it reduces incidence of maternal infection. Current WHO guidelines do not recommend routine antibiotic prophylaxis for women undergoing operative vaginal birth because of insufficient evidence of effectiveness. We aimed to investigate whether antibiotic prophylaxis prevented maternal infection after operative vaginal birth.


In a blinded, randomised controlled trial done at 27 UK obstetric units, women (aged ≥16 years) were allocated to receive a single dose of intravenous amoxicillin and clavulanic acid or placebo (saline) following operative vaginal birth at 36 weeks gestation or later. The primary outcome was confirmed or suspected maternal infection within 6 weeks of delivery defined by a new prescription of antibiotics for specific indications, confirmed systemic infection on culture, or endometritis. We did an intention-to-treat analysis. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number 11166984, and is closed to accrual.


Between March 13, 2016, and June 13, 2018, 3427 women were randomly assigned to treatment: 1719 to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, and 1708 to placebo. Seven women withdrew, leaving 1715 in the amoxicillin and clavulanic acid group and 1705 in the placebo groups. Primary outcome data were missing for 195 (6%) women. Significantly fewer women allocated to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid had a confirmed or suspected infection (180 [11%] of 1619) than women allocated to placebo (306 [19%] of 1606; risk ratio 0·58, 95% CI 0·49–0·69; p<0·0001). One woman in the placebo group reported a skin rash and two women in the amoxicillin and clavulanic acid reported other allergic reactions, one of which was reported as a serious adverse event. Two other serious adverse events were reported, neither was considered causally related to the treatment.


This trial shows benefit of a single dose of prophylactic antibiotic after operative vaginal birth and guidance from WHO and other national organisations should be changed to reflect this.


NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme.



November 8, 2019 at 8:09 pm

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