Posts filed under ‘Infecciones osteo-articulares-musculares’

The prevention of Prosthetic Joint Infection (PJI)- 12 modifiable risk factors

The Bone & Joint Journal January 2019 V.101-B N.1 Suppl.A P.3-9

K. Alamanda, B. D. Springer

Aims

Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a serious complication that is associated with high morbidity and costs. The aim of this study was to prepare a systematic review to examine patient-related and perioperative risk factors that can be modified in an attempt to reduce the rate of PJI.

Materials and Methods

A search of PubMed and MEDLINE was conducted for articles published between January 1990 and February 2018 with a combination of search terms to identify studies that dealt with modifiable risk factors for reducing the rate of PJI. An evidence-based review was performed on 12 specific risk factors: glycaemic control, obesity, malnutrition, smoking, vitamin D levels, preoperative Staphylococcus aureus screening, the management of anti-rheumatic medication, perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, presurgical skin preparation, the operating room environment, irrigant options, and anticoagulation.

Results

Poor glycaemic control, obesity, malnutrition, and smoking are all associated with increased rates of PJI. Vitamin D replacement has been shown in preliminary animal studies to decrease rates of PJI. Preoperative Staphylococcus aureus screening and appropriate treatment results in decreased rates of PJI. Perioperative variables, such as timely and appropriate dosage of prophylactic antibiotics, skin preparation with chlorohexidine-based solution, and irrigation with dilute betadine at the conclusion of the operation, have all been associated with reduced rates of PJI. Similarly, aggressive anticoagulation and increased operating room traffic should be avoided to help minimize risk of PJI.

Conclusion

PJI remains a serious complication of arthroplasty. Surgeons should be vigilant of the modifiable risk factors that can be addressed in an attempt to reduce the risk of PJI.

FULL TEXT

https://online.boneandjoint.org.uk/doi/full/10.1302/0301-620X.101B1.BJJ-2018-0233.R1

PDF

https://online.boneandjoint.org.uk/doi/pdf/10.1302/0301-620X.101B1.BJJ-2018-0233.R1

 

Advertisements

January 20, 2019 at 11:06 am

Osteomyelitis Complicating Sacral Pressure Ulcers: Whether or Not to Treat With Antibiotic Therapy

Clinical Infectious Diseases January 15, 2019 V.68 N.2 P.338–342

EDITOR’S CHOICE

Darren Wong; Paul Holtom; Brad Spellberg

The treatment of osteomyelitis in patients with stage IV sacral pressure ulcers is controversial. We conducted a systematic literature review and did not find evidence of benefit of antibacterial therapy in this setting without concomitant surgical debridement and wound coverage. Furthermore, many patients with chronically exposed bone do not have evidence of osteomyelitis when biopsied, and magnetic resonance imaging may not accurately distinguish osteomyelitis from bone remodeling. The goal of therapy should be local wound care and assessment for the potential of wound closure. If the wound can be closed and osteomyelitis is present on bone biopsy, appropriate antibiotic therapy is reasonable. We find no data to support antibiotic durations of >6 weeks in this setting, and some authors recommend 2 weeks of therapy if the osteomyelitis is limited to cortical bone. If the wound will not be closed, we find no clear evidence supporting a role for antibiotic therapy.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/68/2/338/5050260

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

January 20, 2019 at 11:03 am

What Is the Role of Repeat Aspiration in the Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Hip Infection?

Journal of Arthropasty January 2019 V.34 N.1 P.126–131

Jeffrey D. Hassebrock, Michael G. Fox, Mark J. Spangehl, Matthew R. Neville, Adam J. Schwartz

Background

The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons clinical practice guideline currently recommends repeat joint aspiration when workup of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) reveals conflicting data. This guideline is based on a single study of 31 patients published 25 years ago. We sought to determine the correlation between first and second aspirations and factors that may play a role in variability between them.

Methods

Sixty patients with less than 90 days between aspirations and no intervening surgery were identified at our institution and classified by Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria as infected, not infected, or not able to determine after both aspirations. Culture results from both aspirations were recorded. The rates of change and correlation in clinical diagnosis and culture results between aspirations were determined.

Results

Repeat aspiration changed the diagnosis in 26 cases (43.3%, 95% confidence interval 31.6-55.9, kappa coefficient 0.32, P < .001), and the culture results in 25 cases (41.7%, 95% confidence interval 30.1-54.3, kappa coefficient 0.27, P < .01). Among patients initially MSIS negative, the proportion who changed to MSIS positive was greater for those with a history of prior PJI compared to those without (66.7% vs 0%, P < .05), and the first aspiration mean volume was higher for those changed to MSIS positive compared to those that remained MSIS negative (12.0 vs 3.0 mL, P < .01). Among patients initially MSIS positive, the proportion of patients who changed to MSIS negative was greater for those with a history of adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) to metal debris compared to patients without suspicion of ALTR (100% vs 7.7%, P < .05).

Conclusion

Repeat aspiration is particularly useful in patients with conflicting clinical data and prior history of PJI, suspicion of ALTR, or with high clinical suspicion of infection.

PDF

https://www.arthroplastyjournal.org/article/S0883-5403(18)30749-6/pdf

January 12, 2019 at 10:54 am

Evaluation of Lipocalin-2 as a Biomarker of Periprosthetic Joint Infection

Journal of Arthropasty January 2019 V.34 N.1 P.123–125

Andrea Vergara, Mariana J. Fernández-Pittol, Ernesto Muñoz-Mahamud, Laura Morata, Jordi Bosch, Jordi Vila, Alex Soriano, Climent Casals-Pascual

Background

Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a major clinical challenge. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of lipocalin-2 (LCN2), a well-characterized neutrophil protein, in synovial fluid to discriminate PJI and aseptic implant failure.

Methods

Synovial fluid from patients with acute or chronic PJI, aseptic failure, or controls was obtained during surgery. LCN2 was quantified using a modified enzyme immunoassay coupled with chemiluminescence (Architect Urine NGAL; Abbott Laboratories).

Results

Synovial fluid was collected from 72 patients: 22 (30.6%) proven infections, 22 (30.6%) aseptic implant failures, and 28 (38.8%) controls. Synovial fluid was obtained from the hip in 18 (25%) and knee in 54 (75%) cases. Among infections, there were 16 (22.2%) acute and 6 (8.3%) chronic PJIs. The median (interquartile range) LCN2 concentration in synovial fluid was 1536.5 ng/mL (261.8-12,923) in the infection group, 87.0 (54.8-135) in the aseptic group, and 55 (45-67.8) in the control group (P < .001). LCN2 discriminated nearly perfectly between controls and confirmed infection (area under the receiver operating characteristic 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.95-1.00). The optimal cut-off value for maximal sensitivity (86.3%) and specificity (77.2%) to discriminate aseptic failure versus proven infection was 152 ng/mL, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic of 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.84-0.99).

Conclusion

LCN2 is a potential novel biomarker that may be helpful to inform surgical teams on the potential risk of PJI and optimize specific surgical interventions as it distinguishes between septic and aseptic failure of prosthesis with high sensitivity and specificity.

PDF

https://www.arthroplastyjournal.org/article/S0883-5403(18)30830-1/pdf

January 12, 2019 at 10:53 am

Sarcopenia as a Risk Factor for Prosthetic Infection After Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty

Journal of Arthropasty January 2019 V.34 N.1 P.116–122

Jacob M. Babu, MD, MHA a, *, Saisanjana Kalagara b, Wesley Durand b,Valentin Antoci, MD, PhD a, Matthew E. Deren, MD c, Eric Cohen, MD a

a Division of Arthroplasty, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI

b Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI

c Division of Arthroplasty, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH

Background

Sarcopenia, an age-related loss of muscle mass and function, has been previously linked to an increased risk of morbidity, mortality, and infection after a variety of surgical procedures. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of the psoas-lumbar vertebral index (PLVI), a validated marker for central sarcopenia, on determining post-arthroplasty infection status.

Methods

This is a case-control, retrospective review of 30 patients with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosed by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria compared to 69 control patients who underwent a total hip or knee arthroplasty. All patients had a recent computed tomography scan of the abdomen/pelvis to calculate the PLVI. PLVI was evaluated alongside age, gender, body mass index, Charlson Comorbidity Index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and smoking status to determine the predictive value for infection.

Results

Notably, the infected group had a large, significant difference in their average PLVI (0.736 vs 0.963, P < .001). The patient’s PLVI was a predictor of infection status, with a higher PLVI being protective against infection (odds ratio [OR] 0.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.109-0.715, P = .008). Additional predictors of infection status were higher American Society of Anesthesiologists score (OR 10.634, 95% CI 3.112-36.345, P < .001) and Charlson Comorbidity Index (OR 1.438, 95% CI 1.155-1.791, P = .001). Multivariate, binary logistic regression analysis confirmed that PLVI was a significant independent predictor of infection status (B = −0.685, P = .039).

Conclusion

PLVI, a marker for central sarcopenia, was demonstrated to be a risk factor for PJI. Further research and consideration of sarcopenia as a screening and optimizable risk factor for total joint arthroplasty must be explored.

PDF

https://www.arthroplastyjournal.org/article/S0883-5403(18)30818-0/pdf

January 12, 2019 at 10:51 am

Clinical outcome and risk factors for failure in late acute prosthetic joint infections treated with debridement and implant retention

Journal of Infection January 2019 V.78 N.1 P.40–47 

Highlights

  • Late acute prosthetic joint infection (LA PJI) treated with surgical debridement and implant retention have a high failure rate.
  • The exchange of mobile components during surgical debridement is the most potent predictor for treatment success.
  • There are several preoperative patient related variables that increase the risk for failure.
  • Treatment strategies for late acute PJIs should be individualized and optimized according to the preoperative risk for failing.

Objectives

Debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR) is the recommended treatment for all acute prosthetic joint infections (PJI), but its efficacy in patients with late acute (LA) PJI is not well described.

Methods

Patients diagnosed with LA PJI between 2005 and 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. LA PJI was defined as the development of acute symptoms (≤ 3 weeks) occurring ≥ 3 months after arthroplasty. Failure was defined as: (i) the need for implant removal, (ii) infection related death, (iii) the need for suppressive antibiotic therapy and/or (iv) relapse or reinfection during follow-up.

Results

340 patients from 27 centers were included. The overall failure rate was 45.0% (153/340). Failure was dominated by Staphylococcus aureus PJI (54.7%, 76/139). Significant independent preoperative risk factors for failure according to the multivariate analysis were: fracture as indication for the prosthesis (odds ratio (OR) 5.4), rheumatoid arthritis (OR 5.1), age above 80 years (OR 2.6), male gender (OR 2.0) and C-reactive protein > 150 mg/L (OR 2.0). Exchanging the mobile components during DAIR was the strongest predictor for treatment success (OR 0.35).

Conclusion

LA PJIs have a high failure rate. Treatment strategies should be individualized according to patients’ age, comorbidity, clinical presentation and microorganism causing the infection.

FULL TEXT

https://www.journalofinfection.com/article/S0163-4453(18)30241-X/fulltext

PDF

https://www.journalofinfection.com/article/S0163-4453(18)30241-X/pdf

January 12, 2019 at 10:02 am

Mycobacterium tuberculosis prosthetic joint infections: A case series and literature review

Journal of Infection January 2019 V.78 N.1 P.27–34

Fabrice Uhel, Gregory Corvaisier, Yves Poinsignon, Catherine Chirouze, Guillaume Beraud, Olivier Grossi, Nicolas Varache, Cédric Arvieux, Rozenn Le Berre, Pierre Tattevin, for the Groupe d’Epidémiologie et Recherche en Infectiologie Clinique Centre-Ouest (GERICCO)

Objectives

We aimed to characterize diagnosis, management, and outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis prosthetic joint infections (PJI).

Methods

Cases of M. tuberculosis PJI documented in 7 referral French centers were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected from medical files on a standardized questionnaire. We performed a literature review using the keywords ‘prosthetic joint’, and ‘tuberculosis’.

Results

During years 1997–2016, 13 patients (8 males, 5 females, median age 79 years [range, 60–86]) had documented M. tuberculosis PJI, involving hip (n = 6), knee (n = 6), or shoulder (n = 1). Median time from arthroplasty to diagnosis was 9 years [0.4–20]. The diagnosis was obtained on joint aspirates (n = 9), or synovial tissue (n = 4). PCR was positive in all cases tested (5/5). Median duration of antituberculosis treatment was 14 months [6–32]). Nine patients underwent surgery: debridement (n = 4), resection arthroplasty (n = 3), and revision arthroplasty (1-stage exchange, n = 2). PJI was controlled in 12 patients. Seventeen additional cases of documented M. tuberculosis PJI have been reported, with a favorable outcome in 79% (11/14) of patients with no surgery, 85% (11/13) with debridement, 86% (19/22) with revision arthroplasty, and 81% (17/21) with resection (NS).

Conclusions

  1. tuberculosis PJI can be controlled with prolonged antituberculosis treatment in most cases, with or without surgical treatment.

FULL TEXT

https://www.journalofinfection.com/article/S0163-4453(18)30253-6/abstract

PDF

https://www.journalofinfection.com/article/S0163-4453(18)30253-6/pdf

January 12, 2019 at 10:01 am

Older Posts


Calendar

February 2019
M T W T F S S
« Jan    
 123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728  

Posts by Month

Posts by Category