Posts filed under ‘Infecciones intraabdominales’
Rev Chilena Infectol. 2013 Aug;30(4):417-25.
[Article in Spanish]
Sedano R1, Fica A, Guiñez D, Braun S, Porte L, Dabanch J, Weitzel T, Soto A.
1Departamento de Medicina, Hospital Militar de Santiago, Santiago, Chile.
Listeria monocytogenes infections have been poorly characterized in Chile.
To evaluate clinical manifestations and risk factors associated to a fatal outcome in a series of patients.
retrospective analysis of cases from 1991 to 2012.
Twenty three cases were identified, including 2 diagnosed after prolonged hospitalization (8.7%) with an average age of 68.4 years (range 44-90). Known predisposing factors were age > 65 years (60.9%), diabetes mellitus (40.9%), and immunosuppression (27.3%). Most cases presented after 2003 (70%). No cases associated with neonates, pregnancy or HIV infections were recorded. Patients presented with central nervous system (CNS) infection (39%), including 8 cases of meningitis and one of rhomboencephalitis; bacteremia (43.5%), including one case with endocarditis; abscesses (8.7%); and other infections (spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and pneumonia; 8.7%). Risky food consumption was found in 80% of those asked about it. Predominant clinical manifestations were fever (90.9%), and confusion (63.6%). CNS infections were associated to headache (OR 21, p < 0.05), nausea and vomiting (OR 50, p < 0.01). Only 45.5% received initial appropriate empirical therapy and 36.4% a synergistic combination. Eight patients died (34.8%), this outcome was associated to bacteremia (OR 8.25; IC95 1.2-59 p < 0.05).
monocytogenes infections appear to be increasing in Chile, causing infections in different sites, attacking vulnerable patients, and have a high case-fatality ratio, especially among those with bacteremia.
β-Lactamase Characterization of Gram-Negative Pathogens Recovered from Patients Enrolled in the Phase 2 Trials for Ceftazidime-Avibactam: Clinical Efficacies Analyzed against Subsets of Molecularly Characterized Isolates
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy March 2016 V.60 N.3 P.1328-1335
Rodrigo E. Mendes, Mariana Castanheira, Leanne Gasink, Gregory G. Stone, Wright W. Nichols, Robert K. Flamm, and Ronald N. Jones
aJMI Laboratories, North Liberty, Iowa, USA
bAstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA
The correlation of the clinical efficacies of ceftazidime-avibactam and comparators (carbapenems) was evaluated against baseline Gram-negative isolates having characterized β-lactam resistance mechanisms from complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) and complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI) phase 2 trials. Enterobacteriaceae displaying ceftriaxone and/or ceftazidime MICs of ≥2 μg/ml (69 isolates) and nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB [three isolates]) with ceftazidime MICs of ≥16 μg/ml were characterized for their narrow- and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) content. Enterobacteriaceae (one isolate) and NF-GNB (three isolates) with imipenem/meropenem MICs of ≥2 and ≥16 μg/ml, respectively, were tested for carbapenemases. All cUTI E. coli had the lineage background investigated (ST131-like versus non-ST131-like). The primary efficacy endpoint was microbiological response (eradication) at test of cure (TOC) for cUTI and clinical response (inferred microbiological eradication) at TOC for cIAI. A total of 34.1% of baseline cUTI (36.4%) and cIAI (33.1%) pathogens met the MIC-based screening criteria (screen positive). All screen-positive cUTI pathogens were CTX-M-producing E. coli, except for one E. cloacae isolate with AmpC overexpression. The majority (66.7%) of screen-positive cIAI isolates produced CTX-M-type coupled with a diverse array of other β-lactamases. Similar favorable responses were observed with ceftazidime-avibactam (93.3%) and carbapenems (90.9%), when a non-ESBL Enterobacteriaceae isolate was recovered at the baseline visit. When an ESBL Enterobacteriaceae isolate was present, the favorable responses were 85.7% and 80.0% with ceftazidime-avibactam and carbapenems, respectively. Higher favorable responses were observed with ceftazidime-avibactam (75.0%) than with carbapenems (66.7%) when an ST131-like E. coli isolate was recovered at baseline, as when a non-ST131-like isolate was present (93.8% versus 86.7%, respectively). The efficacy of ceftazidime-avibactam was similar to that of carbapenems for treatment of cUTI and cIAI caused by ESBL organisms.
Profile of ceftolozane/tazobactam and its potential in the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections.
Drug Des Devel Ther. 2015 Jun 4;9:2919-25.
1Department of Medicine, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA ; Department of Biochemistry, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA.
Drug-resistant pathogens have gained a foothold especially in the most vulnerable patient populations, hospitalized and immunocompromised individuals. Furthermore, extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing organisms are finding their way even into the community, with patients presenting to the hospital with established colonization and infection with resistant Enterobacteriaceae in particular. Recently, a novel antipseudomonal cephalosporin in combination with an established Class A β-lactamase inhibitor, ceftolozane/tazobactam has been approved by the FDA for use in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections. Ceftolozane is a uniquely potent antipseudomonal cephalosporin because of its high affinity for the penicillin-binding proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, its low affinity for the intrinsic Class C β-lactamases of P. aeruginosa, its ability to enter P. aeruginosa through the outer membrane without the utilization of OprD protein, and the fact that it is not a substrate of the often upregulated MexAB/OprM efflux system of P. aeruginosa. The biological chemistry, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, microbiologic spectrum, and clinical trials that led to the approval of ceftolozane is reviewed. A discussion regarding its potential role in the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and other infectious disease syndromes associated with drug-resistant pathogens follows.
Ceftolozane/Tazobactam Plus Metronidazole for Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections in an Era of Multidrug Resistance: Results From a Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase 3 Trial (ASPECT-cIAI).
Clin Infect Dis. 2015 May 15;60(10):1462-71.
Solomkin J1, Hershberger E2, Miller B2, Popejoy M2, Friedland I2, Steenbergen J2, Yoon M2, Collins S2, Yuan G2, Barie PS3, Eckmann C4.
1Department of Surgery, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio.
2Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Lexington, Massachusetts.
3Departments of Surgery and Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.
4Department of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, Academic Hospital of Medical University Hannover, Peine, Germany.
Increasing antimicrobial resistance among pathogens causing complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) supports the development of new antimicrobials. Ceftolozane/tazobactam, a novel antimicrobial therapy, is active against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and most extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae.
ASPECT-cIAI (Assessment of the Safety Profile and Efficacy of Ceftolozane/Tazobactam in Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections) was a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. Hospitalized patients with cIAI received either ceftolozane/tazobactam (1.5 g) plus metronidazole (500 mg) every 8 hours or meropenem (1 g) every 8 hours intravenously for 4-14 days. The prospectively defined objectives were to demonstrate statistical noninferiority in clinical cure rates at the test-of-cure visit (24-32 days from start of therapy) in the microbiological intent-to-treat (primary) and microbiologically evaluable (secondary) populations using a noninferiority margin of 10%. Microbiological outcomes and safety were also evaluated.
Ceftolozane/tazobactam plus metronidazole was noninferior to meropenem in the primary (83.0% [323/389] vs 87.3% [364/417]; weighted difference, -4.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -8.91 to .54) and secondary (94.2% [259/275] vs 94.7% [304/321]; weighted difference, -1.0%; 95% CI, -4.52 to 2.59) endpoints, meeting the prespecified noninferiority margin. In patients with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, clinical cure rates were 95.8% (23/24) and 88.5% (23/26) in the ceftolozane/tazobactam plus metronidazole and meropenem groups, respectively, and 100% (13/13) and 72.7% (8/11) in patients with CTX-M-14/15 ESBLs. The frequency of adverse events (AEs) was similar in both treatment groups (44.0% vs 42.7%); the most common AEs in either group were nausea and diarrhea.
Treatment with ceftolozane/tazobactam plus metronidazole was noninferior to meropenem in adult patients with cIAI, including infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens.
CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT01445665 and NCT01445678.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2013 Summer;24(2):e45-6.
Bonenfant F1, Rousseau E1, Farand P1.
1Internal medicine division, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec.
Abstractin English, French
A previously healthy 58-year-old man presented with a septic thrombosis of the right hepatic vein and a pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) one week after undergoing a screening colonoscopy. Blood cultures and a radiological drainage specimen were both positive for Streptococcus anginosus. Evolution was favourable after six weeks of antibiotherapy. To the authors’ knowledge, the present report is the first to describe a PLA following a screening colonoscopy with no intervention. The authors hypothesize that silent microperforations during colonoscopy contributed to the infection. Although 20% to 40% of reported PLA cases are cryptogenic in the literature, it may be because of failure to recognize and report a precipitating factor such as colonoscopy. As more cases similar to the present case are reported, the number of cryptogenic cases may decrease.
Case Rep Infect Dis. 2014;2014:954046.
Livingston LV1, Perez-Colon E1.
1Department of Internal Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, 17 Davis Boulevard, Suite 308, Tampa, FL 33606, USA.
Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group of bacteria. This group is part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts; however, they have been known to cause a variety of purulent infections including meningitis, endocarditis, and abscesses, even in immunocompetent hosts. In particular, S. intermedius has been associated with the development of liver and brain abscesses. There have been several case reports of S. intermedius liver abscesses with active periodontal infection. To our knowledge, however, there has not been a case following a routine dental procedure. In fact, the development of liver abscesses secondary to dental procedures is very rare in general, and there are only a few case reports in the literature describing this in relation to any pathogen. We present a rare case of S. intermedius bacteremia and liver abscess following a dental cleaning. This case serves to further emphasize that even routine dental procedures can place a patient at risk of the development of bacteremia and liver abscesses. For this reason, the clinician must be sure to perform a detailed history and careful examination. Timely diagnosis of pyogenic liver abscesses is vital, as they are typically fatal if left untreated.
JSLS. 2015 Jul-Sep;19(3). pii: e2015.00065.
Lachiewicz MP, Moulton LJ, Jaiyeoba O.
Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication of hysterectomy. Minimally invasive hysterectomy has lower infection rates than abdominal hysterectomy. The lower SSI rates reflect the role and benefit in infection control of having minimal incisions, rather than a large anterior abdominal wall incision. Despite the lower rates, SSI after laparoscopic hysterectomy is not uncommon.In this article, we review pre-, intra-, and postoperative risk factors for infection. Rates of postoperative fever after laparoscopic hysterectomy and when evaluation for infection is warranted in a febrile patient are also reviewed.
PubMed was searched for English-only articles using National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings(MESH) terms and keywords including but not limited to “postoperative,” “surgical site,” “infection,” “fever,” “laparoscopic,” “laparoscopy,” and “hysterectomy.”
Reducing hospital-acquired infections such as SSI is one of the more effective ways of improving patient safety. Knowledge and understanding of risk factors for infection following laparoscopic hysterectomy enable the gynecologic surgeon or hospital to implement targeted preventive measures.