Posts filed under ‘Infecciones urinarias’

Actinotignum schaalii Infection: A Clandestine Cause of Sterile Pyuria?

Open Forum Infectious Diseases, February 2018 V.5 N.2

Lucy E Horton; Sanjay R Mehta; Lejla Aganovic; Joshua Fierer

Actinotignum schaalii is an underappreciated cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older adults. The diagnosis may be missed due to difficulty isolating and identifying the organism. Complications can result because the organism is intrinsically resistant to 2 commonly used drugs to treat UTI, as illustrated by this case.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/ofid/article/5/2/ofy015/4848651

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July 30, 2018 at 9:21 am

Biomarker guided triage can reduce hospitalization rate in community acquired febrile urinary tract infection

Journal of Infection July 2018 V.76 N.7 P.18–24

Janneke Evelyne Stalenhoef, Cees van Nieuwkoop, Darius Cameron Wilson, Willize Elizabeth van der Starre, Nathalie Manon Delfos, Eliane Madeleine Sophie Leyten, Ted Koster, Hans Christiaan Ablij, Johannes(Jan) Willem van’t Wout, Jaap Tamino van Dissel

Highlights

  • Biomarkers are assessed to predict disease severity in febrile urinary tract infection.
  • MRproADM has a higher predictive value for a complicated course than PCT or CRP.
  • MRproADM and PCT were significantly higher in patients directly hospitalized.
  • Outpatients requiring subsequent hospitalization had higher MRproADM concentrations.
  • MRproADM guided triage may decrease hospitalization rate without compromising safety.

Objectives

Febrile urinary tract infections (fUTI) can often be treated safely with oral antimicrobials in an outpatient setting. However, a minority of patients develop complications that may progress into septic shock. An accurate assessment of disease severity upon emergency department (ED) presentation is therefore crucial in order to guide the most appropriate triage and treatment decisions.

Methods

Consecutive patients were enrolled with presumptive fUTI across 7 EDs in the Netherlands. The biomarkers mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM), procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and a clinical score (PRACTICE), were compared in their ability to predict a clinically severe course of fUTI, initial hospital admission and subsequent readmission using area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves.

Results

Biomarker concentrations were measured in 313 patients, with 259 (83%) hospitalized upon ED presentation, and 54 (17%) treated as outpatients. Of these outpatients, 12 (22%) were later hospitalized. MR-proADM had the highest diagnostic accuracy for predicting a complicated fUTI (AUROC [95% CI]: 0.86 [0.79–0.92]), followed by PCT (AUROC [95% CI]: 0.69 [0.58–0.80]). MR-proADM concentrations were unique in being significantly elevated in patients directly admitted and in outpatients requiring subsequent hospitalization, compared to those completing treatment at home. A virtual triage algorithm with an MR-proADM cut-off of 0.80  nmol/L resulted in a hospitalization rate of 66%, with only 2% secondary admissions.

Conclusion

MR-proADM could accurately predict a severe course in patients with fUTI, and identify greater patient numbers who could be safely managed as outpatients. An initial assessment on ED presentation may focus resources to patients with highest disease severities.

FULL TEXT

https://www.journalofinfection.com/article/S0163-4453(18)30159-2/fulltext

PDF

https://www.journalofinfection.com/article/S0163-4453(18)30159-2/pdf

July 28, 2018 at 7:31 pm

Antibiotic prophylaxis in ureteroscopic lithotripsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies.

BJU Int. 2018 Jul;122(1):29-39.

Deng T1,2,3, Liu B4, Duan X1,2,3, Cai C1,2,3, Zhao Z1,2,3, Zhu W1,2,3, Fan J1,2,3, Wu W1,2,3, Zeng G1,2,3.

Author information

1 Department of Urology, Minimally Invasive Surgery Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

2 Guangzhou Institute of Urology, Guangzhou, China.

3 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Urology, Guangzhou, China.

4 The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To explore the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and the different strategies used to prevent infection in ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URL) by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A systematic literature search using Pubmed, Embase, Medline, the Cochrane Library, and the Chinese CBM, CNKI and VIP databases was performed to find comparative studies on the efficacy of different antibiotic prophylaxis strategies in URL for preventing postoperative infections. The last search was conducted on 25 June 2017. Summarized unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the efficacy of different antibiotic prophylaxis strategies.

RESULTS:

A total of 11 studies in 4 591 patients were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. No significant difference was found in the risk of postoperative febrile urinary tract infections (fUTIs) between groups with and without antibiotic prophylaxis (OR: 0.82, 95% CI 0.40-1.67; P = 0.59). Patients receiving a single dose of preoperative antibiotics had a significantly lower risk of pyuria (OR: 0.42, 95% CI 0.25-0.69; P = 0.0007) and bacteriuria (OR: 0.25, 95% CI 0.11-0.58; P = 0.001) than those who did not. Intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis was not superior to single-dose oral antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing fUTI (OR: 1.00, 95% CI 0.26-3.88; P = 1.00).

CONCLUSIONS:

We concluded that preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis did not lower the risk of postoperative fUTI, but a single dose could reduce the incidence of pyuria or bacteriuria. A single oral dose of preventive antibiotics is preferred because of its cost-effectiveness. The efficacy of different types of antibiotics and other strategies could not be assessed in our meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials with a larger sample size and more rigorous study design are needed to validate these conclusions.

FULL TEXT

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bju.14101

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July 27, 2018 at 12:59 pm

Ceftazidime/Avibactam and Ceftolozane/Tazobactam: Second-generation β-Lactam/βLI Combinations.

Clinical Infectious Diseases July 15, 2016 V.63 N.2 P.234-41.

van Duin D1, Bonomo RA2.

Abstract

Ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam are 2 novel β-lactam/β-lactamase combination antibiotics. The antimicrobial spectrum of activity of these antibiotics includes multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB), including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ceftazidime/avibactam is also active against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that produce Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases. However, avibactam does not inactivate metallo-β-lactamases such as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases. Both ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam are only available as intravenous formulations and are dosed 3 times daily in patients with normal renal function. Clinical trials showed noninferiority to comparators of both agents when used in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections (when used with metronidazole). Results from pneumonia studies have not yet been reported. In summary, ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam are 2 new second-generation cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. After appropriate trials are conducted, they may prove useful in the treatment of MDR GNB infections. Antimicrobial stewardship will be essential to preserve the activity of these agents.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4928383/pdf/ciw243.pdf

 

June 10, 2018 at 10:52 am

Facility Guidance for Control of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) – November 2015 Update CRE Toolkit

Facility Guidance for Control of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) – November 2015 Update CRE Toolkit

 

PDF

https://www.cdc.gov/hai/organisms/cre/cre-toolkit/index.html

 

May 6, 2018 at 6:08 pm

Inappropriate Management of Asymptomatic Patients With Positive Urine Cultures: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Open Forum Infectious Diseases Fall 2017 V.4 N.4

Myrto Eleni Flokas; Nikolaos Andreatos; Michail Alevizakos; Alireza Kalbasi; Pelin Onur …

Fundamento

La mala gestión de pacientes asintomáticos con cultivos de orina positivos (denominada bacteriuria asintomática [ASB] en la literatura) promueve la resistencia a los antimicrobianos y da como resultado eventos adversos innecesarios relacionados con los antimicrobianos y mayores costos de atención médica.

Métodos

Llevamos a cabo una revisión sistemática y un metanálisis de estudios que informaron sobre la tasa de tratamiento ASB inapropiado publicado entre 2004 y agosto 2016. La idoneidad de la administración de antimicrobianos se basó en las guias publicadas por la Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas de América (IDSA).

Resultados

Se identificaron 2142 artículos no duplicados, y entre ellos 30 cumplieron nuestros criterios de inclusión. La prevalencia combinada del tratamiento antimicrobiano entre 4129 casos que no requirieron tratamiento fue del 45% (IC 95%, 39-50). Aislamiento de BGN (odds ratio [OR], 3,58; IC del 95%, 2,12-6,06), piuria (OR, 2,83; IC del 95%, 1,9-4,22), positividad del nitrito (OR, 3,83; IC del 95%; 2.24-6.54), y el sexo femenino (OR, 2.11, IC 95%, 1.46-3.06) aumentaron las probabilidades de recibir tratamiento. Las tasas de tratamiento fueron más altas en estudios con valores de corte de ≥ 100 000 ufc/ml en comparación con < 10 000 ufc/ml para el crecimiento bacteriano (P, 0,011). La implementación de intervenciones educativas y organizacionales diseñadas para eliminar el sobretratamiento de ASB resultó en una reducción media del riesgo absoluto del 33% (rangeARR, 16-36%, medianaRRR, 53%; rangeRRR, 25-80%).

Conclusión

La mala gestión de ASB sigue siendo extremadamente frecuente. El sexo femenino y la sobreinterpretación de ciertos datos de laboratorio (nitritos positivos, piuria, aislamiento de bacterias gramnegativas y cultivos con mayor recuento microbiano) están asociados con el sobretratamiento. Incluso las intervenciones simples de mayordomía pueden ser particularmente efectivas, y los programas de administración de antimicrobianos deben enfocarse en el desafío de diferenciar la infección verdadera del tracto urinario de ASB.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/ofid/article/4/4/ofx207/4641888

PDF  (CLIC en PDF)

 

April 9, 2018 at 1:13 pm

Staphylococcus saprophyticus: Which beta-lactam?

International Journal of Infectious Diseases December 2017 V.65 N. P.63–66

Hélène Pailhoriès, Viviane Cassisa, Rachel Chenouard, Marie Kempf, Matthieu Eveillard, Carole Lemarié

Highlights

  • The treatment of Staphylococcus saprophyticus urinary tract infections is difficult.
  • This study analysed the epidemiology of S. saprophyticus urinary tract infections.
  • Susceptibility of S. saprophyticus to ceftriaxone was studied.
  • A high rate of ineffective empirical antibiotic therapy for S. saprophyticus was noted.
  • High ceftriaxone minimum inhibitory concentrations were noted for methicillin-susceptible S. saprophyticus.

Background

Staphylococcus saprophyticus is resistant to the drugs most often used for the empirical treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI). The adequacy of antimicrobial treatments prescribed for UTI due to S. saprophyticus is not usually questioned. This study described the epidemiology of such infections and assessed the susceptibility of S. saprophyticus to ceftriaxone and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid.

Methods

Methicillin-susceptible S. saprophyticus (MSSS) isolated from clinical samples between November 2014 and July 2016 were included. Clinical data were recorded. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid and ceftriaxone were measured for these MSSS strains and for 17 randomly selected methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains.

Results

Of the S. saprophyticus isolates from urine, 59.5% were associated with a diagnosis of cystitis and 33.3% with pyelonephritis. Sixty percent of S. saprophyticus cystitis cases and 25% of pyelonephritis cases were given an inappropriate antibiotic regimen. The MICs of ceftriaxone ranged from 4 to >32 μg/ml for MSSS, and from 1.5 to 4 μg/ml for MSSA.

Conclusions

Many UTIs were treated with an empirical antibiotic therapy that was ineffective for S. saprophyticus, revealing that S. saprophyticus is an aetiology that is insufficiently considered in UTI. High MICs for ceftriaxone in MSSS were observed, which raises questions about the use of this antibiotic in UTIs due to S. saprophyticus.

abstract

http://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(17)30252-7/fulltext

PDF

http://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(17)30252-7/pdf

February 9, 2018 at 1:27 pm

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