Posts filed under ‘Infecciones intraabdominales’

2019-11 Hospital-Acquired Infections in New York State, 2018 –  N York State Department of Health 24 Pags

Contents

Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

Surgical Site Infections (SSIs)………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4

Catheter-Associated Infections ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5

Laboratory-identified (LabID) infections………………………………………………………………………………………. 6

Clostridioides difficile Infections (CDI)……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) Infections………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections………………………………………………………………………………………. 9

Hospital Performance …………………………………………………………………………………………………………10

Role of the State Health Department…………………………………………………………………………………….23

What Patients Can do to Prevent Infections………………………………………………………………………………………..24

PDF

https://www.health.ny.gov/statistics/facilities/hospital/hospital_acquired_infections/2018/docs/hospital_acquired_infection_p1.pdf

November 20, 2019 at 7:11 am

REVIEW – New agents for the treatment of infections with Gram-negative bacteria: restoring the miracle or false dawn?

Clin Microbiol Infect. October 2017 V.23 N.10 P.704-712.

Wright H1, Bonomo RA2, Paterson DL3.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative resistance has developed without a commensurate response in the successful development of antibiotic agents, though recent progress has been made.

AIMS:

This review aims to provide a summary of the existing evidence on efficacy, spectrum of activity and the development of resistance of new agents that have been licensed or have completed advanced clinical trials and that possess activity against resistant Gram-negative organisms.

SOURCES:

A review of the published literature via MEDLINE database was performed. Relevant clinical trials were identified with the aid of the clinicaltrials.gov registry. Further data were ascertained from review of abstracts from recent international meetings and pharmaceutical companies.

CONTENT:

Data on the mechanism of action, microbiological spectrum, clinical efficacy and development of resistance are reported for new agents that have activity against Gram-negative organisms. This includes the β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations ceftazidime/avibactam, ceftolozane/tazobactam, imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam, meropenem/vaborbactam and aztreonam/avibactam; cefiderocol, a siderophore cephalosporin; plazomicin and eravacycline.

IMPLICATIONS:

The development of new agents with activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens has provided important therapeutic options for clinicians. Polymyxins appear to have been supplanted by new agents as first-line therapy for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producers. Cefiderocol and ceftazidime/avibactam/aztreonam are promising options for metallo-β-lactamase producers, and cefiderocol and ceftolozane/tazobactam for multiply resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but definitive data showing clinical efficacy is as yet lacking. Reports of the development of resistance early after the release and use of new agents is of concern. Orally administered options and agents active effective against Acinetobacter baumannii are under-represented in clinical development.

FULL TEXT

https://www.clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com/article/S1198-743X(17)30495-0/fulltext

PDF

https://www.clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com/article/S1198-743X(17)30495-0/pdf

July 21, 2019 at 2:43 pm

Group B Streptococcus in surgical site and non-invasive bacterial infections worldwide: A systematic review and meta-analysis

International Journal of Infectious Diseases June 2019 V.83 P.116-129

Simon M. Collin, Nandini Shetty, Rebecca Guy, Victoria N. Nyaga, Ann Bull, Michael J. Richards, Tjallie I.I. van der Kooi, Mayke B.G. Koek, Mary De Almeida, Sally A. Roberts, Theresa Lamagni

Highlights

  • This review obtained data on group B Streptococcus infection from 67 countries.
  • Group B Streptococcus is implicated in a small proportion of non-invasive infections.
  • Group B Streptococcus causes 10% of caesarean section invasive surgical infections.

Objectives

The epidemiology of disease caused by group B Streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) outside pregnancy and the neonatal period is poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to quantify the role of GBS as a cause of surgical site and non-invasive infections at all ages.

Methods

A systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42017068914) and meta-analysis of GBS as a proportion (%) of bacterial isolates from surgical site infection (SSI), skin/soft tissue infection (SSTI), urinary tract infection (UTI), and respiratory tract infection (RTI) was conducted.

Results

Seventy-four studies and data sources were included, covering 67 countries. In orthopaedic surgery, GBS accounted for 0.37% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08–1.68%), 0.87% (95% CI 0.33–2.28%), and 1.46% (95% CI 0.49–4.29%) of superficial, deep, and organ/space SSI, respectively. GBS played a more significant role as a cause of post-caesarean section SSI, detected in 2.92% (95% CI 1.51–5.55%), 1.93% (95% CI 0.97–3.81%), and 9.69% (95% CI 6.72–13.8%) of superficial, deep, and organ/space SSI. Of the SSTI isolates, 1.89% (95% CI 1.16–3.05%) were GBS. The prevalence of GBS in community and hospital UTI isolates was 1.61% (1.13–2.30%) and 0.73% (0.43–1.23%), respectively. GBS was uncommonly associated with RTI, accounting for 0.35% (95% CI 0.19–0.63%) of community and 0.27% (95% CI 0.15–0.48%) of hospital RTI isolates.

Conclusions

GBS is implicated in a small proportion of surgical site and non-invasive infections, but a substantial proportion of invasive SSI post-caesarean section.

FULL TEXT

https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(19)30187-0/fulltext

PDF

https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(19)30187-0/pdf

 

 

June 30, 2019 at 12:21 pm

Review – Clostridium difficile infection.

European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. June 2019 V.38 N.7

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacillus, which is widely distributed in the intestinal tract of humans and animals and in the environment.

In the last decade, the frequency and severity of C. difficile infection has been increasing worldwide to become one of the most common hospital-acquired infections. Transmission of this pathogen occurs by the fecal-oral route and the most important risk factors include antibiotic therapy, old age, and hospital or nursing home stay.

The clinical picture is diverse and ranges from asymptomatic carrier status, through various degrees of diarrhea, to the most severe, life threatening colitis resulting with death. Diagnosis is based on direct detection of C. difficile toxins in feces, most commonly with the use of EIA assay, but no single test is suitable as a stand-alone test confirming CDI.

Antibiotics of choice are vancomycin, fidaxomicin, and metronidazole, though metronidazole is considered as inferior. The goal of this review is to update physicians on current scientific knowledge of C. difficile infection, focusing also on fecal microbiota transplantation which is a promising therapy.

FULL TEXT

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10096-019-03539-6?wt_mc=alerts.TOCjournals&utm_source=toc&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=toc_10096_38_7

PDF

https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10096-019-03539-6.pdf

June 20, 2019 at 7:04 pm

A Laboratory Medicine Best Practices Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) and Algorithms Including NAATs for the Diagnosis of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile in Adults

Clinical Microbiololy Reviwes July 2019 V.32 N.3

The evidence base for the optimal laboratory diagnosis of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile in adults is currently unresolved due to the uncertain performance characteristics and various combinations of tests. This systematic review evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of laboratory testing algorithms that include nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) to detect the presence of C. difficile. The systematic review and meta-analysis included eligible studies (those that had PICO [population, intervention, comparison, outcome] elements) that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of NAAT alone or following glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) or GDH EIAs plus C. difficile toxin EIAs (toxin). The diagnostic yield of NAAT for repeat testing after an initial negative result was also assessed. Two hundred thirty-eight studies met inclusion criteria. Seventy-two of these studies had sufficient data for meta-analysis. The strength of evidence ranged from high to insufficient. The uses of NAAT only, GDH-positive EIA followed by NAAT, and GDH-positive/toxin-negative EIA followed by NAAT are all recommended as American Society for Microbiology (ASM) best practices for the detection of the C. difficile toxin gene or organism. Meta-analysis of published evidence supports the use of testing algorithms that use NAAT alone or in combination with GDH or GDH plus toxin EIA to detect the presence of C. difficile in adults. There is insufficient evidence to recommend against repeat testing of the sample using NAAT after an initial negative result due to a lack of evidence of harm (i.e., financial, length of stay, or delay of treatment) as specified by the Laboratory Medicine Best Practices (LMBP) systematic review method in making such an assessment. Findings from this systematic review provide clarity to diagnostic testing strategies and highlight gaps, such as low numbers of GDH/toxin/PCR studies, in existing evidence on diagnostic performance, which can be used to guide future clinical research studies.

FULL TEXT

https://cmr.asm.org/content/32/3/e00032-18.abstract?etoc

PDF

https://cmr.asm.org/content/cmr/32/3/e00032-18.full.pdf

June 19, 2019 at 2:57 pm

Antibiotics for operative vaginal delivery –  practice-changing data

LANCET June 15, 2019 V.393 N.10189 P.2361-2362

COMMENT

Antibiotics for operative vaginal delivery –  practice-changing data

The large randomised controlled trial on the effect of antibiotics to prevent infection after operative vaginal delivery by Marian Knight and colleagues1 in The Lancet is practice changing. Operative vaginal deliveries include either vacuum or forceps, and are used in about 2–15% of births.2 Even if one conservatively estimates 2% of babies are born by operative vaginal delivery globally, about 2 700 000 of the world’s 135 million annual births are operative vaginal deliveries. Up to 16% of these births can be associated with infection without antibiotics prophylaxis,3 representing about 432 000 annual infections associated with operative vaginal delivery worldwide……

FULL TEXT

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(19)30845-1/fulltext?dgcid=raven_jbs_etoc_email

PDF

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2819%2930845-1

 

LANCET June 15, 2019 V.393 N.10189 P.2395-2403

ARTICLES

Prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of infection after operative vaginal delivery (ANODE): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

Background

Risk factors for maternal infection are clearly recognised, including caesarean section and operative vaginal birth. Antibiotic prophylaxis at caesarean section is widely recommended because there is clear systematic review evidence that it reduces incidence of maternal infection. Current WHO guidelines do not recommend routine antibiotic prophylaxis for women undergoing operative vaginal birth because of insufficient evidence of effectiveness. We aimed to investigate whether antibiotic prophylaxis prevented maternal infection after operative vaginal birth.

Methods

In a blinded, randomised controlled trial done at 27 UK obstetric units, women (aged ≥16 years) were allocated to receive a single dose of intravenous amoxicillin and clavulanic acid or placebo (saline) following operative vaginal birth at 36 weeks gestation or later. The primary outcome was confirmed or suspected maternal infection within 6 weeks of delivery defined by a new prescription of antibiotics for specific indications, confirmed systemic infection on culture, or endometritis. We did an intention-to-treat analysis. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number 11166984, and is closed to accrual.

Findings

Between March 13, 2016, and June 13, 2018, 3427 women were randomly assigned to treatment: 1719 to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, and 1708 to placebo. Seven women withdrew, leaving 1715 in the amoxicillin and clavulanic acid group and 1705 in the placebo groups. Primary outcome data were missing for 195 (6%) women. Significantly fewer women allocated to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid had a confirmed or suspected infection (180 [11%] of 1619) than women allocated to placebo (306 [19%] of 1606; risk ratio 0·58, 95% CI 0·49–0·69; p<0·0001). One woman in the placebo group reported a skin rash and two women in the amoxicillin and clavulanic acid reported other allergic reactions, one of which was reported as a serious adverse event. Two other serious adverse events were reported, neither was considered causally related to the treatment.

Interpretation

This trial shows benefit of a single dose of prophylactic antibiotic after operative vaginal birth and guidance from WHO and other national organisations should be changed to reflect this.

Funding

NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme.

FULL TEXT

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(19)30773-1/fulltext?dgcid=raven_jbs_etoc_email

PDF

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2819%2930773-1

June 14, 2019 at 3:54 pm

Outcomes of Community and Healthcare-onset Clostridium difficile Infections

Clinical Infectious Diseases April 15, 2019 V.68 N.8 P.1343-1350  

EDITOR’S CHOICE

Between 2011 and 2014, of the Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) cases in the Veterans Health Administration system, 44% were hospital-onset and 42% were community-onset (CO). CDI prevention efforts should include interventions to reduce CO CDIs.

Background

Community-onset Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are increasingly common, but there is little data on outcomes. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of CDI in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system and compare these variables between hospital-onset (HCF) and community-onset (CO) cases.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective cohort study that included all patients with a positive test for C. difficile (toxin or toxin genes) within the VHA Corporate Data Warehouse between 2011 and 2014.

Results

We identified 19270 episodes of CDI, involving 15972 unique patients; 95% were male, 44% of the cases were HCF, and 42% were CO. Regarding severity, 31% percent of cases were non-severe, 40% were severe, and 21% were fulminant. Exposure to proton pump inhibitors was found in 53% of cases (47% in CO, 62% in HCF). Overall, 40% of patients received antibiotics in the 90 days before CDI (44% in HCF, 36% in CO). Recurrence was 18.2%, and 30-day all-cause mortality was 9.2%. Risk factors for a fulminant case were exposure to clindamycin (odds ratio [OR]: 1.23, P = .01) or proton pump inhibitors (OR: 1.20, P < .001)  in the 90 days prior to diagnosis.

Conclusions

CO accounts for a significant proportion of CDI in the VHA system. CO patients are younger and their cases are less severe, but recurrence is more common than in HCF CDI. Therefore CO CDI may account for a considerable reservoir of CDI cases, and prevention efforts should include interventions to reduce CO CDI.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/68/8/1343/5078569

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

May 4, 2019 at 12:19 pm

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