Posts filed under ‘Infecciones Gin/Obs’

Maternal colonization or infection with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis

International Journal of Infectious Diseases November 2017 V.64 N. P.58–66

Andre N.H. Bulabula, Angela Dramowski, Shaheen Mehtar


  • The prevalence of colonization with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in pregnant and/or post-partum women in Africa is 17% (95% confidence interval 10–23%).
  • The pooled proportions from reviewed studies suggest a greater proportion of ESBL-E colonization in pregnant women compared to post-partum women.
  • The rate of maternal colonization with ESBL-E is greater in community settings than in hospital settings.
  • The most frequently reported ESBL-encoding gene in Africa is CTX-M.


To summarize published studies on the prevalence of and risk factors for maternal bacterial colonization and/or infection with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in pregnant and/or post-partum women in Africa.


A systematic review was conducted using the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Bibliographies of included eligible studies were manually searched to identify additional relevant articles. No language restriction was applied. The timeframe of the search included all records from electronic database inception to July 15, 2017. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to summarize the prevalence and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of ESBL-E colonization or infection in pregnant or post-partum women in Africa. The meta-analysis was conducted using STATA IC 13.1 software and the metaprop function/plugin.


Ten studies (seven on pregnant women and three on post-partum women) were included, documenting a 17% prevalence of maternal colonization with ESBL-E in Africa (95% CI 10–23%). The prevalence of ESBL-E in community isolates exceeded that in isolates from the hospital setting (22% vs. 14%). The most frequently reported ESBL-encoding gene was CTX-M (cefotaxime hydrolyzing capabilities). Data on risk factors for maternal ESBL-E colonization and infection are very limited.


The prevalence of colonization and/or infection with ESBL-E in pregnant and post-partum women in Africa exceeds that reported from high- and middle-income settings, representing a risk for subsequent neonatal colonization and/or infection with ESBL-E.




February 9, 2018 at 1:21 pm

 Clinical evaluation of early acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus carriage by newborns

International Journal of Infectious Diseases November 2017 V.64 N. P.9–14

Ayala Maayan-Metzger, Tzipora Strauss, Carmit Rubin, Hanaa Jaber, Mordechai Dulitzky,

Aylana Reiss-Mandel, Eyal Leshem, Galia Rahav, Gili Regev-Yochay



Little is known about neonatal Staphylococcus aureus carriage. Sites and clinical outcomes of S. aureus colonization during the first month of life were evaluated in this study.


A cohort of 279 infants born at term to 277 mothers was included. Maternal S. aureus colonization status was examined before labor. Newborns were screened for nasal, auricular, umbilical, and rectal colonization, one to three times within 100 h after birth, and infants of carrier mothers were re-screened at 1 month. Medical data were recorded from the medical charts at discharge and at the 1-month follow-up interview.


Overall 43 out of 279 (15.4%) infants acquired S. aureus within the first days of life. The only two predictors of S. aureus carriage in the postnatal period were maternal S. aureus carriage (odds ratio 7.905, 95% confidence interval 3.182–19.638) and maternal antibiotic treatment during labor (odds ratio 0.121, 95% confidence interval 0.016–0.949). Among colonized children, the nose (56%) and rectum (40%) were more frequently colonized, while ear (26%) and umbilicus (16%) colonization were less common. Co-colonization at two sites was rare (4%), but always predicted carriage at 1 month of age. Maternal and neonatal characteristics, including neonatal outcomes, were similar between S. aureus carrier and non-carrier infants during the first month of life.


Maternal carriage is the major predictor of neonatal S. aureus carriage. The nose and rectum are the main sites of neonatal carriage. S. aureus carriage was not associated with neonatal complications throughout the first month of life. The long-term significance of early S. aureus carriage is yet to be determined.



February 9, 2018 at 1:20 pm

Antimicrobial prophylaxis in caesarean section delivery.

Exp Ther Med. August 2016 V.12 N.2 P.961-964.

Liu R1, Lin L1, Wang D1.

Author information

1 Department of Obstetrics, People’s Hospital of Linyi, Linyi, Shandong 276000, P.R. China.


Antimicrobial prophylaxis is used routinely for pre-, intra- and post-operative caesarean section.

One of the most important risk factors for postpartum infection is caesarean delivery.

Caesarean section shows a higher incidence of infection than vaginal delivery.

It is complicated by surgical site infections, endometritis or urinary tract infection.

The aim of the present study was to assess the usage of antimicrobials in women undergoing caesarean section at a Tertiary Care Hospital.

A prospective study was conducted in 100 women during the period of February 2013 to August 2013 in the inpatient Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics.

Data collected included the age of the patient, gravidity, and type of caesarean section, which was analyzed for the nature and number of antimicrobials prescribed, duration of treatment, polypharmacy, fixed-dose combinations, generic/brand names used and failure of prophylaxis. Antimicrobial prophylaxis was administered to the patients.

The most commonly prescribed antimicrobial was a combination of ceftriaxone and sulbactam. Of 100 patients, 87% were aged 20-35 years.

The highest proportion of patients were primigravida 72%.

Elective procedure was carried out in 38%, the remaining were emergency C-section in whom intra- and post-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis was given for a duration of 7 days.

In total, 27% patients were reported with infection even after the antimicrobial prophylaxis. In conclusion, pre-operative prophylaxis was given in the early rupture of membranes.

Fixed-dose combinations were preferred. Incidence of infection even after antimicrobial prophylaxis was reported due to pre-existing infection, debilitating disease or prolonged rupture of membranes.

Patients with recurrent infection were shifted to amoxicillin and clavulinic acid combination. Drugs were prescribed only by brand names which is of concern.


February 9, 2018 at 1:16 pm

Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections: epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and optimal management.

Infect Drug Resist. 2015 Jul 24;8:217-30.

O’Driscoll T1, Crank CW2.

Author information

1 Department of Pharmacy Practice, Chicago College of Pharmacy, Downers Grove, IL, USA.

2 Pharmacy Services, Rush-Copley Medical Center, Aurora, IL, USA.


Since its discovery in England and France in 1986, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus has increasingly become a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide.

Enterococci are prolific colonizers, with tremendous genome plasticity and a propensity for persistence in hospital environments, allowing for increased transmission and the dissemination of resistance elements.

Infections typically present in immunosuppressed patients who have received multiple courses of antibiotics in the past.

Virulence is variable, and typical clinical manifestations include bacteremia, endocarditis, intra-abdominal and pelvic infections, urinary tract infections, skin and skin structure infections, and, rarely, central nervous system infections.

As enterococci are common colonizers, careful consideration is needed before initiating targeted therapy, and source control is first priority.

Current treatment options including linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and tigecycline have shown favorable activity against various vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus infections, but there is a lack of randomized controlled trials assessing their efficacy.

Clearer distinctions in preferred therapies can be made based on adverse effects, drug interactions, and pharmacokinetic profiles.

Although combination therapies and newer agents such as tedizolid, telavancin, dalbavancin, and oritavancin hold promise for the future treatment of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus infections, further studies are needed to assess their possible clinical impact, especially in the treatment of serious infections.


August 1, 2017 at 9:06 pm

Amoxicillin and Ceftriaxone as Treatment Alternatives to Penicillin for Maternal Syphilis.

Emerging Infectious Diseases. May 2017 V.23 N.5 P.827-829.

Katanami Y, Hashimoto T, Takaya S, Yamamoto K, Kutsuna S, Takeshita N, Hayakawa K, Kanagawa S, Ohmagari N.


There is no proven alternative to penicillin for treatment of maternal syphilis. We report 2 case-patients with maternal syphilis who were successfully treated without penicillin.

We used amoxicillin and probenecid for the first case-patient and amoxicillin, probenecid, and ceftriaxone for the second case-patient.


July 12, 2017 at 3:26 pm

SOMANZ guidelines for the investigation and management sepsis in pregnancy.

Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. July 3, 2017    

Bowyer L1, Robinson HL2, Barrett H3, Crozier TM4, Giles M5,6, Idel I7, Lowe S8, Lust K9, Marnoch CA10, Morton MR11, Said J12,13, Wong M14, Makris A15,16.

Author information

1 Maternal Fetal Medicine, Royal Hospital for Women, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

2 Department of Medicine, Ipswich Hospital, Ipswich, Queensland, Australia.

3 Department of Obstetric Medicine, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

4 Intensive Care, Monash Medical Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

5 Department of Infectious Diseases, Alfred Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

6 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

7 Department of Nephrology, Eastern Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

8 Royal Hospital for Women, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

9 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

10 Auckland District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand.

11 Women’s and Babies Division, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, North Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

12 Department of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Sunshine Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

13 Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

14 Department of Anaesthesia, Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

15 Department of Nephrology, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, New South Wales, Australia.

16 Department of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.


SOMANZ (Society of Obstetric Medicine Australia and New Zealand) has written a guideline to provide evidence-based guidance for the investigation and care of women with sepsis in pregnancy or the postpartum period.

The guideline is evidence-based and incorporates recent changes in the definition of sepsis. The etiology, investigation and treatment of bacterial, viral and non-infective causes of sepsis are discussed.

Obstetric considerations relevant to anaesthetic and intensive care treatment in sepsis are also addressed. A multi-disciplinary group of clinicians with experience in all aspects of the care of pregnant women have contributed to the development of the guidelines.

This is an executive summary of the guidelines.



July 11, 2017 at 3:42 pm

Revisión – Diagnóstico microbiológico de la infección bacteriana asociada al parto y puerperio

Enf Inf & Microb Clinica Mayo 2016 V.34 N.05 P.309-14

Belén Padilla-Ortega, Susana Delgado-Palacio, Fernando García-Garrote, Juan Miguel Rodríguez-Gómez, Beatriz Romero-Hernández

a Servicio de Microbiología Clínica y Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, España

b Departamento de Microbiología y Bioquímica de Productos Lácteos, Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias (IPLA)-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Villaviciosa, Asturias, España

c Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario «Lucus Augusti», Lugo, España

d Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, España

e Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, España

La infección en el recién nacido puede adquirirse a través del canal del parto por colonización materna, como la infección neonatal precoz por Streptococcus agalactiae, o por adquisición a través de la placenta, líquido amniótico o productos del parto.

Tras el parto, el recién nacido que precisa ingreso hospitalario puede adquirir infecciones nosocomiales durante su estancia y de forma excepcional, a través de la lactancia, por mastitis infecciosa o por incorrecta manipulación de la leche materna propia o donada de bancos de leche, lo que no obliga a suspender la lactancia en la mayoría de las ocasiones pero sí a establecer un tratamiento.

Por los motivos expuestos es necesario establecer un correcto diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones perinatales, especialmente relevantes en el recién nacido pretérmino de bajo o muy bajo peso con una elevada mortalidad.


February 11, 2017 at 7:23 pm

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