Posts filed under ‘Infecciones intraabdominales’

Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of tigecycline for treatment of respiratory tract infections: systematic review of literature.

Rev Chilena Infectol. 2013 Dec;30(6):591-7.

Article in Spanish

Moya Cordero P, Ruiz-Aragón J, Molina Linde JM, Márquez-Peláez S, Motiva Sánchez V.



Tigecycline is indicated for the treatment of complicated skin infections, soft tissue and intraabdominal infections. Its use could be extended to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital pneumonia (HN). The objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tigecycline in the treatment of respiratory infections.


systematic review (2012). Databases used were MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CRD and WOK. We identified clinical trials of adults with respiratory infection, treated with tigecycline. The quality of the studies was assessed using CASPe checklist.


We selected four clinical trials of high-moderate quality. Three studies with patients with CAP and a trial with HN patients. In patients with CAP, efficacy of tigecycline (88.6 to 90.6%) was higher than levofloxacin (85.3 to 87.2%). The non inferiority testing was statistically significant (p < 0.001). In the study of patients with HN tigecycline showed an efficiency of 67.9% versus 78.2% for imipenem/cilastatin. Main adverse effects were gastrointestinal.


The efficacy of tigecycline is non inferior than levofloxacin in patients with CAP, but less than imipenem in patients with HN. Tigecycline demonstrates noninferiority versus others tested antibiotics, and it shows a good safety profile.



April 18, 2014 at 10:52 am

Damage control surgery for abdominal emergencies.

Br J Surg. 2014 Jan;101(1):e109-18.

Weber DG1, Bendinelli C, Balogh ZJ.
1Department of Traumatology, John Hunter Hospital and University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.
Damage control surgery is a management sequence initiated to reduce the risk of death in severely injured patients presenting with physiological derangement. Damage control principles have emerged as an approach in non-trauma abdominal emergencies in order to reduce mortality compared with primary definitive surgery.
A PubMed/MEDLINE literature review was conducted of data available over the past decade (up to August 2013) to gain information on current understanding of damage control surgery for abdominal surgical emergencies. Future directions for research are discussed.
Damage control surgery facilitates a strategy for life-saving intervention for critically ill patients by abbreviated laparotomy with subsequent reoperation for delayed definitive repair after physiological resuscitation. The six-phase strategy (including damage control resuscitation in phase 0) is similar to that for severely injured patients, although non-trauma indications include shock from uncontrolled haemorrhage or sepsis. Minimal evidence exists to validate the benefit of damage control surgery in general surgical abdominal emergencies. The collective published experience over the past decade is limited to 16 studies including a total of 455 (range 3-99) patients, of which the majority are retrospective case series. However, the concept has widespread acceptance by emergency surgeons, and appears a logical extension from pathophysiological principles in trauma to haemorrhage and sepsis. The benefits of this strategy depend on careful patient selection. Damage control surgery has been performed for a wide range of indications, but most frequently for uncontrolled bleeding during elective surgery, haemorrhage from complicated gastroduodenal ulcer disease, generalized peritonitis, acute mesenteric ischaemia and other sources of intra-abdominal sepsis.
Damage control surgery is employed in a wide range of abdominal emergencies and is an increasingly recognized life-saving tactic in emergency surgery performed on physiologically deranged patients.

March 26, 2014 at 3:52 pm

Clinical course of sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock in a cohort of infected patients from ten Colombian hospitals.

BMC Infect Dis. 2013 Jul 24;13:345.

León AL1, Hoyos NA, Barrera LI, De La Rosa G, Dennis R, Dueñas C, Granados M, Londoño D, Rodríguez FA, Molina FJ, Ortiz G, Jaimes FA.
1Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.
Sepsis has several clinical stages, and mortality rates are different for each stage. Our goal was to establish the evolution and the determinants of the progression of clinical stages, from infection to septic shock, over the first week, as well as their relationship to 7-day and 28-day mortality.
This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter cohort of inpatients hospitalized in general wards or intensive care units (ICUs). The general estimating equations (GEE) model was used to estimate the risk of progression and the determinants of stages of infection over the first week. Cox regression with time-dependent covariates and fixed covariates was used to determine the factors related with 7-day and 28-day mortality, respectively.
In 2681 patients we show that progression to severe sepsis and septic shock increases with intraabdominal and respiratory sources of infection [OR = 1,32; 95%IC = 1,20-1,46 and OR = 1.21, 95%CI = 1,11-1,33 respectively], as well as according to Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) [OR = 1,03; 95%CI = 1,02-1,03] and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) [OR = 1,16; 95%CI = 1,14-1,17] scores. The variables related with first-week mortality were progression to severe sepsis [HR = 2,13; 95%CI = 1,13-4,03] and septic shock [HR = 3,00; 95%CI = 1,50-5.98], respiratory source of infection [HR = 1,76; 95%IC = 1,12-2,77], APACHE II [HR = 1,07; 95% CI = 1,04-1,10] and SOFA [HR = 1,09; 95%IC = 1,04-1,15] scores.
Intraabdominal and respiratory sources of infection, independently of SOFA and APACHE II scores, increase the risk of clinical progression to more severe stages of sepsis; and these factors, together with progression of the infection itself, are the main determinants of 7-day and 28-day mortality.

March 26, 2014 at 3:50 pm

Appropriateness of empirical treatment and outcome in bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing bacteria.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Jul;57(7):3092-9.

Frakking FN1, Rottier WC, Dorigo-Zetsma JW, van Hattem JM, van Hees BC, Kluytmans JA, Lutgens SP, Prins JM, Thijsen SF, Verbon A, Vlaminckx BJ, Cohen Stuart JW, Leverstein-van Hall MA, Bonten MJ.
1Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
We studied clinical characteristics, appropriateness of initial antibiotic treatment, and other factors associated with day 30 mortality in patients with bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in eight Dutch hospitals.

Retrospectively, information was collected from 232 consecutive patients with ESBL bacteremia (due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae) between 2008 and 2010.

In this cohort (median age of 65 years; 24 patients were <18 years of age), many had comorbidities, such as malignancy (34%) or recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) (15%). One hundred forty episodes (60%) were nosocomial, 54 (23%) were otherwise health care associated, and 38 (16%) were community acquired.

The most frequent sources of infection were UTI (42%) and intra-abdominal infection (28%). Appropriate therapy within 24 h after bacteremia onset was prescribed to 37% of all patients and to 54% of known ESBL carriers. The day 30 mortality rate was 20%. In a multivariable analysis, a Charlson comorbidity index of ≥ 3, an age of ≥ 75 years, intensive care unit (ICU) stay at bacteremia onset, a non-UTI bacteremia source, and presentation with severe sepsis, but not inappropriate therapy within <24 h (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 3.45), were associated with day 30 mortality.

Further assessment of confounding and a stratified analysis for patients with UTI and non-UTI origins of infection did not reveal a statistically significant effect of inappropriate therapy on day 30 mortality, and these results were insensitive to the possible misclassification of patients who had received β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations or ceftazidime as initial treatment.

In conclusion, ESBL bacteremia occurs mostly in patients with comorbidities requiring frequent hospitalization, and 84% of episodes were health care associated. Factors other than inappropriate therapy within <24 h determined day 30 mortality.

March 26, 2014 at 3:47 pm

Inoculum effect on the efficacies of amoxicillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and non-ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in an experimental murine sepsis model.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 May;57(5):2109-13.
Docobo-Pérez F1, López-Cerero L, López-Rojas R, Egea P, Domínguez-Herrera J, Rodríguez-Baño J, Pascual A, Pachón J.
1Institute of Biomedicine of Seville, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío/CSIC/University of Seville, Seville, Spain.
Escherichia coli is commonly involved in infections with a heavy bacterial burden. Piperacillin-tazobactam and carbapenems are among the recommended empirical treatments for health care-associated complicated intra-abdominal infections.

In contrast to amoxicillin-clavulanate, both have reduced in vitro activity in the presence of high concentrations of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and non-ESBL-producing E. coli bacteria. Our goal was to compare the efficacy of these antimicrobials against different concentrations of two clinical E. coli strains, one an ESBL-producer and the other a non-ESBL-producer, in a murine sepsis model.

An experimental sepsis model {~5.5 log10 CFU/g [low inoculum concentration (LI)] or ~7.5 log(10) CFU/g [high inoculum concentration (HI)]} using E. coli strains ATCC 25922 (non-ESBL producer) and Ec1062 (CTX-M-14 producer), which are susceptible to the three antimicrobials, was used.

Amoxicillin-clavulanate (50/12.5 mg/kg given intramuscularly [i.m.]), piperacillin-tazobactam (25/3.125 mg/kg given intraperitoneally [i.p.]), and imipenem (30 mg/kg i.m.) were used. Piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem reduced spleen ATCC 25922 strain concentrations (-2.53 and -2.14 log10 CFU/g [P < 0.05, respectively]) in the HI versus LI groups, while amoxicillin-clavulanate maintained its efficacy (-1.01 log10 CFU/g [no statistically significant difference]).

Regarding the Ec1062 strain, the antimicrobials showed lower efficacy in the HI than in the LI groups: -0.73, -1.89, and -1.62 log10 CFU/g (P < 0.05, for piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively, although imipenem and amoxicillin-clavulanate were more efficacious than piperacillin-tazobactam). An adapted imipenem treatment (based on the time for which the serum drug concentration remained above the MIC obtained with a HI of the ATCC 25922 strain) improved its efficacy to -1.67 log10 CFU/g (P < 0.05).

These results suggest that amoxicillin-clavulanate could be an alternative to imipenem treatment of infections caused by ESBL- and non-ESBL-producing E. coli strains in patients with therapeutic failure with piperacillin-tazobactam.

March 26, 2014 at 3:44 pm

Diagnosis and management of complicated intra-abdominal infection in adults and children: guidelines by the Surgical Infection Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

Clin Infect Dis 2010 Jan 15; 50(2) :133-64.

Solomkin JS, Mazuski JE, Bradley JS, et al.

Department of Surgery, the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0558, USA.

Evidence-based guidelines for managing patients with intra-abdominal infection were prepared by an Expert Panel of the Surgical Infection Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

These updated guidelines replace those previously published in 2002 and 2003. The guidelines are intended for treating patients who either have these infections or may be at risk for them.

New information, based on publications from the period 2003-2008, is incorporated into this guideline document. The panel has also added recommendations for managing intra-abdominal infection in children, particularly where such management differs from that of adults; for appendicitis in patients of all ages; and for necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates.



March 22, 2014 at 7:34 pm

A case report of Mycobacterium avium complex peritonitis in an AIDS patient.

Case Rep Infect Dis. 2013;2013:590478.

Negatu Y1, Mekonen E.

Author information

1Department of Medicine, Howard University Hospital, 2041 Georgia Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20060, USA.


Peritonitis due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is uncommon. The risk for MAC in AIDS patients is greatest in those with severely depressed CD4 count.

The organs most commonly involved in disseminated MAC infection include spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and intestines. The involvement of peritoneum by MAC infection is rare.

This is a case of MAC peritonitis in a 26-year-old female AIDS patient who is noncompliant to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This patient presented with abdominal pain and distension, anorexia, diarrhea, and cough.

She was treated with rifabutin, clarithromycin, and ethambutol along with atovaquone for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis and so the patient’s condition improved.

MAC peritonitis should be considered in a patient presenting with nonspecific abdominal symptoms in the setting of AIDS and low CD4 count.



March 16, 2014 at 5:43 pm

Complete restriction of fluoroquinolone use to control an outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection at a community hospital.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009 Mar;30(3):264-72.

Kallen AJ1, Thompson A, Ristaino P, Chapman L, Nicholson A, Sim BT, Lessa F, Sharapov U, Fadden E, Boehler R, Gould C, Limbago B, Blythe D, McDonald LC.

Author information

1Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.



To review the effect of interventions, including a complete restriction in the use of fluoroquinolones (FQs), used to control an outbreak of hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI) caused primarily by the epidemic North American pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1 strain.


Retrospective cohort and case-control study of all episodes of HO-CDI both before and after 2 interventions.


Community hospital; January 1, 2005, through March 31, 2007. Interventions. Complete, 5-month, facility-wide restriction of fluoroquinolone use, during which a change in the environmental-services contractor occurred.


During a 27-month period, 319 episodes of HO-CDI occurred. The hospital-wide mean defined daily doses of antimicrobials decreased 22% after restricting FQ use, primarily because of a 66% decrease in the use of FQs. The interventions were also associated with a significant change in the HO-CDI incidence trends and with an absolute decrease of 22% in HO-CDI cases caused by the epidemic strain (from 66% before the intervention period to 44% during and after the intervention period; P=.02). Univariate analysis revealed that case patients with HO-CDI due to the epidemic strain were more likely than control patients, who did not have diarrhea, to receive a FQ, whereas case patients with HO-CDI due to a nonepidemic strain were not. However, FQ use was not significantly associated with HO-CDI in multivariable analysis.


An outbreak of epidemic-strain HO-CDI was controlled at a community hospital after an overall decrease in antimicrobial use, primarily because of a restriction of FQ use and a change in environmental-services contractors. The restriction of FQ use may be useful as an adjunct control measure in a healthcare facilities during outbreaks of epidemic-strain HO-CDI.


March 12, 2014 at 12:54 pm

The efficacy and safety of tigecycline for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections: analysis of pooled clinical trial data.

Clin Infect Dis 2005 Sep 1.:S354-67.

Babinchak T, Ellis-Grosse E, Dartois N, et al.

Medical Research Group, Wyeth Research, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.

This pooled analysis includes 2 phase 3, double-blind trials designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of tigecycline, versus that of imipenem-cilastatin, in 1642 adults with complicated intra-abdominal infections.

Patients were randomized to receive either tigecycline (initial dose of 100 mg, followed by 50 mg intravenously every 12 h) or imipenem-cilastatin (500/500 mg intravenously every 6 h) for 5-14 days.

The primary end point was the clinical response at the test-of-cure visit (12-42 days after therapy) in the co-primary end point microbiologically evaluable and microbiological modified intent-to-treat populations.

For the microbiologically evaluable group, clinical cure rates were 86.1% (441/512) for tigecycline, versus 86.2% (442/513) for imipenem-cilastatin (95% confidence interval for the difference, -4.5% to 4.4%; P < .0001 for noninferiority).

Clinical cure rates in the microbiological modified intent-to-treat population were 80.2% (506/631) for tigecycline, versus 81.5% (514/631) for imipenem-cilastatin (95% confidence interval for the difference, -5.8% to 3.2%; P < .0001 for noninferiority).

Nausea (24.4% tigecycline, 19.0% imipenem-cilastatin [P = .01]), vomiting (19.2% tigecycline, 14.3% imipenem-cilastatin [P = .008]), and diarrhea (13.8% tigecycline, 13.2% imipenem-cilastatin [P = .719]) were the most frequently reported adverse events.

This pooled analysis demonstrates that tigecycline was efficacious and well tolerated in the treatment of patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections.


March 4, 2014 at 9:59 am

The Alvarado score for predicting acute appendicitis: a systematic review.

BMC Med 2011.:139.

Ohle R, O’Reilly F, O’Brien KK, et al.

HRB Centre for Primary Care Research, Division of Population Health Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123 St. Stephen’s Green, Dublin 2, Ireland.


The Alvarado score can be used to stratify patients with symptoms of suspected appendicitis; the validity of the score in certain patient groups and at different cut points is still unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the discrimination (diagnostic accuracy) and calibration performance of the Alvarado score.


A systematic search of validation studies in Medline, Embase, DARE and The Cochrane library was performed up to April 2011. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the score at the two cut-off points: score of 5 (1 to 4 vs. 5 to 10) and score of 7 (1 to 6 vs. 7 to 10). Calibration was analysed across low (1 to 4), intermediate (5 to 6) and high (7 to 10) risk strata. The analysis focused on three sub-groups: men, women and children.


Forty-two studies were included in the review. In terms of diagnostic accuracy, the cut-point of 5 was good at ‘ruling out’ admission for appendicitis (sensitivity 99% overall, 96% men, 99% woman, 99% children). At the cut-point of 7, recommended for ‘ruling in’ appendicitis and progression to surgery, the score performed poorly in each subgroup (specificity overall 81%, men 57%, woman 73%, children 76%). The Alvarado score is well calibrated in men across all risk strata (low RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.28; intermediate 1.09, 0.86 to 1.37 and high 1.02, 0.97 to 1.08). The score over-predicts the probability of appendicitis in children in the intermediate and high risk groups and in women across all risk strata.


The Alvarado score is a useful diagnostic ‘rule out’ score at a cut point of 5 for all patient groups. The score is well calibrated in men, inconsistent in children and over-predicts the probability of appendicitis in women across all strata of risk.


February 3, 2014 at 2:04 pm

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