Posts filed under ‘Infecciones en seniles’

Prevalence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria among nursing home residents: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

American Journal of Infection Control May 1, 2017 V.45 N.5 P.512-518

Sainfer Aliyu, MPhil, MSEd, MHPM, BSN, RN’MPhil, MSEd, MHPM, BSN, RN Sainfer Aliyu, MSEd, MHPM, BSN, RN Sainfer Aliyu, Arlene Smaldone, PhD, CPNP, CDE, Elaine Larson, PhD, RN, CIC, FAAN

Highlights

  • Multidrug resistant-gram negative bacteria colonization ranged from 11.2%-59.1%.
  • E coli accounted for the largest proportion of isolates.
  • The most common site of colonization was rectal, followed by nasal, sputum, urinary tract and wound.
  • Colonization was significantly higher in studies conducted in United States (38%) compared to other countries (14%).

Background

Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) are associated with an increasing proportion of infections among nursing home (NH) residents. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to critically review evidence of the prevalence of MDR-GNB among NH residents.

Methods

Following Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines, a systematic review of literature for the years 2005-2016 using multiple databases was conducted. Study quality, appraised by 2 reviewers, used Downs and Black risk of bias criteria. Studies reporting prevalence of MDR-GNB colonization were pooled using a random effects meta-analysis model. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran Q and I2 statistics.

Results

Of 327 articles, 12 met the criteria for review; of these, 8 met the criteria for meta-analysis. Escherichia coli accounted for the largest proportion of isolates. Reported MDR-GNB colonization prevalence ranged from 11.2%-59.1%. Pooled prevalence for MDR-GNB colonization, representing data from 2,720 NH residents, was 27% (95% confidence interval, 15.2%-44.1%) with heterogeneity (Q = 405.6; P = .01; I2 = 98.3). Two studies reported MDR-GNB infection rates of 10.9% and 62.7%.

Conclusion

Our findings suggest a high prevalence of MDR-GNB colonization among NH residents, emphasizing the need to enhance policies for infection control and prevention (ICP) in NHs.

FULL TEXT

http://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(17)30085-8/fulltext

PDF

http://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(17)30085-8/pdf

 

June 9, 2017 at 8:08 am

A Case of Septic Arthritis of the Shoulder Due to Yersinia enterocolitica with Review of the Literature.

Open Forum Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 2;1(2):ofu054

BRIEF REPORT

Chan J1, Gandhi RT1.

Author information

1 Infectious Diseases Division , Massachusetts General Hospital , Boston, MA.

Abstract

Yersinia enterocolitica infection rarely can cause extra-intestinal infections. We present a case of septic arthritis of the shoulder due to this organism in an elderly man with liver and cardiac disease. We review previously published cases of Y. enterocolitica septic arthritis, and discuss risk factors and management.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4281793/pdf/ofu054.pdf

May 7, 2017 at 2:53 pm

Atypical Presentation of Disseminated Zoster in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Case Rep Med. 2015;2015:124840.     

Patel N1, Singh D1, Patel K1, Ahmed S1, Anand P1.

Author information

1Department of Medicine, Nassau University Medical Center, East Meadow, NY 11554, USA.

Abstract

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have 2-fold increased risk of herpes zoster. In literature, limited information exists about disseminated cutaneous zoster in RA patients. An 83-year-old African-American female with RA presented with generalized and widespread vesicular rash covering her entire body. Comorbidities include hypertension, type II diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Patient was on methotrexate 12.5 mg and was not receiving any corticosteroids, anti-TNF therapy, or other biological agents. The patient was afebrile (98F) with no SIRS criteria. Multiple vesicular lesions were present covering patient’s entire body including face. Lesions were in different stages, some umbilicated with diameter of 2-7cm. Many lesions have a rim of erythema with no discharge. On admission, patient was also pancytopenic with leukocyte count of 1.70k/mm(3). Biopsies of lesions were performed, which were positive for Varicella antigen. Subsequently, patient was started on Acyclovir. The patient’s clinical status improved and rash resolved. Our patient presented with “atypical” clinical picture of disseminated cutaneous zoster with no obvious dermatome involvement. Disseminated zoster is a potentially serious infection that can have an atypical presentation in patients with immunocompromised status. High index of suspicion is needed to make the diagnosis promptly and to initiate therapy to decrease mortality and morbidity.

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4609790/pdf/CRIM2015-124840.pdf

April 9, 2017 at 7:29 pm

Gram-negative prosthetic joint infections: risk factors and outcome of treatment.

Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Oct 1;49(7):1036-43

Hsieh PH, Lee MS, Hsu KY, Chang YH, Shih HN, Ueng SW.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, No. 5, Fu-Hsing St., 333 Kweishian, Taoyuan, Taiwan. hsiehph@adm.cgmh.org.tw

BACKGROUND:

Little information is available regarding the demographic characteristics and outcomes of patients with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) resulting from gram-negative (GN) organisms, compared with patients with PJI resulting from gram-positive (GP) organisms.

METHODS:

We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of all cases of PJI that were treated at our institution during the period from 2000 through 2006.

RESULTS:

GN microorganisms were involved in 53 (15%) of 346 first-time episodes of PJI, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated pathogen (21 [40%] of the 53 episodes). Patients with GN PJI were older (median age, 68 vs. 59 years; P<.001) and developed infection earlier (median joint age, 74 vs. 109 days; P<.001) than those with GP PJI. Of the 53 episodes of GN PJI, 27 (51%) were treated with debridement, 16 (30%) with 2-stage exchange arthroplasty, and 10 (19%) with resection arthroplasty. Treating GN PJI with debridement was associated with a lower 2-year cumulative probability of success than treating GP PJI with debridement (27% vs. 47% of episodes were successfully treated; P=.002); no difference was found when a PJI was treated with 2-stage exchange or resection arthroplasty. A longer duration of symptoms before treatment with debridement was associated with treatment failure for GN PJI, compared with for GP PJI (median duration of symptoms, 11 vs. 5 days; P=.02).

CONCLUSIONS:

GN PJI represents a substantial proportion of all occurrences of PJI. Debridement alone has a high failure rate and should not be attempted when the duration of symptoms is long. Resection of the prosthesis, with or without subsequent reimplantation, as a result of GN PJI is associated with a favorable outcome rate that is comparable to that associated with PJI due to GP pathogens.

PDF

https://oup.silverchair-cdn.com/oup/backfile/Content_public/Journal/cid/49/7/10.1086/605593/2/49-7-1036.pdf?Expires=1491958662&Signature=IxAKWF6-WgKZaPGD72JDtgQ9EfZuwpmNFPVdR-BdK33eRJu1GUZJXyCJ7ri9ZaJ-a4T2iy6Mj1nesDu5OTWvIfp2j5XaVprK679YVFFTXrSfwHRKFO8JDumpQWlBnByaEbCEsj~ky9lFBC~~2xrpArBj31INcTvo1vLo5sICnAjdiELud-7DVPsbupIMI7ZE3HJiWJFNiP8FGIgyiCEeD2EhGUieinh7IbChHW6tjzh5v-AIB1LCiQzHPaVo8QPMbu9HH7ggA0JlS7YXjwhwJJfdjYU4pgWxeBL9p464aVUmZWotZzoN-lNM46Wyryl4U1xrPETeCZOVC1u8fGMdNQ__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAIUCZBIA4LVPAVW3Q

April 7, 2017 at 10:07 pm

Estimating the burden of invasive and serious fungal disease in the United Kingdom

Journal of Infection January 2017 V.74 N.1

Matthew Pegorie a, David W. Denning b,c,d, *, William Welfare a,d

a Public Health England North West Health Protection Team (Greater Manchester), UK

bNational Aspergillosis Centre, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, UK

c The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

d Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, UK

Background: The burden of fungal disease in the UK is unknown. Only limited data are systematically collected. We have estimated the annual burden of invasive and serious fungal disease.

Methods: We used several estimation approaches. We searched and assessed published estimates of incidence, prevalence or burden of specific conditions in various high risk groups. Studies with adequate internal and external validity allowed extrapolation to estimate current UK burden. For conditions without adequate published estimates, we sought expert advice.

Results: The UK population in 2011 was 63,182,000 with 18% aged under 15 and 16% over 65. The following annual burden estimates were calculated: invasive candidiasis 5142; Candida peritonitis complicating chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis 88; Pneumocystis pneumonia 207e587 cases, invasive aspergillosis (IA), excluding critical care patients 2901e2912, and IA in critical care patients 387e1345 patients, <100 cryptococcal meningitis cases. We estimated 178,000 (50,000e250,000) allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis cases in people with asthma, and 873 adults and 278 children with cystic fibrosis. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is estimated to affect 3600 patients, based on burden estimates post tuberculosis and in sarcoidosis.

Conclusions: Uncertainty is intrinsic to most burden estimates due to diagnostic limitations, lack of national surveillance systems, few published studies and methodological limitations. The largest uncertainty surrounds IA in critical care patients. Further research is needed to produce a more robust estimate of total burden

PDF

http://www.journalofinfection.com/article/S0163-4453(16)30273-0/pdf

March 25, 2017 at 5:40 pm

Infectious complications in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 2012;4(1):e2012070. doi: 10.4084/MJHID.2012.070. Epub 2012 Nov 5.

Nosari A1.

Author information

1Divisione di Ematologia, Niguarda Ca’ Granda Hospital, Piazza Ospedale Maggiore 3 – 20162 Milano, Italy. Tel: 39-02-64442668.

Abstract

Infectious complications have been known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) patients who are prone to infections because of both the humoral immunodepression inherent to the hematologic disease and to the immunosuppression related to the therapy.

The majority of infections in CLL patients treated with alkilating agents is of bacterial origin. The immunodeficiency and natural infectious history of alkylator-resistant, corticosteroid-treated patients appears to have changed with the administration of purine analogs, which has been complicated by very severe and unusual infections and also more viral infections due to sustained reduction of CD4-positive T lymphocytes.

The subsequent introduction of monoclonal antibodies in therapies, in particular alemtuzumab, further increased the immunodepression, increasing also infections which appeared more often in patients with recurrent neutropenia due to chemotherapy cycles.

Epidemiological data regarding fungal infections in lymphoproliferative disorders are scarce.

Italian SEIFEM group in a retrospective multicentre study regarding CLL patients reported an incidence of mycoses 0.5%; however, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders emerged as second haematological underlying disease after acute leukemia in a French study on aspergillosis; in particular CLL with aspergillosis accounted for a third of these chronic lymphoproliferative diseases presenting mould infection.

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3507529/pdf/mjhid-4-1-e2012070.pdf

February 23, 2017 at 7:49 am

Accurate diagnosis and treatment of Vibrio vulnificus infection: a retrospective study of 12 cases.

Braz J Infect Dis. 2013 Jan-Feb;17(1):7-12.

Matsuoka Y1, Nakayama Y, Yamada T, Nakagawachi A, Matsumoto K, Nakamura K, Sugiyama K, Tanigawa Y, Kakiuchi  Y, Sakaguchi Y.

Author information

1Department of Critical Care Medicine, Saga Medical School Hospital, Saga, Japan. yoshinori216@h2.dion.ne.jp

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Vibrio vulnificus causes an infectious disease that has extremely poor convalescence and leads to necrotic fasciitis. In this study, we sought to define the characteristic epidemiology of V. vulnificus infection and clarify its diagnosis at the global level.

METHODS:

Over a period of 10 years, we investigated the appearance of symptoms, underlying conditions, treatment, and mortality in 12 patients (eight men, four women; >50 years old; average age, 66 years,) infected with V. vulnificus.

RESULTS:

The development of symptoms occurred primarily between June and September, a period during which seawater temperature rises and the prevalence of V. vulnificus increases. All patients had underlying diseases, and seven patients reported a history of consuming fresh fish and uncooked shellfish. The patients developed sepsis and fever with sharp pain in the limbs. Limb abnormalities were observed on visual examination. All patients underwent debridement; however, in the survival group, the involved limb was amputated early in 80% patients. The mortality rate was 58.3%.

CONCLUSION:

Recognition of the characteristic epidemiology and clinical features of this disease is important, and positive debridement should be performed on suspicion. When the illness reaches an advanced stage, however, amputation should be the immediate treatment of choice.

FULL TEXT (and PDF)

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S141386701200219X

February 17, 2017 at 4:41 pm

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