Posts filed under ‘Infecciones en embarzadas’

Rectal Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections Among Women Reporting Anal Intercourse

Obstetrics & Gynecology September 2018  V.132 N.3  P.692–697

Llata, Eloisa, MD, MPH; Braxton, Jim; Asbel, Lenore, MD; Chow, Joan, PhD; Jenkins, Lindsay; Murphy, Ryan, PhD; Pathela, Preeti, DrPh; Schumacher, Christina, PhD; Torrone, Elizabeth, PhD

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the prevalence and treatment of rectal Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections among women reporting receptive anal intercourse in a network of sexually transmitted disease or sexual health clinics and estimate the proportion of missed infections if women were tested at the genital site only.

METHODS:

We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae test results from female patients reporting receptive anal intercourse in the preceding 3 months during visits to 24 sexually transmitted disease clinics from 2015 to 2016. Primary outcomes of interest were 1) anatomic site-specific C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae testing and positivity among women attending selected U.S. sexually transmitted disease clinics who reported receptive anal intercourse and 2) the proportion of rectal infections that would have remained undetected if only genital sites were tested.

RESULTS:

Overall, 7.4% (3,743/50,785) of women reported receptive anal intercourse during the 2 years. Of the 2,818 women tested at both the genital and rectal sites for C trachomatis, 292 women were positive (61 genital only, 60 rectal only, and 171 at both sites). Of the 2,829 women tested at both the genital and rectal sites for N gonorrhoeae, 128 women were positive (31 genital only, 23 rectal only, and 74 at both sites). Among women tested at both anatomic sites, the proportion of missed C trachomatis infections would have been 20.5% and for N gonorrhoeae infections, 18.0%.

CONCLUSION:

Genital testing alone misses approximately one fifth of C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae infections in women reporting receptive anal intercourse in our study population. Missed rectal infections may result in ongoing transmission to other sexual partners and reinfection.

FULL TEXT

https://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/Fulltext/2018/09000/Rectal_Chlamydia_trachomatis_and_Neisseria.22.aspx

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

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August 31, 2018 at 3:52 pm

Respiratory Virus Infection During Pregnancy: Does It Matter?

The Journal of Infectious Diseases August 15, 2018 V.218 N.4 P.512-515

EDITOR’S CHOICE

Janet A Englund; Helen Y Chu

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/218/4/512/4993270

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

 

August 13, 2018 at 6:24 pm

Protecting Mothers and Babies — A Delicate Balancing Act

N Engl J of Medicine July 24, 2018

PERSEPCTIVE

Protecting Mothers and Babies — A Delicate Balancing Act

S.A. Rasmussen, W. Barfield, and M.A. Honein

More than 50 years ago, an epidemic of serious birth defects caused by prenatal exposure to thalidomide shattered the prevailing notion that the placenta served as a barrier against damaging influences and led to recognition that exposures during pregnancy can result in harm to a developing fetus. Since that time, ensuring that a pregnant woman has access to potentially lifesaving treatments while safeguarding her fetus has become a delicate balancing act, one that requires a careful evaluation of risks and benefits to both the mother and her fetus…

FULL TEXT

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1809688?query=RP

PDF

https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMp1809688

 

 

 

N Engl J of Medicine July 24, 2018

CORRESPONDENCE

Neural-Tube Defects with Dolutegravir Treatment from the Time of Conception

  1. Zash, J. Makhema, and R.L. Shapiro

Since August 2014, the Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership has conducted birth outcome surveillance at eight government hospitals throughout Botswana. A primary ongoing aim of the surveillance is to evaluate the prevalence of neural-tube defects associated with exposure to antiretroviral drugs from the time of conception (the risk period for neural-tube defects ends approximately 28 days after conception). At each site, trained government midwives perform surface examinations of consecutive live-born and stillborn infants who are born in the hospital to women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to women without HIV infection. As part of …

FULL TEXT

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc1807653?query=RP

PDF

https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMc1807653

July 24, 2018 at 11:44 am

Diagnostic Performance of a Molecular Test versus Clinician Assessment of Vaginitis

Clin. Microbiol. June 2018 56:13 e00252-18

Jane R. Schwebke, Charlotte A. Gaydos, Paul Nyirjesy, Sonia Paradis, Salma Kodsi, and Charles K. Cooper

Vaginitis is a common complaint, diagnosed either empirically or using Amsel’s criteria and wet mount microscopy. This study sought to determine characteristics of an investigational test (a molecular test for vaginitis), compared to reference, for detection of bacterial vaginosis, Candida spp., and Trichomonas vaginalis. Vaginal specimens from a cross-sectional study were obtained from 1,740 women (≥18 years old), with vaginitis symptoms, during routine clinic visits (across 10 sites in the United States).

Specimens were analyzed using a commercial PCR/fluorogenic probe-based investigational test that detects bacterial vaginosis, Candida spp., and Trichomonas vaginalis. Clinician diagnosis and in-clinic testing (Amsel’s test, potassium hydroxide preparation, and wet mount) were also employed to detect the three vaginitis causes.

All testing methods were compared to the respective reference methods (Nugent Gram stain for bacterial vaginosis, detection of the Candida gene its2, and Trichomonas vaginalis culture). The investigational test, clinician diagnosis, and in-clinic testing were compared to reference methods for bacterial vaginosis, Candida spp., and Trichomonas vaginalis.

The investigational test resulted in significantly higher sensitivity and negative predictive value than clinician diagnosis or in-clinic testing. In addition, the investigational test showed a statistically higher overall percent agreement with each of the three reference methods than did clinician diagnosis or in-clinic testing.

The investigational test showed significantly higher sensitivity for detecting vaginitis, involving more than one cause, than did clinician diagnosis. Taken together, these results suggest that a molecular investigational test can facilitate accurate detection of vaginitis.

abstract

http://jcm.asm.org/content/56/6/e00252-18.abstract

PDF

http://jcm.asm.org/content/56/6/e00252-18.full.pdf+html

June 12, 2018 at 7:34 am

Respiratory Syncytial Virus During Pregnancy

Clinical Infectious Diseases June 1, 2018 V.66 N.11 P.1666–1667

Fernando P Polack

Fundacion INFANT, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Correspondence: F. P. Polack, Fundacion INFANT, Gavilan 94, Buenos Aires (1406), Argentina (Fernando.p.polack@vanderbilt.edu).

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main viral cause of hospitalization in infants and young children worldwide [1]. More than 3 million severe cases and close to 100 000 pediatric deaths every year, half of them at home, demand effective interventions to mitigate disease burden [1]. Addressing this challenge is not easy, however, in part because more than 90% of severe cases and 99% of fatalities due to RSV occur in the developing world [1]. In fact, severe cases in industrialized countries almost exclusively affect high-risk groups that represent only a subset of those burdened by serious illness in developing nations. Congenital heart disease, neuromuscular disorders, chronic lung illness, and/or Down syndrome are almost ubiquitous in fatal cases in industrialized countries [2]. On the other hand, secondary bacterial infections and …

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/66/11/1666/4749761

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

June 10, 2018 at 7:19 pm

Journal of Clinical Microbiology April 2018 V.56  N.4

Diagnostic Testing for Zika Virus: a Postoutbreak Update

Elitza S. Theel and D. Jane Hata

Desde la aparición y diseminación del virus del Zika (ZIKV) a finales de 2015, nuestra comprensión de la biología, la transmisión, las enfermedades clínicas y las posibles secuelas asociadas con la infección se ha ampliado notablemente.

En los últimos 2 años, el número de pruebas diagnósticas para ZIKV aumentó de ninguna en 2015 a 5 pruebas serológicas y 14 ensayos moleculares en 2017, todas con autorización de uso de emergencia otorgada a través de la Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos de EEUU (FDA).

Proporcionamos una actualización sobre ZIKV, abordando lo que hemos aprendido colectivamente desde que comenzó el brote, incluido un resumen de los ensayos de diagnóstico actualmente disponibles para este virus.

PDF

http://jcm.asm.org/content/56/4/e01972-17.full.pdf+html

 

March 27, 2018 at 8:25 am

Protective Effect of Maternal Influenza Vaccination on Influenza in Their Infants: A Prospective Cohort Study

Journal of Infectious Diseases March 15, 2018 V.217 N.6

Satoko Ohfuji; Masaaki Deguchi; Daisuke Tachibana; Masayasu Koyama; Tetsu Takagi …

Este estudio prospectivo de cohortes mostró que la efectividad de la vacunación prenatal y posparto de la influenza para prevenir la influenza entre sus bebés fue del 61% y 53%, respectivamente. La vacunación contra la influenza materna durante el período prenatal o posparto tuvo efectos beneficiosos para proteger a los bebés de la influenza.

Abstract

Background

Infants <6 months of age are too young to receive influenza vaccine, despite being at high risk for severe influenza-related complications.

Methods

To examine the effectiveness of maternal influenza vaccination in preventing influenza in their infants, we conducted a prospective cohort study of 3441 infants born at participating hospitals before the 2013–2014 influenza season. At the time of recruitment, their mothers completed a questionnaire about influenza vaccination status for the 2013–2014 season. A follow-up survey was conducted after the end of the 2013–2014 season to collect information regarding influenza diagnosis and hospitalization among infants.

Results

During the 2013–2014 influenza season, 71 infants (2%) had influenza diagnosed, and 13 infants (0.4%) were hospitalized with influenza. Maternal influenza vaccination (especially prenatal vaccination) decreased the odds of influenza among infants. The effectiveness of prenatal vaccination was 61% (95% confidence interval, 16%–81%), whereas that of postpartum vaccination was 53% (−28%–83%). Although maternal influenza vaccination was also associated with a decreased odds of influenza-related hospitalization among infants, vaccine effectiveness (73%) did not reach statistical significance, owing to the limited number of infants hospitalized because of influenza.

Conclusions

The present findings indicated that pregnant women and postpartum women should receive influenza vaccination to protect their infants.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/217/6/878/4693945

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

March 25, 2018 at 11:41 am

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