Posts filed under ‘Infecciones Gin/Obs’

Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections: epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and optimal management.

Infect Drug Resist. 2015 Jul 24;8:217-30.

O’Driscoll T1, Crank CW2.

Author information

1 Department of Pharmacy Practice, Chicago College of Pharmacy, Downers Grove, IL, USA.

2 Pharmacy Services, Rush-Copley Medical Center, Aurora, IL, USA.

Abstract

Since its discovery in England and France in 1986, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus has increasingly become a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide.

Enterococci are prolific colonizers, with tremendous genome plasticity and a propensity for persistence in hospital environments, allowing for increased transmission and the dissemination of resistance elements.

Infections typically present in immunosuppressed patients who have received multiple courses of antibiotics in the past.

Virulence is variable, and typical clinical manifestations include bacteremia, endocarditis, intra-abdominal and pelvic infections, urinary tract infections, skin and skin structure infections, and, rarely, central nervous system infections.

As enterococci are common colonizers, careful consideration is needed before initiating targeted therapy, and source control is first priority.

Current treatment options including linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and tigecycline have shown favorable activity against various vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus infections, but there is a lack of randomized controlled trials assessing their efficacy.

Clearer distinctions in preferred therapies can be made based on adverse effects, drug interactions, and pharmacokinetic profiles.

Although combination therapies and newer agents such as tedizolid, telavancin, dalbavancin, and oritavancin hold promise for the future treatment of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus infections, further studies are needed to assess their possible clinical impact, especially in the treatment of serious infections.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4521680/pdf/idr-8-217.pdf

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August 1, 2017 at 9:06 pm

Amoxicillin and Ceftriaxone as Treatment Alternatives to Penicillin for Maternal Syphilis.

Emerging Infectious Diseases. May 2017 V.23 N.5 P.827-829.

Katanami Y, Hashimoto T, Takaya S, Yamamoto K, Kutsuna S, Takeshita N, Hayakawa K, Kanagawa S, Ohmagari N.

Abstract

There is no proven alternative to penicillin for treatment of maternal syphilis. We report 2 case-patients with maternal syphilis who were successfully treated without penicillin.

We used amoxicillin and probenecid for the first case-patient and amoxicillin, probenecid, and ceftriaxone for the second case-patient.

PDF

https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/5/pdfs/16-1936.pdf

July 12, 2017 at 3:26 pm

SOMANZ guidelines for the investigation and management sepsis in pregnancy.

Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. July 3, 2017    

Bowyer L1, Robinson HL2, Barrett H3, Crozier TM4, Giles M5,6, Idel I7, Lowe S8, Lust K9, Marnoch CA10, Morton MR11, Said J12,13, Wong M14, Makris A15,16.

Author information

1 Maternal Fetal Medicine, Royal Hospital for Women, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

2 Department of Medicine, Ipswich Hospital, Ipswich, Queensland, Australia.

3 Department of Obstetric Medicine, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

4 Intensive Care, Monash Medical Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

5 Department of Infectious Diseases, Alfred Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

6 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

7 Department of Nephrology, Eastern Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

8 Royal Hospital for Women, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

9 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

10 Auckland District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand.

11 Women’s and Babies Division, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, North Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

12 Department of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Sunshine Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

13 Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

14 Department of Anaesthesia, Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

15 Department of Nephrology, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, New South Wales, Australia.

16 Department of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Abstract

SOMANZ (Society of Obstetric Medicine Australia and New Zealand) has written a guideline to provide evidence-based guidance for the investigation and care of women with sepsis in pregnancy or the postpartum period.

The guideline is evidence-based and incorporates recent changes in the definition of sepsis. The etiology, investigation and treatment of bacterial, viral and non-infective causes of sepsis are discussed.

Obstetric considerations relevant to anaesthetic and intensive care treatment in sepsis are also addressed. A multi-disciplinary group of clinicians with experience in all aspects of the care of pregnant women have contributed to the development of the guidelines.

This is an executive summary of the guidelines.

abstract

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ajo.12646/abstract

PDF

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ajo.12646/epdf

July 11, 2017 at 3:42 pm

Revisión – Diagnóstico microbiológico de la infección bacteriana asociada al parto y puerperio

Enf Inf & Microb Clinica Mayo 2016 V.34 N.05 P.309-14

Belén Padilla-Ortega, Susana Delgado-Palacio, Fernando García-Garrote, Juan Miguel Rodríguez-Gómez, Beatriz Romero-Hernández

a Servicio de Microbiología Clínica y Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, España

b Departamento de Microbiología y Bioquímica de Productos Lácteos, Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias (IPLA)-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Villaviciosa, Asturias, España

c Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario «Lucus Augusti», Lugo, España

d Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, España

e Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, España

La infección en el recién nacido puede adquirirse a través del canal del parto por colonización materna, como la infección neonatal precoz por Streptococcus agalactiae, o por adquisición a través de la placenta, líquido amniótico o productos del parto.

Tras el parto, el recién nacido que precisa ingreso hospitalario puede adquirir infecciones nosocomiales durante su estancia y de forma excepcional, a través de la lactancia, por mastitis infecciosa o por incorrecta manipulación de la leche materna propia o donada de bancos de leche, lo que no obliga a suspender la lactancia en la mayoría de las ocasiones pero sí a establecer un tratamiento.

Por los motivos expuestos es necesario establecer un correcto diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones perinatales, especialmente relevantes en el recién nacido pretérmino de bajo o muy bajo peso con una elevada mortalidad.

PDF

http://apps.elsevier.es/watermark/ctl_servlet?_f=10&pident_articulo=90452013&pident_usuario=0&pcontactid=&pident_revista=28&ty=24&accion=L&origen=zonadelectura&web=www.elsevier.es&lan=es&fichero=28v34n05a90452013pdf001.pdf

February 11, 2017 at 7:23 pm

Adjunctive azithromycin prophylaxis for cesarean delivery.

N Engl J Med 2016 Sep 29; 375:1231

Alan T.N. Tita, M.D., Ph.D., Jeff M. Szychowski, Ph.D., Kim Boggess, M.D., George Saade, M.D., Sherri Longo, M.D., Erin Clark, M.D., Sean Esplin, M.D., Kirsten Cleary, M.D., Ron Wapner, M.D., Kellett Letson, M.D., Michelle Owens, M.D., Adi Abramovici, M.D., Namasivayam Ambalavanan, M.D., Gary Cutter, Ph.D., and William Andrews, M.D., Ph.D., for the C/SOAP Trial Consortium*

BACKGROUND

The addition of azithromycin to standard regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis before cesarean delivery may further reduce the rate of postoperative infection. We evaluated the benefits and safety of azithromycin-based extended-spectrum prophylaxis in women undergoing nonelective cesarean section.

METHODS

In this trial conducted at 14 centers in the United States, we studied 2013 women who had a singleton pregnancy with a gestation of 24 weeks or more and who were undergoing cesarean delivery during labor or after membrane rupture. We randomly assigned 1019 to receive 500 mg of intravenous azithromycin and 994 to receive placebo. All the women were also scheduled to receive standard antibiotic prophylaxis. The primary outcome was a composite of endometritis, wound infection, or other infection occurring within 6 weeks.

RESULTS

The primary outcome occurred in 62 women (6.1%) who received azithromycin and in 119 (12.0%) who received placebo (relative risk, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.68; P<0.001). There were significant differences between the azithromycin group and the placebo group in rates of endometritis (3.8% vs. 6.1%, P=0.02), wound infection (2.4% vs. 6.6%, P<0.001), and serious maternal adverse events (1.5% vs. 2.9%, P=0.03). There was no significant between-group difference in a secondary neonatal composite outcome that included neonatal death and serious neonatal complications (14.3% vs. 13.6%, P=0.63).

CONCLUSIONS

Among women undergoing nonelective cesarean delivery who were all receiving standard antibiotic prophylaxis, extended-spectrum prophylaxis with adjunctive azithromycin was more effective than placebo in reducing the risk of postoperative infection. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; C/SOAP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01235546.)

PDF

http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa1602044

 

 

N Engl J Med 2016 Sep 29; 375:1284

Antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean delivery — when broader is better.

Weinstein RA and Boyer KM

Approximately 4 million babies are born each year in the United States. Of these infants, about a third are delivered by cesarean section. One of the many concerns about cesarean deliveries is the high risk of maternal infectious complications, which are 5 to 10 times more frequent than with vaginal deliveries.1 During cesarean delivery, the endometrial cavity and operative field may be seeded with pathogens, carried from the birth canal or the skin, that put mothers at risk for endometritis (incidence without prophylaxis, 4 to 18%) and of surgical-site infections (incidence without prophylaxis, 7 to 10%).2 To reduce these risks, prophylactic administration of an intravenous periprocedural antibiotic, usually cefazolin, is routinely recommended. Such an infusion reduces these rates by about half.3 Stringent adherence to infection-control protocols and broader antibiotic regimens might yield further reductions……

PDF

http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMe1610010

September 29, 2016 at 8:19 am

Pregnancy and infection.

N Engl J Med. 2014 Jun 5;370(23):2211-8.

Kourtis AP1, Read JS, Jamieson DJ.

Author information

1From the Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta (A.P.K., D.J.J.); and the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco (J.S.R.).

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4459512/pdf/nihms655977.pdf

April 24, 2016 at 2:12 pm

Mejora del diagnóstico de las infecciones por Chamydia trachomatis en la era molecular, una oportunidad para los sistemas de vigilancia

Enf Infecc & Microbiol. Clínica Diciembre 2015 V.33 N.10 P.639-41

Editorial

Juan Carlos Galán, Mario Rodríguez-Domínguez

PDF

http://apps.elsevier.es/watermark/ctl_servlet?_f=10&pident_articulo=90445472&pident_usuario=0&pcontactid=&pident_revista=28&ty=152&accion=L&origen=zonadelectura&web=www.elsevier.es&lan=es&fichero=28v33n10a90445472pdf001.pdf

 

 

Enf Infecc & Microbiol. Clínica Diciembre 2015 V.33 N.10 P.642-5

Comparación del kit CT OligoGen con el ensayo Cobas 4800 para la detección de Chlamydia trachomatis

Manuel Parra-Sánchez, Ana Marcuello-López, Silvia García-Rey, Ismail Zakariya-Yousef, Nieves Sivianes-Valdecantos, Celestina Sierra-Atienza, Samuel Bernal-Martínez, Isabel Pueyo-Rodrígez, Estrella Martín-Mazuelos, José Carlos Palomares-Folía

a Unit of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, Valme University Hospital, Seville, Spain

b Operon Inmuno & Molecular Diagnostics, Cuarte de Huerva, Zaragoza, Spain

c Center of Sexually Transmitted Infections of Seville, Seville, Spain

Introducción

Se diseñó un estudio prospectivo para evaluar las características del nuevo kit CT OligoGen en comparación con el test cobas 4800 para la detección de Chlamydia trachomatis.

Métodos

Se analizaron una serie de muestras que incluían orinas (n = 212), exudados endocervicales (n = 167), rectales (n = 53), faríngeos (n = 7) y uretrales (n = 3). Estas muestras provenían de un centro de infecciones de transmisión sexual (Sevilla) y pertenecían a 261 hombres y 181 mujeres. Los resultados discordantes se reanalizaron y revisaron historias clínicas y otras pruebas para resolverlas.

Resultados

Los valores de sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo (VPP) y negativo (VPN) y valor kappa para el kit CT OligoGen fue 98,5%, 100%, 100%, 95,4% and 0,97, respectivamente.

Conclusiones

Este nuevo kit tuvo una alta sensibilidad, especificidad, VPP y VPN para la detección de C. trachomatis, por lo que esta evaluación confirma su utilidad y fiabilidad.

PDF

http://apps.elsevier.es/watermark/ctl_servlet?_f=10&pident_articulo=90445473&pident_usuario=0&pcontactid=&pident_revista=28&ty=153&accion=L&origen=zonadelectura&web=www.elsevier.es&lan=en&fichero=28v33n10a90445473pdf001.pdf

 

March 28, 2016 at 8:39 am

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