Posts filed under ‘Infecciones en neutropenicos’

Aspergilosis. Formas clínicas y tratamiento

Enf Infecciosas & Microbiologia Clínica Abril 2012 V.30 N.4

Jesús Fortún, Yolanda Meije, Gema Fresco, Santiago Moreno.

Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, España

Resumen

La aspergilosis invasiva junto con la aspergilosis crónica pulmonar y la aspergilosis broncopulmonar alérgica, constituyen las formas clínicas de aspergilosis.

Aunque el número de especies de Aspergillus spp. es muy numeroso, Aspergillus fumigatus-complex es el agente etiológico más frecuente, independientemente de la forma clínica y la afección de base del paciente.

El incremento de los diferentes tratamientos inmunosupresores y el mayor uso de corticoides en pacientes con enfermedad obstructiva crónica han condicionado un mayor protagonismo de la aspergilosis en los últimos años.

El uso de galactomanano y las pruebas de imagen complementan las limitaciones microbiológicas en el diagnóstico de estos pacientes. Voriconazol y anfotericina liposomal constituyen la base del tratamiento en todas las formas de aspergilosis, y posaconazol, itraconazol, caspofungina y otras equinocandinas son alternativas eficaces.

El pronóstico depende de la forma clínica y las características del huésped, pero es sombrío fundamentalmente en las formas invasivas diseminadas.

abstract

http://www.elsevier.es/es-revista-enfermedades-infecciosas-microbiologia-clinica-28-articulo-aspergilosis-formas-clinicas-tratamiento-S0213005X12000316

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July 17, 2017 at 8:11 am

Estimating the burden of invasive and serious fungal disease in the United Kingdom

Journal of Infection January 2017 V.74 N.1

Matthew Pegorie a, David W. Denning b,c,d, *, William Welfare a,d

a Public Health England North West Health Protection Team (Greater Manchester), UK

bNational Aspergillosis Centre, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, UK

c The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

d Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, UK

Background: The burden of fungal disease in the UK is unknown. Only limited data are systematically collected. We have estimated the annual burden of invasive and serious fungal disease.

Methods: We used several estimation approaches. We searched and assessed published estimates of incidence, prevalence or burden of specific conditions in various high risk groups. Studies with adequate internal and external validity allowed extrapolation to estimate current UK burden. For conditions without adequate published estimates, we sought expert advice.

Results: The UK population in 2011 was 63,182,000 with 18% aged under 15 and 16% over 65. The following annual burden estimates were calculated: invasive candidiasis 5142; Candida peritonitis complicating chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis 88; Pneumocystis pneumonia 207e587 cases, invasive aspergillosis (IA), excluding critical care patients 2901e2912, and IA in critical care patients 387e1345 patients, <100 cryptococcal meningitis cases. We estimated 178,000 (50,000e250,000) allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis cases in people with asthma, and 873 adults and 278 children with cystic fibrosis. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is estimated to affect 3600 patients, based on burden estimates post tuberculosis and in sarcoidosis.

Conclusions: Uncertainty is intrinsic to most burden estimates due to diagnostic limitations, lack of national surveillance systems, few published studies and methodological limitations. The largest uncertainty surrounds IA in critical care patients. Further research is needed to produce a more robust estimate of total burden

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http://www.journalofinfection.com/article/S0163-4453(16)30273-0/pdf

March 25, 2017 at 5:40 pm

Infectious complications in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 2012;4(1):e2012070. doi: 10.4084/MJHID.2012.070. Epub 2012 Nov 5.

Nosari A1.

Author information

1Divisione di Ematologia, Niguarda Ca’ Granda Hospital, Piazza Ospedale Maggiore 3 – 20162 Milano, Italy. Tel: 39-02-64442668.

Abstract

Infectious complications have been known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) patients who are prone to infections because of both the humoral immunodepression inherent to the hematologic disease and to the immunosuppression related to the therapy.

The majority of infections in CLL patients treated with alkilating agents is of bacterial origin. The immunodeficiency and natural infectious history of alkylator-resistant, corticosteroid-treated patients appears to have changed with the administration of purine analogs, which has been complicated by very severe and unusual infections and also more viral infections due to sustained reduction of CD4-positive T lymphocytes.

The subsequent introduction of monoclonal antibodies in therapies, in particular alemtuzumab, further increased the immunodepression, increasing also infections which appeared more often in patients with recurrent neutropenia due to chemotherapy cycles.

Epidemiological data regarding fungal infections in lymphoproliferative disorders are scarce.

Italian SEIFEM group in a retrospective multicentre study regarding CLL patients reported an incidence of mycoses 0.5%; however, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders emerged as second haematological underlying disease after acute leukemia in a French study on aspergillosis; in particular CLL with aspergillosis accounted for a third of these chronic lymphoproliferative diseases presenting mould infection.

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3507529/pdf/mjhid-4-1-e2012070.pdf

February 23, 2017 at 7:49 am

Community-acquired Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in adults.

Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Nov 15;43(10):1233-8.                         

Brouwer MC1, van de Beek D, Heckenberg SG, Spanjaard L, de Gans J.

Author information

1Department of Neurology, Center of Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. m.c.brouwer@amc.uva.nl

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Listeria monocytogenes is the third most common cause of bacterial meningitis.

METHODS:

We prospectively evaluated 30 episodes of community-acquired L. monocytogenes meningitis, confirmed by culture of cerebrospinal fluid specimens, in a nationwide study in The Netherlands. Outcome was graded using the Glasgow outcome score; an unfavorable outcome was defined as a score of 1-4.

RESULTS:

We found 30 episodes of L. monocytogenes meningitis. All patients were immunocompromised or > 50 years old. In 19 (63%) of 30 patients, symptoms were present for > 24 h; in 8 patients (27%), symptoms were present for > or = 4 days. The classic triad of fever, neck stiffness, and change in mental status was present in 13 (43%) of 30 patients. An individual cerebrospinal fluid indicator of bacterial meningitis was present in 23 (77%) of 30 cases. Gram staining of cerebrospinal fluid samples revealed the causative organism in 7 (28%) of 25 cases. The initial antimicrobial therapy was amoxicillin based for 21 (70%) of 30 patients. The coverage of initial antimicrobial therapy was microbiologically inadequate for 9 (30%) of the patients. The mortality rate was 17% (5 of 30), and 8 (27%) of 30 patients experienced an unfavorable outcome. Inadequate initial antimicrobial therapy was not related to outcome.

CONCLUSIONS:

In contrast with previous reports, we found that patients with meningitis due to L. monocytogenes do not present with atypical clinical features; however, typical cerebrospinal fluid findings predictive for bacterial meningitis might be absent. A high proportion of patients received initial antimicrobial therapy that did not cover L. monocytogenes.

PDF

http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/43/10/1233.full.pdf+html

December 16, 2016 at 6:27 pm

Three-year multicenter surveillance of community-acquired Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in adults.

BMC Infect Dis. 2010 Nov 11;10:324.

Amaya-Villar R1, García-Cabrera E, Sulleiro-Igual E, Fernández-Viladrich P, Fontanals-Aymerich D, Catalán-Alonso P, Rodrigo-Gonzalo de Liria C, Coloma-Conde A, Grill-Díaz F, Guerrero-Espejo A, Pachón J, Prats-Pastor G.

Author information

1Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Av Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013 Sevilla, Spain.   ramayav@wanadoo.es      

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Listeria monocytogenes is the third most frequent cause of bacterial meningitis. The aim of this study is to know the incidence and risk factors associated with development of acute community-acquired Lm meningitis in adult patients and to evaluate the clinical features, management, and outcome in this prospective case series.

METHODS:

A descriptive, prospective, and multicentric study carried out in 9 hospitals in the Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) over a 39-month period. All adults patients admitted to the participating hospitals with the diagnosis of acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis (Ac-ABM) were included in this study. All these cases were diagnosed on the basis of a compatible clinical picture and a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture or blood culture. The patients were followed up until death or discharge from hospital.

RESULTS:

Two hundred and seventy-eight patients with Ac-ABM were included. Forty-six episodes of Lm meningitis were identified in 46 adult patients. In the multivariate analysis only age (OR 1.026; 95% CI 1.00-1.05; p = 0.042), immunosuppression (OR 2.520; 95% CI 1.05-6.00; p = 0.037), and CSF/blood glucose ratio (OR 39.42; 95% CI 4.01-387.50; p = 0.002) were independently associated with a Lm meningitis. The classic triad of fever, neck stiffness and altered mental status was present in 21 (49%) patients, 32% had focal neurological findings at presentation, 12% presented cerebellum dysfunction, and 9% had seizures. Twenty-nine (68%) patients were immunocompromised. Empirical antimicrobial therapy was intravenous ampicillin for 34 (79%) of 43 patients, in 11 (32%) of them associated to aminoglycosides. Definitive ampicillin plus gentamicin therapy was significantly associated with unfavourable outcome (67% vs 28%; p = 0.024) and a higher mortality (67% vs 32%; p = 0.040).The mortality rate was 28% (12 of 43 patients) and 5 of 31 (16.1%) surviving patients developed adverse clinical outcome.

CONCLUSIONS:

Elderly or immunocompromised patients, and a higher CSF/blood glucose ratio in patients with Ac-ABM must alert clinicians about Lm aetiology. Furthermore, we observed a high incidence of acute community-acquired Lm meningitis in adults and the addition of aminoglycosides to treatment should be avoid in order to improve the patients’ outcome. Nevertheless, despite developments in intensive care and antimicrobial therapy, this entity is still a serious disease that carries high morbidity and mortality rates.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2995464/pdf/1471-2334-10-324.pdf

December 16, 2016 at 6:15 pm

Effect of meropenem administration in extended infusion on the clinical outcome of febrile neutropenia: a retrospective observational study

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Sep;69(9):2556-62.

Fehér C1, Rovira M2, Soriano A3, Esteve J2, Martínez JA4, Marco F5, Carreras E2, Martínez C2, Fernández-Avilés F2, Suárez-Lledó M2, Mensa J4.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Information on the efficacy of extended meropenem administration in neutropenic patients is scarce. Our objective was to determine whether the administration of meropenem in a 4 h extended infusion (EI) leads to a better clinical outcome in patients with febrile neutropenia than the conventional short infusion (SI).

METHODS:

This was a retrospective observational study. The subjects were neutropenic patients who presented with fever after receiving haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation or induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia. The primary endpoint was the success of treatment after 5 days of meropenem therapy, defined as follows: the disappearance of fever leading to a maintained (≥ 24 h) feverless state; the resolution or improvement of the clinical signs and symptoms of infection; the absence of persistent or breakthrough bacteraemia; and no additional antibiotics prescribed because of an unsatisfactory clinical evolution.

RESULTS:

Eighty-eight patients received meropenem (1 g/8 h) in SI and 76 received the same dose in EI. Treatment success on day 5 was superior in the EI group [52/76 (68.4%) versus 36/88 (40.9%); P<0.001]. Meropenem administered in EI was independently associated with success (OR 3.13, 95% CI 1.61-6.10). Fewer additional antibiotics were prescribed in the EI group during the first 5 days of treatment [20/76 (26.3%) versus 44/88 (50.0%); P=0.002]. Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis a more prompt defervescence and a faster decrease in C-reactive protein concentration were observed in the EI group (P=0.021 and P=0.037, respectively). There were no significant differences in the length of hospital stay and in the mortality rate.

CONCLUSIONS:

Meropenem administration in EI results in a better clinical outcome for febrile neutropenia episodes, with fewer additional antibiotics needed.

PDF

http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/content/69/9/2556.full.pdf+html

August 25, 2016 at 8:17 am

Combination Therapy for Treatment of Infections with Gram-Negative Bacteria

Clin. Microbiol. Rev. July 2012 25(3): 450-470

Pranita D. Tamma, Sara E. Cosgrove, and Lisa L. Maragakis

aThe Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

bThe Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Combination antibiotic therapy for invasive infections with Gram-negative bacteria is employed in many health care facilities, especially for certain subgroups of patients, including those with neutropenia, those with infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, those with ventilator-associated pneumonia, and the severely ill. An argument can be made for empiric combination therapy, as we are witnessing a rise in infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms. The wisdom of continued combination therapy after an organism is isolated and antimicrobial susceptibility data are known, however, is more controversial. The available evidence suggests that the greatest benefit of combination antibiotic therapy stems from the increased likelihood of choosing an effective agent during empiric therapy, rather than exploitation of in vitro synergy or the prevention of resistance during definitive treatment. In this review, we summarize the available data comparing monotherapy versus combination antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of infections with Gram-negative bacteria.

PDF

http://cmr.asm.org/content/25/3/450.full.pdf+html

July 25, 2016 at 6:19 pm

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