Posts filed under ‘Infecciones respiratorias’

Corticosteroids in treating CAP – has the time really come.

Clinical Microbiology and Infection May 2017 V.23 N.5

Blot, A. Salmon-Rousseau, P. Chavanet, L. Piroth*

Departement d’Infectiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Dijon, France

Whether corticosteroids should be used in the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still a matter of debate.

This question is all the more relevant as pneumonia remains a leading cause of death worldwide.

Severe CAP is associated with an increase in pulmonary and circulatory cytokines, which may be associated with treatment failure, especially in bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia.

Thus corticosteroids, which suppress inflammatory reactions and prevent the migration of inflammatory cells to tissues, may be of particular interest in the treatment of such severe pneumonias …

PDF

http://www.clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com/article/S1198-743X(16)30388-3/pdf

May 9, 2017 at 8:25 am

Intravenous fosfomycin-back to the future. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical literature.

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016 Dec 9. pii: S1198-743X(16)30610-3

Grabein B1, Graninger W2, Rodríguez Baño J3, Dinh A4, Liesenfeld DB5.

Author information

1 Department of Clinical Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, Munich University Hospital, Munich, Germany.

2 Institute for Infectiology, Karl Landsteiner Society, Vienna, Austria.

3 Unidad Clínica de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Microbiología y Medicina Preventiva, Hospital Universitarios Virgen Macarena y Virgen del Rocío, Departamento de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla-IBIS, Sevilla, Spain; Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

4 Infectious Disease Unit, R. Poincaré University Hospital, Garches, AP-HP, Versailles Saint Quentin University, Garches, France.

5 InfectoPharm Arzneimittel und Consilium GmbH, Heppenheim, Germany. Electronic address: david.liesenfeld@infectopharm.de

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the clinical evidence and usage patterns of intravenous fosfomycin from its development to the present time.

METHODS:

PubMed, the Cochrane Library and local journals were searched for relevant studies reporting aggregated data of intravenous fosfomycin use in adults and children, with no restrictions regarding study design. Single case reports were excluded. Data were systematically abstracted for all included studies. Clinical and microbiological efficacy from randomized controlled and comparative observational studies were synthesized using meta-analysis to calculate pooled effect sizes.

RESULTS:

In all, 128 studies on intravenous fosfomycin in 5527 patients were evaluated. Fosfomycin was predominantly used for sepsis/bacteraemia, urinary tract, respiratory tract, bone and joint, and central nervous system infections. No difference in clinical (OR 1.44, 95% CI 0.96-2.15) or microbiological (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.82-2.01) efficacy between fosfomycin and other antibiotics was observed in comparative trials. The pooled estimate for resistance development during fosfomycin monotherapy was 3.4% (95% CI 1.8%-5.1%). Fosfomycin showed a favourable safety profile, with generally mild adverse events not requiring discontinuation of treatment. Included studies explored intravenous fosfomycin as an anti-staphylococcal agent in monotherapy and combination therapy, whereas studies from 1990 focused on combination therapy (fosfoymcin + β-lactams or aminoglycosides) for challenging infections frequently caused by multidrug-resistant organisms.

CONCLUSION:

Intravenous fosfomycin can play a vital role in the antibiotic armamentarium, given its long history of effective and safe use. However, well-designed randomized controlled trials are still desired.

PDF

http://www.clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com/article/S1198-743X(16)30610-3/pdf

May 7, 2017 at 2:55 pm

Concentration-Dependent Antagonism and Culture Conversion in Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Clin Inf Dis May 15, 2017 V.64 N.10

Neesha Rockwood; Jotam G. Pasipanodya; Paolo Denti; Frederick Sirgel; Maia Lesosky

The relationship between drug concentrations, minimum inhibitory concentrations, and sputum culture conversion in tuberculosis is unclear. We identified concentration-dependent antagonism between isoniazid and rifampicin that was associated with poorer 2-month sputum conversion.

PDF

https://oup.silverchair-cdn.com/oup/backfile/Content_public/Journal/cid/64/10/10.1093_cid_cix158/2/cix158.pdf?Expires=1494188795&Signature=TeTh9nAC4CxyRjW-XRWYyEgZQgrkAXh3bcVJvUvSPB-JgDO4OxZ-uZ08IyqLaNonrvSJNc75eAR-InIa7LvO9tI2~jQX2gRjY8wsnR6ZyhcwNrb2pYlRGE4C1mRh3UINsfF4vEADoUKGNwG1bBYfCeT-ymbqVDacJtRReXMhX1NJrSLyq8ie8KNdBBmhkJAFF86LiGnJEiQLpwRei~eNdyVZhOQQzetL0dVwcZnXLHmPyO9Z4dF-uW0U~LZVkpG8~L4-iMlT07~WZHvbYr~TB3KILDi5bhY1x2b-JBU1z~MRqkEK0NqIFRaxwWOssktJYqpPibUt9TJw6jHBbKQVdA__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAIUCZBIA4LVPAVW3Q

May 6, 2017 at 3:53 pm

Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2017 Report: GOLD Executive Summary

European Respiratory Journal March 2017 V.49 N.3

Claus F. Vogelmeier, Gerard J. Criner, Fernando J. Martinez, Antonio Anzueto, Peter J. Barnes, Jean Bourbeau, Bartolome R. Celli, Rongchang Chen, Marc Decramer, Leonardo M. Fabbri, Peter Frith, David M.G. Halpin, M. Victorina López Varela, Masaharu Nishimura, Nicolas Roche, Roberto Rodriguez-Roisin, Don D. Sin, Dave Singh, Robert Stockley, Jørgen Vestbo, Jadwiga A. Wedzicha, Alvar Agusti

This Executive Summary of the Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD (GOLD) 2017 Report focuses primarily on the revised and novel parts of the document. The most significant changes include: 1) the assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been refined to separate the spirometric assessment from symptom evaluation. ABCD groups are now proposed to be derived exclusively from patient symptoms and their history of exacerbations; 2) for each of the groups A to D, escalation strategies for pharmacological treatments are proposed; 3) the concept of de-escalation of therapy is introduced in the treatment assessment scheme; 4) nonpharmacologic therapies are comprehensively presented and; 5) the importance of comorbid conditions in managing COPD is reviewed.

PDF

http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/erj/49/3/1700214.full.pdf

April 12, 2017 at 8:13 am

Management of COPD exacerbations: a European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society guideline

European Respiratory Journal March 2017 V.49 N.3

Jadwiga A. Wedzicha, (ERS co-chair), Marc Miravitlles, John R. Hurst, Peter M.A. Calverley, Richard K. Albert, Antonio Anzueto, Gerard J. Criner, Alberto Papi, Klaus F. Rabe, David Rigau, Pawel Sliwinski, Thomy Tonia, Jørgen Vestbo, Kevin C. Wilson, and Jerry A. Krishnan, (ATS co-chair)

This document provides clinical recommendations for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations.

Comprehensive evidence syntheses, including meta-analyses, were performed to summarise all available evidence relevant to the Task Force’s questions. The evidence was appraised using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach and the results were summarised in evidence profiles. The evidence syntheses were discussed and recommendations formulated by a multidisciplinary Task Force of COPD experts.

After considering the balance of desirable and undesirable consequences, quality of evidence, feasibility, and acceptability of various interventions, the Task Force made: 1) a strong recommendation for noninvasive mechanical ventilation of patients with acute or acute-on-chronic respiratory failure; 2) conditional recommendations for oral corticosteroids in outpatients, oral rather than intravenous corticosteroids in hospitalised patients, antibiotic therapy, home-based management, and the initiation of pulmonary rehabilitation within 3 weeks after hospital discharge; and 3) a conditional recommendation against the initiation of pulmonary rehabilitation during hospitalisation.

The Task Force provided recommendations related to corticosteroid therapy, antibiotic therapy, noninvasive mechanical ventilation, home-based management, and early pulmonary rehabilitation in patients having a COPD exacerbation. These recommendations should be reconsidered as new evidence becomes available.

PDF

http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/erj/49/3/1600791.full.pdf

April 12, 2017 at 8:12 am

Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Risks and Prophylaxis Recommendations.

Clin Med Insights Circ Respir Pulm Med. 2015 Sep 6;9(Suppl 1):29-40.                   

Mori S1, Sugimoto M2.

Author information

1Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Research Center for Rheumatic Diseases, NHO Kumamoto Saishunsou National Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan.

2Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medicine, Social Insurance Omuta Tenryo Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan.

Abstract

Pneumocystis jirovecii infection causes fulminant interstitial pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia, PCP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who are receiving biological and/or nonbiological antirheumatic drugs. Recently, we encountered a PCP outbreak among RA outpatients at our institution. Hospital-acquired, person-to-person transmission appears to be the most likely mode of this cluster of P. jirovecii infection. Carriage of P. jirovecii seems a time-limited phenomenon in immunocompetent hosts, but in RA patients receiving antirheumatic therapy, clearance of this organism from the lungs is delayed. Carriers among RA patients can serve as sources and reservoirs of P. jirovecii infection for other susceptible patients in outpatient facilities. Development of PCP is a matter of time in such carriers. Considering the poor survival rates of PCP cases, prophylactic antibiotics should be considered for RA patients who are scheduled to receive antirheumatic therapy. Once a new case of PCP occurs, we should take prompt action not only to treat the PCP patient but also to prevent other patients from becoming new carriers of P. jirovecii. Short-term prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is effective in controlling P. jirovecii infection and preventing future outbreaks of PCP among RA patients.

PDF

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4562607/pdf/ccrpm-suppl.1-2015-029.pdf

April 9, 2017 at 7:30 pm

Estimating the burden of invasive and serious fungal disease in the United Kingdom

Journal of Infection January 2017 V.74 N.1

Matthew Pegorie a, David W. Denning b,c,d, *, William Welfare a,d

a Public Health England North West Health Protection Team (Greater Manchester), UK

bNational Aspergillosis Centre, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, UK

c The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

d Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, UK

Background: The burden of fungal disease in the UK is unknown. Only limited data are systematically collected. We have estimated the annual burden of invasive and serious fungal disease.

Methods: We used several estimation approaches. We searched and assessed published estimates of incidence, prevalence or burden of specific conditions in various high risk groups. Studies with adequate internal and external validity allowed extrapolation to estimate current UK burden. For conditions without adequate published estimates, we sought expert advice.

Results: The UK population in 2011 was 63,182,000 with 18% aged under 15 and 16% over 65. The following annual burden estimates were calculated: invasive candidiasis 5142; Candida peritonitis complicating chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis 88; Pneumocystis pneumonia 207e587 cases, invasive aspergillosis (IA), excluding critical care patients 2901e2912, and IA in critical care patients 387e1345 patients, <100 cryptococcal meningitis cases. We estimated 178,000 (50,000e250,000) allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis cases in people with asthma, and 873 adults and 278 children with cystic fibrosis. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is estimated to affect 3600 patients, based on burden estimates post tuberculosis and in sarcoidosis.

Conclusions: Uncertainty is intrinsic to most burden estimates due to diagnostic limitations, lack of national surveillance systems, few published studies and methodological limitations. The largest uncertainty surrounds IA in critical care patients. Further research is needed to produce a more robust estimate of total burden

PDF

http://www.journalofinfection.com/article/S0163-4453(16)30273-0/pdf

March 25, 2017 at 5:40 pm

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