Posts filed under ‘Infecciones respiratorias’

Current and Future Considerations for the Treatment of Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia.

Adv Ther. 2016 Feb;33(2):151-66.

Montravers P1,2, Harpan A3, Guivarch E3,4.

Author information

1 Département d’Anesthésie-Réanimation, CHU Bichat Claude-Bernard-HUPNVS, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, University Denis Diderot, PRESS Sorbonne Cité, 46 Rue Henri-Huchard, 75018, Paris, France.

2 University Denis Diderot, PRESS Sorbonne Cité, Paris, France.

3 Département d’Anesthésie-Réanimation, CHU Bichat Claude-Bernard-HUPNVS, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, University Denis Diderot, PRESS Sorbonne Cité, 46 Rue Henri-Huchard, 75018, Paris, France.

4 University Denis Diderot, PRESS Sorbonne Cité, Paris, France.


Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and health-care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) are leading causes of death, morbidity, and resource utilization in hospitalized patients, and are associated with a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens.

Here, we discuss the different definitions of HAP and HCAP, review current guidelines regarding the treatment of these conditions, highlight the shortcomings of current therapeutic options, and discuss new antibiotic treatments.

To optimize therapeutic outcomes in patients with HAP/HCAP, initial antimicrobial treatment must be appropriate and should be given as soon as possible; inappropriate or delayed therapy greatly increases morbidity and mortality.

Selection of the most appropriate antimicrobial agent depends on the causative pathogen(s); initial broad-spectrum therapy is commonly recommended and should cover all pathogens that may be present.

Treatment selection should also take into consideration the following factors: knowledge of underlying local risk factors for antimicrobial resistance, disease staging, and risk factors related to specific pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Guidelines consistently emphasize the importance of treating HAP and HCAP with early and appropriate broad-spectrum antibiotics, and recent developments in this field have resulted in the availability of several additional treatment options.

Telavancin shows potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria including MRSA and can be administered once daily; it was approved in the USA and European Union for the treatment of HAP after demonstrating non-inferiority to vancomycin.

Ceftobiprole medocaril exhibits rapid antimicrobial activity against a broad range of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including MRSA.

It was approved for the treatment of HAP (excluding ventilator-associated pneumonia) and community-acquired pneumonia in Europe in 2013.

These new treatments may offer effective alternative therapeutic options for the management of HAP.


Basilea Pharmaceutica Ltd., Basel, Switzerland.


August 1, 2017 at 9:09 pm

The association between vitamin D levels and recurrent group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in adults.

International  Journal of Infectious Diseases October 2012 V.16 N.10 e735-7388.

Nseir W1, Mograbi J, Abu-Rahmeh Z, Mahamid M, Abu-Elheja O, Shalata A.

Author information

1 Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Disease Unit, Holy Family Hospital, Nazareth, Israel.



To determine the association between recurrent group A streptococcal (GAS) tonsillopharyngitis and serum 25-hydroxy (25(OH)) vitamin D among adult subjects.


Adult patients with tonsillopharyngitis between January 2007 and December 2009 were reviewed and identified retrospectively. Cases with a medical history of recurrent GAS tonsillopharyngitis were compared to age- and gender-matched individuals without a medical history of GAS tonsillopharyngitis. Recurrent tonsillopharyngitis was defined as three or more episodes of GAS tonsillopharyngitis per year for a period of two consecutive years.


Fifty-four cases with recurrent GAS tonsillopharyngitis and 50 controls were enrolled. There were no significant differences between cases and controls with regard to mean age (41 ± 13 vs. 42 ± 12 years; p=0.7) and male gender (55% vs. 54%; p=0.6). Mean serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D among subjects with recurrent GAS tonsillopharyngitis were significantly lower from the controls (11.5 ng/ml ± 4.7 vs. 26 ng/ml ± 7; p=0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that a serum 25(OH) vitamin D level <20 ng/ml was associated with recurrent GAS tonsillopharyngitis (odds ratio 1.62, 95% confidence interval 1.51-1.76; p < 0.001).


Our findings indicate a link between vitamin D deficiency and the recurrence of GAS tonsillopharyngitis.


August 1, 2017 at 3:38 pm

Changing patterns in leptospirosis: a three-decade study in Brazil

International Journal of Infectious Diseases July 2017 V.60 N.7 P.4-10

Elizabeth De Francesco Daher, Gabriela Studart Galdino de Carvalho, Douglas de Sousa Soares, Matheus Henrique Mendes, Sérgio Luiz Arruda Parente Filho, Hermano Alexandre Lima Rocha, Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior


This study was conducted to investigate changes in the clinical pattern of leptospirosis over time, analyzing its clinical and laboratory presentations in a metropolitan city of Brazil.


This was a retrospective study including all patients with leptospirosis admitted to tertiary care hospitals in Fortaleza in the northeast of Brazil, between 1985 and 2015. Patients were divided into three groups according to the year of hospital admission: group I for the years 1985–1995, group II for 1996–2005, and group III for 2006–2015. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were compared between the groups.


A total of 507 patients were included. Their mean age was 37.3 ± 15.9 years and 82.4% were male. The mean time between symptom onset and admission was 7 ± 4 days. There was a linear decrease in the levels of serum urea (190.1 ± 92.7, 135 ± 79.5, and 95.6 ± 73.3 mg/dl, respectively, p < 0.0001) and creatinine (5.8 ± 2.9, 3.8 ± 2.6, and 3.0 ± 2.5 mg/dl, respectively, p < 0.0001) in each decade, while levels of hemoglobin (10.31 ± 1.9, 10.8 ± 2.0, and 11.5 ± 2.1 g/dl, respectively, p < 0.0001) and platelets (57.900 ± 52.650, 80.130 ± 68.836, and 107.101 ± 99.699 × 109/l, respectively, p < 0.0001) increased. There was a tendency towards a linear decrease in mortality (22%, 14%, and 11.6%, respectively, p = 0.060).


Leptospirosis showed significant changes over time in this region. The main changes point to a decrease in disease severity and complications, such as acute kidney injury. Mortality has decreased, being close to 11%.


July 30, 2017 at 12:47 pm

A new paradigm in pneumococcal conjugate vaccination: moving from individual to herd protection

International Journal of Infectious Diseases July 2017 V.60 N.7 P.96-97


Gail L. Rodgers, Keith P. Klugman

Immunization programs incorporating pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have led to a dramatic decrease in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) due to vaccine serotypes, pneumonia, and otitis media in children receiving these vaccines. Consistent with the conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine (Hib) experience (Moulton et al., 2000), decreased nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage resulting in decreased transmission and the herd or indirect effect (decrease in disease in the unvaccinated) has also been seen with PCV, but the magnitude of this benefit has far surpassed initial expectations (Lexau et al., 2005, Pilishvili et al., 2010, Moore et al., 2015, Von Gottberg et al., 2014). Two years following the introduction of PCV7 into the routine vaccination program in the USA using a 3 + 1 schedule (three infant doses at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and one toddler dose at 12–15 months of age), a profound effect was found in the unvaccinated: PCV7 prevented more than twice as many invasive cases through indirect effects than through its direct effect of protecting vaccinated children (CDC, 2005). This has been documented in other countries, including those using reduced dosing schedules such as 2 + 1, as well as in countries using the extended serotype vaccines, PCV10 and PCV13 (Shiri et al., 2017). A reduction in NP carriage of vaccine serotypes, a precursor of the herd effect, was documented in the original 3 + 0 study of conjugate vaccination of infants in Africa (Mbelle et al., 1999) and was confirmed in countries using 3 + 0 schedules (Hammitt et al., 2014). The mechanism for protection in the unvaccinated is due to the decrease and/or near elimination of vaccine serotypes from the nasopharynx. This in turns leads to decreased transmission of these serotypes and decreased disease. Thus, the effect on NP carriage, a non-disease state and critical precursor to disease, is key to the control of pneumococcal disease in countries unlikely to have immunization programs able to immunize all of their children.



July 30, 2017 at 12:44 pm

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia: comparative study of cases in HIV-infected patients and immunocompromised non-HIV-infected patients.

Rev Chilena Infectol. August 2014 V.31 N.4 P.417-24.

[Article in Spanish]

Cerón I, Rabagliati R, Langhaus J, Silva F, Guzmán AM, Lagos M.



Although P. jiroveci pneumonia affects immunocompromised (IC) patients of any etiology, clinical features and prognostic outcomes are different depending if they are patients with HIV infection or other causes of IC.


To compare clinical and laboratory features as well as outcomes of P. jiroveci pneumonia in HIV versus non-HIV patients.


Retrospective review of clinical records of HIV and non-HIV patients with P. jiroveci pneumonia managed at the Hospital Clínico Universidad Católica in Santiago, Chile, between 2005 and 2007.


We included 28 HIV and 45 non-HIV patients with confirmed P. jiroveci pneumonia. The non-HIV population was older (65 vs 36,2 years, p < 0,01), had shorter duration of symptoms (7 [1-21] vs 14 [2-45] days, p < 0,01), required more invasive techniques (60 vs 21%, p < 0,01) and RT-PCR to confirm the diagnosis (93 vs 68%, p < 0,01), were more frequently treated at intensive care units (58 vs. 25%, p < 0,01) requiring artificial ventilation (56 vs 11%, p < 0,01), and had a higher attributable mortality (33% vs 0%, p < 0,01).


Our study confirmed that P. jiroveci pneumonia in non-HIV IC patients is more severe, more difficult to diagnose and has higher mortality that in HIV patients. Therefore, it is mandatory to optimize diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for this patients group


July 18, 2017 at 3:44 pm

Pneumocystis pneumonia in hospitalized patients: a detailed examination of symptoms, management, and outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-uninfected persons.

Transpl Infect Dis. 2012 Oct;14(5):510-8.

McKinnell JA1, Cannella AP, Kunz DF, Hook EW 3rd, Moser SA, Miller LG, Baddley JW, Pappas PG.

Author information

1 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.



Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening infection for immunocompromised individuals. Robust data and clear guidelines are available for prophylaxis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related PCP (HIV-PCP), yet few data and no guidelines are available for non-HIV-related PCP (NH-PCP). We postulated that prevention and inpatient management of HIV-PCP differed from NH-PCP.


We performed a retrospective case review of all pathologically confirmed cases of PCP seen at the University of Alabama Medical Center from 1996 to 2008. Data on clinical presentation, hospital course, and outcome were collected using a standardized data collection instrument. Bivariate analysis compared prophylaxis, adjunctive corticosteroids, and clinical outcomes between patients with HIV-PCP and NH-PCP.


Our analysis of the cohort included 97 cases of PCP; 65 HIV and 32 non-HIV cases. Non-HIV cases rarely received primary prophylaxis (4% vs. 38%, P = 0.01) and received appropriate antibiotics later in the course of hospitalization (5.2 days vs. 1.1 days, P < 0.005). Among transplant patients, NH-PCP was diagnosed a mean of 1066 days after transplantation and most patients were on low-dose corticosteroids (87%) at the time of disease onset. No significant differences in adjunctive corticosteroid use (69% vs. 77%, P = 0.39) and 90-day mortality (41% vs. 28%, P = 0.20) were detected.


Patients who have undergone organ or stem cell transplant remain at risk for PCP for many years after transplantation. In our cohort, patients who developed NH-PCP were rarely given prophylaxis, and initiation of appropriate antibiotics was significantly delayed compared to cases of HIV-PCP. Medical providers should be aware of the ongoing risk for NH-PCP, even late after transplantation, and consider more aggressive approaches to both prophylaxis and earlier empirical therapy for PCP.


July 18, 2017 at 3:43 pm

LEPTOSPIROSIS – GUIA para el Equipo de Salud. Ministerio de Salud de la Nación Argentina – ABRIL 2014


Pág 3. Información para el equipo de salud:

  1. Introducción
  2. Manifestaciones clínicas
  3. ¿Cuándo sospechar leptospirosis?
  4. ¿Cómo confirmar leptospirosis?
  5. ¿Cómo notificar el caso de leptospirosis?
  6. ¿Cómo se trata el paciente con leptospirosis?
  7. Flujograma de manejo de casos sospechosos de leptospirosis
  8. Diagnóstico diferencial
  9. ¿Qué hacer si se confirma?
  10. ¿Cómo se tratan los casos caninos de leptospirosis?
  11. Prevención de la leptospirosis en la familia y la comunidad

Pág 25. Recomendaciones para la organización de las actividades en el Equipo de Salud

  1. ¿Qué pueden Ud y su equipo de salud hacer para contribuir al control de la leptospirosis en su área?

Pág 29. Información para la población

  1. ¿Qué es la leptospirosis?
  2. ¿Cómo se transmite la leptospirosis?
  3. ¿Cómo ingresa la bacteria?
  4. ¿Cuáles son los síntomas de la leptospirosis?
  5. ¿Qué hacer en caso de padecer de algunos de los síntomas mencionados antes?
  6. ¿Cuál es el tratamiento?

7 ¿Cómo afecta la enfermedad a los animales domésticos?

  1. ¿Qué podemos hacer para prevenir la leptospirosis?

Pág 35. Anexos

  1. Muestras clínicas para examen
  2. Notificación a través del Módulo SIVILA del SNVS
  3. Bioseguridad
  4. Laboratorios de la Red de leptospirosis
  5. Algoritmo de diagnóstico y notificación por laboratorio
  6. Ficha de notificación de casos de síndrome febril
  7. Ficha de notificación de caso leptospirosis canina


July 17, 2017 at 8:32 am

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