Posts filed under ‘Infecciones intraabdominales’

Outcomes of Community and Healthcare-onset Clostridium difficile Infections

Clinical Infectious Diseases April 15, 2019 V.68 N.8 P.1343-1350  


Between 2011 and 2014, of the Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) cases in the Veterans Health Administration system, 44% were hospital-onset and 42% were community-onset (CO). CDI prevention efforts should include interventions to reduce CO CDIs.


Community-onset Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are increasingly common, but there is little data on outcomes. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of CDI in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system and compare these variables between hospital-onset (HCF) and community-onset (CO) cases.


We conducted a retrospective cohort study that included all patients with a positive test for C. difficile (toxin or toxin genes) within the VHA Corporate Data Warehouse between 2011 and 2014.


We identified 19270 episodes of CDI, involving 15972 unique patients; 95% were male, 44% of the cases were HCF, and 42% were CO. Regarding severity, 31% percent of cases were non-severe, 40% were severe, and 21% were fulminant. Exposure to proton pump inhibitors was found in 53% of cases (47% in CO, 62% in HCF). Overall, 40% of patients received antibiotics in the 90 days before CDI (44% in HCF, 36% in CO). Recurrence was 18.2%, and 30-day all-cause mortality was 9.2%. Risk factors for a fulminant case were exposure to clindamycin (odds ratio [OR]: 1.23, P = .01) or proton pump inhibitors (OR: 1.20, P < .001)  in the 90 days prior to diagnosis.


CO accounts for a significant proportion of CDI in the VHA system. CO patients are younger and their cases are less severe, but recurrence is more common than in HCF CDI. Therefore CO CDI may account for a considerable reservoir of CDI cases, and prevention efforts should include interventions to reduce CO CDI.




May 4, 2019 at 12:19 pm

2017 WSES and SICG guidelines on acute calcolous cholecystitis in elderly population

World J Emerg Surg. 2019 Mar 4;14:10.

Pisano M, Ceresoli M, Cimbanassi S, Gurusamy K, Coccolini F, Borzellino G, et al


Gallstone disease is very common afflicting 20 million people in the USA. In Europe, the overall incidence of gallstone disease is 18.8% in women and 9.5% in men. The frequency of gallstones related disease increases by age. The elderly population is increasing worldwide.


The present guidelines aims to report the results of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) and Italian Surgical Society for Elderly (SICG) consensus conference on acute calcolous cholecystitis (ACC) focused on elderly population.

Material and methods

The 2016 WSES guidelines on ACC were used as baseline; six questions have been used to investigate the particularities in elderly population; the answers have been developed in terms of differences compared to the general population and to statements of the 2016 WSES Guidelines. The Consensus Conference discusses, voted, and modified the statements. International experts contributed in the elaboration of final statements and evaluation of the level of scientific evidences.


The quality of the studies available decreases when we approach ACC in elderly. Same admission laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be suggested for elderly people with ACC; frailty scores as well as clinical and surgical risk scores could be adopted but no general consensus exist. The role of cholecystostomy is uncertain.

Discussion and conclusions

The evaluation of pro and cons for surgery or for alternative treatments in elderly suffering of ACC is more complex than in young people; also, the oldest old age is not a contraindication for surgery; however, a larger use of frailty and surgical risk scores could contribute to reach the best clinical judgment by the surgeon. The present guidelines offer the opportunity to share with the scientific community a baseline for future researches and discussion.



April 3, 2019 at 8:37 am

Procalcitonin in patients with fever: one approach does not fit all

Clinical Microbiology and Infection December 2018 V.24 N.12 P.1229–1230

Schuetz, A.R. Falsey

The value of antibiotics for human health is boundless, but the recent emergence of antimicrobial resistance has become a critical threat to this treasure [1].

Reducing selection pressure on drug-resistant pathogens by a more rational use of antimicrobials is now an international priority.

Patients presenting to the emergency department with fever may present opportunities to improve antimicrobial usage by the addition of novel host-directed markers, such as procalcitonin (PCT), to clinical judgment and pathogen-directed tests [2].

Although previous trials found PCT to decrease antibiotic usage and improve clinical outcomes in specific indications such as lower respiratory tract infection [3] and sepsis [4], the value of PCT in patients with fever without specified clinical syndrome has been understudied. . . .



January 11, 2019 at 8:12 pm

Shorter duration of antibiotic treatment for acute bacteraemic cholangitis with successful biliary drainage: a retrospective cohort study

Clinical Microbiology and Infection November 2018 V.24 N.11 P.1184–1189

Doi, T. Morimoto, K. Iwata


To assess the effectiveness of short duration antimicrobial therapy for acute cholangitis with bacteraemia.


We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with acute bacteraemic cholangitis with successful biliary duct drainage at a single centre in Japan. We compared short-course antimicrobial therapy (SCT, ≤7 days) and long-course therapy (LCT, ≥8 days), with a primary outcome of 30-day mortality. We constructed logistic regression models for mortality and a composite outcome, including mortality, recurrence, recrudescence, new bacteraemia, liver abscess or other complications related to cholangitis. We also developed a propensity score for SCT with inverse probability weighting for both the primary outcome and the composite outcome.


We identified 263 patients in our cohort; 86 (32.7%) patients received SCT and the remaining 177 (67.3%) received LCT. The median durations of SCT and LCT were 6 days (range 2–7 days) and 12 days (range 8–46 days), respectively. The 30-day mortalities of SCT and LCT were 4.7% (4/85) and 5.7% (10/176), respectively (p 1.00). Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio of SCT for 30-day mortality and the composite outcome were 1.07 (95% CI 0.25–4.52, p 0.93) and 1.08 (95% CI 0.48–2.45, p 0.85), respectively. Propensity score analyses for both 30-day mortality and the composite outcome did not demonstrate a difference between SCT and LCT (p 0.65 and p 0.95, respectively).


SCT with a median duration of 6 days did not have worse outcomes than LCT with a median duration of 12 days. Shortening the duration of antimicrobial therapy may be a reasonable option when treating acute bacteraemic cholangitis following successful biliary drainage.



January 11, 2019 at 8:11 pm

The Most Effective Treatments for Clostridium difficile Diarrhea: An Evidence-Based Review

Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice May 2011 V.19 N.3 P.171-181

Griffin, Allen Thomas; Arnold, Forest Wayne

Clostridium difficile is more common, more virulent, and more difficult to treat than in past decades.

Oral vancomycin and metronidazole have been the subject of the most rigorous study in this disease. Although these antibiotics have largely been viewed as equivalent, studies support vancomycin for severe disease, whereas metronidazole is noninferior in milder disease.

Both antibiotics are superior to the toxin-binding agent tolevamer. No evidence supports probiotics for initial disease, but there may be utility in relapsing disease. There is an exiguous evidence base regarding antibiotic treatment of relapsing disease, but tapered and pulsed regimens of vancomycin remain possible options.

Preliminary evidence supports the use of monoclonal antibodies against C. difficile toxins A and B for relapsing episodes.

The studies concerning refractory disease are limited to a case series design, whereas it remains unclear how effective probiotics are in the prevention of C. difficile infection.



December 7, 2018 at 9:26 am

Adenitis mesentérica por Yersinia enterocolítica

Rev Med Urug 2007; 23: 265-268

Dres. Lorena Pardo, María Inés Mota, Gustavo Giachetto, María Parada, Catalina Pirez, Gustavo Varela

Departamento de Bacteriología y Virología, Instituto de Higiene. Instituto de Pediatría, Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República. Montevideo, Uruguay

Se presenta por primera vez en nuestro país un caso de adenitis mesentérica en una niña de 3 años asociado a infección por Yersinia enterocolítica. La cepa recuperada del coprocultivo correspondió al bioserotipo patogénico 4/O:3 y presentó además el plásmido de virulencia.

October 9, 2018 at 8:51 am



Yersinia enterocolítica es un cocobacilo gramnegativo con bordes redondeados, aerobios y anaerobios facultativos1, de amplia distribución mundial cuyo reservorio natural se encuentra en una gran variedad de animales.

La transmisión a los humanos se realiza principalmente a través de la vía fecal-oral aunque también se han descrito casos de transmisión a través de transfusiones sanguíneas.

Su aislamiento se realiza habitualmente dentro de un cuadro gastrointestinal y rara vez produce trastornos extraintestinales como bacteriemia, abscesos, manifestaciones cutáneas, etc.

Éstos se han asociado a diferentes enfermedades de base como alteraciones del metabolismo del hierro, diabetes mellitus, alcoholismo, malnutrición, tumores, terapia inmunosupresora y cirrosis. 2

October 9, 2018 at 8:50 am

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