Posts filed under ‘Infecciones en Obesos’

Prevalence and Etiology of Community-acquired Pneumonia in Immunocompromised Patients

Clin Infect Dis. April 24, 2019 V.68 N.9 P.1482-1493. 


The correct management of immunocompromised patients with pneumonia is debated. We evaluated the prevalence, risk factors, and characteristics of immunocompromised patients coming from the community with pneumonia.


We conducted a secondary analysis of an international, multicenter study enrolling adult patients coming from the community with pneumonia and hospitalized in 222 hospitals in 54 countries worldwide. Risk factors for immunocompromise included AIDS, aplastic anemia, asplenia, hematological cancer, chemotherapy, neutropenia, biological drug use, lung transplantation, chronic steroid use, and solid tumor.


At least 1 risk factor for immunocompromise was recorded in 18% of the 3702 patients enrolled. The prevalences of risk factors significantly differed across continents and countries, with chronic steroid use (45%), hematological cancer (25%), and chemotherapy (22%) the most common. Among immunocompromised patients, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) pathogens were the most frequently identified, and prevalences did not differ from those in immunocompetent patients. Risk factors for immunocompromise were independently associated with neither Pseudomonas aeruginosa nor non-community-acquired bacteria. Specific risk factors were independently associated with fungal infections (odds ratio for AIDS and hematological cancer, 15.10 and 4.65, respectively; both P = .001), mycobacterial infections (AIDS; P = .006), and viral infections other than influenza (hematological cancer, 5.49; P < .001).


Our findings could be considered by clinicians in prescribing empiric antibiotic therapy for CAP in immunocompromised patients. Patients with AIDS and hematological cancer admitted with CAP may have higher prevalences of fungi, mycobacteria, and noninfluenza viruses.




July 13, 2020 at 3:53 pm

Dosificación de cefazolina prequirúrgica en pacientes obesos y no obesos. Importa el peso

Revista Española de Quimioterapia Junio 2020


June 29, 2020 at 5:48 pm

Treatment duration and associated outcomes for skin and soft tissue infections in patients with obesity and heart failure.

Open Forum Infectious Diseases June 2019 V.6 N.6

Ihm C et al. 


Although existing literature supports durations of 5–7 days for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), longer durations are commonly used. Obesity and heart failure (HF) have been associated with increased risk for treatment failure of SSTIs; however, whether prolonged antibiotic durations reduce the risk of treatment failure is unknown. We evaluated practice patterns for SSTIs in patients with obesity and/or HF and whether short antibiotic durations (≤8 days) were associated with treatment failure.


We performed a single-center, retrospective cohort study of inpatients between January 1, 2006, and December 30, 2016, with SSTIs based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding, and obesity and/or HF. Charts were manually reviewed to collect demographic, clinical, treatment, and outcome data. Propensity score matching was used to estimate the risk of treatment failure between the 2 groups. Secondary outcomes included length of stay, 30-day readmission, and Clostridium difficile infection rates.


A total of 207 patients were included. Forty-nine (23.7%) received a short antibiotic duration and 158 (76.3%) a long duration. The median duration of therapy (interquartile range [IQR]) was 7 (7–8) days in the short group and 14 (10–15) days in the long group. In the propensity score–matched cohort, 28 (28.6%) treatment failures occurred in the long group, as compared with 5 (10.2%) in the short group (P = .02), as well as a shorter length of stay (IQR) in the short- vs long-duration group (2 [2–3] vs 3 [2–5] days, respectively; P = .002). There was no difference in other secondary outcomes.


The majority of patients with obesity or HF received a longer antibiotic course for SSTIs; however, a longer antibiotic course was not associated with lower treatment failure rates. Higher failure rates in the long-duration group may be reflective of clinical decisions made in the face of diagnostic uncertainty and warrant further evaluation.



June 20, 2019 at 12:20 pm

Cefazolin Prophylaxis for Total Joint Arthroplasty: Obese Patients Are Frequently Underdosed and at Increased Risk of Periprosthetic Joint Infection

Journal of Arthroplasty November 2018 V.33 N.11 P. 3551–3554

Alexander J. Rondon, Michael M. Kheir, Timothy L. Tan, Noam Shohat, Max R. Greenky, Javad Parvizi


One of the most effective prophylactic strategies against periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is administration of perioperative antibiotics. Many orthopedic surgeons are unaware of the weight-based dosing protocol for cefazolin. This study aimed at elucidating what proportion of patients receiving cefazolin prophylaxis are underdosed and whether this increases the risk of PJI.


A retrospective study of 17,393 primary total joint arthroplasties receiving cefazolin as perioperative prophylaxis from 2005 to 2017 was performed. Patients were stratified into 2 groups (underdosed and adequately dosed) based on patient weight and antibiotic dosage. Patients who developed PJI within 1 year following index procedure were identified. A bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to control for potential confounders and identify risk factors for PJI.


The majority of patients weighing greater than 120 kg (95.9%, 944/984) were underdosed. Underdosed patients had a higher rate of PJI at 1 year compared with adequately dosed patients (1.51% vs 0.86%, P = .002). Patients weighing greater than 120 kg had higher 1-year PJI rate than patients weighing less than 120 kg (3.25% vs 0.83%, P < .001). Patients who were underdosed (odds ratio, 1.665; P = .006) with greater comorbidities (odds ratio, 1.259; P < .001) were more likely to develop PJI at 1 year.


Cefazolin underdosing is common, especially for patients weighing more than 120 kg. Our study reports that underdosed patients were more likely to develop PJI. Orthopedic surgeons should pay attention to the weight-based dosing of antibiotics in the perioperative period to avoid increasing risk of PJI.



November 30, 2018 at 8:28 am

Antibiotic therapy of pneumonia in the obese patient: dosing and delivery

Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 27(2):165-173, April 2014.

Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.; Al Harbi, Shmylan A.; Arabi, Yaseen M.

Purpose of review

Obesity has been shown to be associated with antibiotic underdosing and treatment failure. This article reviews the recent literature on antibiotic dosing in obese patients with pneumonia.

Recent findings

Obesity is associated with several alterations in antibiotic pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, including increases in the antibiotic volume of distribution and clearance. These alterations necessitate changes in the dosing of certain antibiotics. However, data on antibiotic dosing for pneumonia in obese patients are limited and come mainly from observational studies. Additionally, dosing recommendations are often extrapolated from healthy obese volunteers and from the studies of antibiotics given for other indications.


Recognizing obesity-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic alterations is important in treating obese patients with pneumonia. Studies that evaluate such alterations and assess the impact of antibiotic dosing and delivery on the clinical outcomes of this patient population are needed.



June 30, 2018 at 10:47 am


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