Posts filed under ‘Infecciones y Alimentos’

Listeriosis in Spain based on hospitalisation records, 1997 to 2015: need for greater awareness

Eurosuveillance

Listeriosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Listeria spp. L. monocytogenes is the major pathogenic species in both animals and humans. L. monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped organism that can grow in aerobic and anaerobic conditions [1], is widely distributed in the environment and is able to contaminate a wide variety of foods or beverages (soft cheese, deli meats, unpasteurised milk, refrigerated smoked seafood, etc.) [2]. The bacteria can multiply at refrigerator temperatures [3]; therefore, contaminated products are often kept for several days or even weeks, e.g. in the household/restaurants, and may be eaten on multiple occasions, which can complicate the identification of the incriminated food source [4].

The clinical syndromes of listeriosis include: febrile gastroenteritis, sepsis, central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the form of encephalitis, meningoencephalitis and focal infections such as pneumonia myo-endocarditis and septic arthritis, etc [5]. Invasive listeriosis most commonly affects pregnant women, neonates, elderly people and people with chronic conditions or weakened immune response [6]. Listeriosis has one of the highest case fatality rates among all food-borne infections; when it affects the CNS, the mortality rate is above 50% and neurological sequelae are present in more than 60% of survivors [2]. Listeriosis is also associated with fetal and neonatal death.

Worldwide, listeriosis is an emerging infection of public health concern [7]. In Europe, human listeriosis peaked in incidence during the 1980s, showed a general decline during the 1990s and stabilised in the 2000s [8]. More recent data show an increasing trend since 2008 [9]. This increase seems to be related to the ageing of the population and the increase in life expectancy of immunocompromised patients, but also to changes in the ways food is produced, stored, distributed and consumed around the world [10]. Although listeriosis is often a sporadic disease [11], large food-borne outbreaks have occurred during the last decade in Europe and the United States (US) [12]. In South Africa, an outbreak with more than 1,024 laboratory-confirmed listeriosis cases, as at 2 May 2018, has been ongoing since the start of 2017, with a 28.6% case fatality rate [13].

In Spain, food safety criteria (FSC) for L. monocytogenes follow European Commission (EC) regulations [14,15]. Before 2015, when it was added to the list of mandatory notifiable diseases, regions could voluntarily report listeriosis to the Microbiological Information System (Sistema de Información Microbiológica, SIM) [16]. Using the centralised hospital discharge database (Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos, CMBD), we aimed to describe the epidemiology of listeriosis in Spain from 1997–2015.

FULL TEXT

https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.21.1800271

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June 21, 2019 at 7:49 am

Toxoplasmosis: The Heart of the Diagnosis

OPEN FORUM INFECTIOUS DISEASES January 2019 V.6 N.1

James H England; Samuel S Bailin; Jeffrey R Gehlhausen; Donald H Rubin

Toxoplasma gondii is a common parasite that infects warm-blooded animals, including humans, and is a foodborne pathogen. We report a case of acute toxoplasmosis in a 76-year-old man after ingestion of the undercooked heart of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Tennessee. The patient’s adult grandson, who also consumed part of the heart, became ill with nearly identical symptoms, though he did not seek medical care. This case highlights important public health concerns about deer-to-human transmission of Toxoplasma.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/ofid/article/6/1/ofy338/5250666

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January 20, 2019 at 12:17 pm

Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from chickens and chicken meat in Brazil is associated with rare and complex resistance plasmids and pandemic ST lineages

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy   1 December 2018  V.73  N.2  P.3293–3297

EDITOR’S CHOICE

Tiago Casella; Marisa Haenni; Naiady Konno Madela; Letícia Kellen de Andrade; Letícia Kalir Pradela …

Objectives

Brazil is the greatest exporter of chicken meat (CM) in the world. It is of utmost importance to monitor resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) in this sector because resistance to ESCs in Escherichia coli isolated from food-producing animals may contaminate humans through the food chain. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize and compare ESC-resistant E. coli isolated from chickens and retail CM produced in south-eastern Brazil.

Methods

Five CM samples and 117 chicken cloacal swabs (CCSs) were inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxime. Presumptive E. coli colonies were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility was tested. Virulence and acquired blaESBL and blaAmpC genes were sought and genetic environments characterized. Isolates were typed by phylogenetic grouping, XbaI-PFGE and MLST.

Results

All five CM samples and 36 CCSs (30.8%) were positive for the presence of ESC-resistant E. coli, leading to the selection of 58 resistant isolates. ESC resistance was mostly due to the presence of the chromosome-encoded blaCTX-M-2 gene, but plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-8, blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-55 and blaCMY-2 were also detected. Multireplicon plasmids were sporadically identified, such as IncHI2/P-blaCTX-M-2 and IncFII/N-blaCTX-M-55. Phylogroup D predominated, while PFGE and MLST revealed a high genetic diversity.

Conclusions

Live Brazilian chickens and CM act as reservoirs of ESC-resistant E. coli and resistance genes are located on highly diverse genetic determinants. Potentially pathogenic strains, which may represent a threat to human health and a source of environmental contamination, were also identified. Active surveillance is therefore essential in Brazil’s chicken production line.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/jac/article/73/12/3293/5088381

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January 5, 2019 at 11:47 pm

Current Knowledge on Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms in Food-Related Environments: Incidence, Resistance to Biocides, Ecology and Biocontrol.

Foods. 2018 Jun 5;7(6). pii: E85.

Rodríguez-López P1, Rodríguez-Herrera JJ2, Vázquez-Sánchez D3, López Cabo M4.

Abstract

Although many efforts have been made to control Listeria monocytogenes in the food industry, growing pervasiveness amongst the population over the last decades has made this bacterium considered to be one of the most hazardous foodborne pathogens. Its outstanding biocide tolerance capacity and ability to promiscuously associate with other bacterial species forming multispecies communities have permitted this microorganism to survive and persist within the industrial environment. This review is designed to give the reader an overall picture of the current state-of-the-art in L. monocytogenes sessile communities in terms of food safety and legislation, ecological aspects and biocontrol strategies.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6025129/pdf/foods-07-00085.pdf

July 19, 2018 at 3:37 pm

To Be Cytosolic or Vacuolar: The Double Life of Listeria monocytogenes.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2018 May 15;8:136.

Bierne H1, Milohanic E1, Kortebi M1.

Abstract

Intracellular bacterial pathogens are generally classified into two types: those that exploit host membrane trafficking to construct specific niches in vacuoles (i.e., “vacuolar pathogens”), and those that escape from vacuoles into the cytosol, where they proliferate and often spread to neighboring cells (i.e., “cytosolic pathogens”). However, the boundary between these distinct intracellular phenotypes is tenuous and may depend on the timing of infection and on the host cell type. Here, we discuss recent progress highlighting this phenotypic duality in Listeria monocytogenes, which has long been a model for cytosolic pathogens, but now emerges as a bacterium also capable of residing in vacuoles, in a slow/non-growing state. The ability of L. monocytogenes to enter a persistence stage in vacuoles might play a role during the asymptomatic incubation period of listeriosis and/or the carriage of this pathogen in asymptomatic hosts. Moreover, persistent vacuolar Listeria could be less susceptible to antibiotics and more difficult to detect by routine techniques of clinical biology. These hypotheses deserve to be explored in order to better manage the risks related to this food-borne pathogen.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5962784/pdf/fcimb-08-00136.pdf

July 19, 2018 at 3:36 pm

Campylobacteriosis, Salmonellosis, Yersiniosis, and Listeriosis as Zoonotic Foodborne Diseases: A Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Apr 26;15(5). pii: E863.

Chlebicz A1, Śliżewska K2.

Abstract

Zoonoses are diseases transmitted from animals to humans, posing a great threat to the health and life of people all over the world. According to WHO estimations, 600 million cases of diseases caused by contaminated food were noted in 2010, including almost 350 million caused by pathogenic bacteria. Campylobacter, Salmonella, as well as Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes may dwell in livestock (poultry, cattle, and swine) but are also found in wild animals, pets, fish, and rodents. Animals, often being asymptomatic carriers of pathogens, excrete them with faeces, thus delivering them to the environment. Therefore, pathogens may invade new individuals, as well as reside on vegetables and fruits. Pathogenic bacteria also penetrate food production areas and may remain there in the form of a biofilm covering the surfaces of machines and equipment. A common occurrence of microbes in food products, as well as their improper or careless processing, leads to common poisonings. Symptoms of foodborne infections may be mild, sometimes flu-like, but they also may be accompanied by severe complications, some even fatal. The aim of the paper is to summarize and provide information on campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, yersiniosis, and listeriosis and the aetiological factors of those diseases, along with the general characteristics of pathogens, virulence factors, and reservoirs

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5981902/pdf/ijerph-15-00863.pdf

July 19, 2018 at 3:35 pm

Minireview – Nipah Virus Infection

J. Clin. Microbiol. June 2018 56:10 e01875-17

Brenda S. P. Ang, Tchoyoson C. C. Lim, and Linfa Wang

Nipah virus, a paramyxovirus related to Hendra virus, first emerged in Malaysia in 1998.

Clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal encephalitis.

Malaysia has had no more cases since 1999, but outbreaks continue to occur in Bangladesh and India.

In the Malaysia-Singapore outbreak, transmission occurred primarily through contact with pigs, whereas in Bangladesh and India, it is associated with ingestion of contaminated date palm sap and human-to-human transmission.

Bats are the main reservoir for this virus, which can cause disease in humans and animals.

There are currently no effective therapeutics, and supportive care and prevention are the mainstays of management.

abstract

http://jcm.asm.org/content/56/6/e01875-17.abstract

PDF

http://jcm.asm.org/content/56/6/e01875-17.full.pdf+html

June 12, 2018 at 7:37 am

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