Posts filed under ‘Influenza’

Westward Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus among Humans, China

Emerging Infectious Diseases June 2018 V.24 N.6   

Yang et al.

Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China (Q. Yang, X. Tong, H. Tian); Shaanxi Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Xi’an, China (W. Shi, L. Zhang, Y. Xu, J. Xu, S. Li, F. Liu, P. Yu); Xianyang Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Xianyang, China (J. Zhang); Baoji Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Baoji, China (K. Hu); Xi’an Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Xi’an (C. Ma); Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (X. Zhao, X. Li); Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing (G. Zhang); University of Oxford, Oxford, UK (O.G. Pybus)

We report infection of humans with highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Shaanxi, China, in May 2017. We obtained complete genomes for samples from 5 patients and from live poultry markets or farms in 4 cities. Results indicate that H7N9 is spreading westward from southern and eastern China.

FULL TEXT

https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/24/6/17-1135_article

PDF

https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/24/6/pdfs/17-1135.pdf

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May 22, 2018 at 7:41 am

Review – A Review of Evidence that Equine Influenza Viruses Are Zoonotic

Pathogens 2016, 5, 50; doi:10.3390/pathogens5030050

Tai Xie 1,2, Benjamin D. Anderson 1, Ulziimaa Daramragchaa 3, Maitsetset Chuluunbaatar 3 andGregory C. Gray 1,*

1 Division of Infectious Diseases and Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Tai.xie@duke.edu (T.X.); Benjamin.anderson2@duke.edu (B.D.A.)

2 Faculty of Health Service, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China

3 National Center for Zoonotic Diseases, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia; ulzima_d@yahoo.com (U.D.); ch.maitsetseg@gmail.com (M.C.)

* Correspondence: Gregory.gray@duke.edu

Entre los científicos, existen opiniones encontradas sobre si el virus de la gripe equina infecta al hombre. En este informe, resumimos una revisión sistemática e integral de 2016 del inglés, chino, y literatura científica de Mongolia con respecto a la evidencia de infecciones por el virus de la influenza equina en el hombre.

Las búsquedas en PubMed, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, CNKI, la base de datos Chongqing VIP, Wanfang Data y MongolMed arrojaron 2831 artículos, de los cuales 16 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión para esta revisión.

Teniendo en cuenta estas 16 publicaciones, hubo considerable evidencia experimental y observacional de que al menos los virus de la influenza equina H3N8 ocasionalmente han infectado al hombre.

En esta revisión resumimos los informes científicos más destacados

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5039430/pdf/pathogens-05-00050.pdf

 

April 9, 2018 at 1:10 pm

Influenza equina en Chile (1963 – 1992) – Un posible caso en un ser humano.

Rev Chil Infect 2005 V.22 N.1 P.47-50

En Chile, la influenza equina se ha relacionado fuertemente con las epizootias continentales. El primer brote fue descrito en 1963; brotes principales fueron reportados en 1977, 1985 y 1992.

El virus de la influenza equina se aisló en tres oportunidades: H7N7 (A / equi / 1 / Santiago, Chile / 1977); H3N8 (A / equi / 2 / Santiago, Chile / 1985) y H3N8 (A / equi / 2 / Quillota, Chile / 1992).

El brote más grave fue causado por la cepa H7N7 en 1977.

Desde 1992 no se ha reportado influenza equina en Chile.

En 1973 se describió un caso de influenza y seroconversión en un ser humano relacionado con caballos con problemas respiratorios diagnosticados como influenza equina; desafortunadamente el virus aislado no fue tipificado.

PDF

https://scielo.conicyt.cl/pdf/rci/v22n1/art06.pdf

April 9, 2018 at 1:08 pm

Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children: the Challenges of Microbiological Diagnosis

Journal of Clinical Microbiology March 2018 V.56  N.3

Minireviews

M. C. Rodrigues and H. Groves

La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (NAC) es la principal causa de mortalidad en niños menores de 5 años a nivel mundial. Para mejorar el manejo debemos distinguir la NAC de otras afecciones pediátricas comunes y desarrollar mejores métodos de diagnóstico para detectar el MO causante, a fin de dirigir mejor los recursos apropiados tanto en los países industrializados como en los países en desarrollo. Aquí, revisamos las modalidades de diagnóstico disponibles para identificar virus y bacterias en el tracto respiratorio superior e inferior de los niños, con una discusión sobre su utilidad y limitaciones para diagnosticar la NAC en los niños.

PDF

http://jcm.asm.org/content/56/3/e01318-17.full.pdf+html

March 27, 2018 at 8:27 am

Protective Effect of Maternal Influenza Vaccination on Influenza in Their Infants: A Prospective Cohort Study

Journal of Infectious Diseases March 15, 2018 V.217 N.6

Satoko Ohfuji; Masaaki Deguchi; Daisuke Tachibana; Masayasu Koyama; Tetsu Takagi …

Este estudio prospectivo de cohortes mostró que la efectividad de la vacunación prenatal y posparto de la influenza para prevenir la influenza entre sus bebés fue del 61% y 53%, respectivamente. La vacunación contra la influenza materna durante el período prenatal o posparto tuvo efectos beneficiosos para proteger a los bebés de la influenza.

Abstract

Background

Infants <6 months of age are too young to receive influenza vaccine, despite being at high risk for severe influenza-related complications.

Methods

To examine the effectiveness of maternal influenza vaccination in preventing influenza in their infants, we conducted a prospective cohort study of 3441 infants born at participating hospitals before the 2013–2014 influenza season. At the time of recruitment, their mothers completed a questionnaire about influenza vaccination status for the 2013–2014 season. A follow-up survey was conducted after the end of the 2013–2014 season to collect information regarding influenza diagnosis and hospitalization among infants.

Results

During the 2013–2014 influenza season, 71 infants (2%) had influenza diagnosed, and 13 infants (0.4%) were hospitalized with influenza. Maternal influenza vaccination (especially prenatal vaccination) decreased the odds of influenza among infants. The effectiveness of prenatal vaccination was 61% (95% confidence interval, 16%–81%), whereas that of postpartum vaccination was 53% (−28%–83%). Although maternal influenza vaccination was also associated with a decreased odds of influenza-related hospitalization among infants, vaccine effectiveness (73%) did not reach statistical significance, owing to the limited number of infants hospitalized because of influenza.

Conclusions

The present findings indicated that pregnant women and postpartum women should receive influenza vaccination to protect their infants.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/217/6/878/4693945

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

March 25, 2018 at 11:41 am

Duration of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness: A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Meta-regression of Test-Negative Design Case-Control Studies

Journal of Infectious Diseases March 1, 2018 V.217 N.5

EDITOR’S CHOICE

Barnaby Young; Sapna Sadarangani; Lili Jiang; Annelies Wilder-Smith; Mark I-Cheng Chen

La duración de la efectividad de la vacuna contra la influenza es importante para planificar los programas de vacunación. Esta revisión encontró pruebas consistentes de una disminución en la efectividad con respecto a una temporada de invierno templada típica y que la protección durante todo el año, como se requiere en las regiones tropicales, es improbable.

Background

Whether influenza vaccination offers protection for the duration of an influenza season was called into question recently after analysis of data from test-negative design (TND) case-control studies.

Method

The published literature was systematically reviewed to identify TND studies that estimated the change in vaccine effectiveness (VE) with respect to time since vaccination.

Results

Fourteen studies were identified through the literature search as meeting eligibility criteria. Meta-analyses were performed to compare VE 15–90 days after vaccination to VE 91–180 days after vaccination. A significant decline in VE was observed for influenza virus subtype A/H3 (change in VE, −33; 95% confidence interval [CI], −57 to −12) and type B (change in VE, −19; 95% CI, −33 to −6). VE declined for influenza virus subtype A/H1, but this difference was not statistically significant (change in VE −8; 95% CI, −27 to 21). A multivariable mixed-effects meta-regression model indicated that the change VE was associated with the proportion of study participants who were cases and the proportion who were vaccinated controls (P < .05). This could reflect biological effects such as (1) mismatch between the vaccine received and the circulating strains (among cases), (2) herd immunity (among controls), or (3) the reduced power of individual TND studies in the later parts of an influenza outbreak.

Conclusions

Exploration of new influenza vaccination strategies must be a priority for influenza control, particularly in tropical countries with year-round influenza virus activity.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/217/5/731/4694421

PDF   (CLIC en PDF)

March 25, 2018 at 11:34 am

Behaviors, movements, and transmission of droplet-mediated respiratory diseases during transcontinental airline flights

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences March 2018

Vicki Stover Hertzberg, Howard Weiss, Lisa Elon, Wenpei Si, Sharon L. Norris and The FlyHealthy Research Team

With over 3 billion airline passengers annually, the inflight transmission of infectious diseases is an important global health concern.

Over a dozen cases of inflight transmission of serious infections have been documented, and air travel can serve as a conduit for the rapid spread of newly emerging infections and pandemics.

Despite sensational media stories, risks of transmission of respiratory viruses in an airplane cabin are unknown.

Movements of passengers and crew may facilitate disease transmission.

On 10 transcontinental US flights, we chronicled behaviors and movements of individuals in the economy cabin on single-aisle aircraft. We simulated transmission during flight based on these data.

This data-driven, dynamic network transmission model of droplet-mediated respiratory disease is unique.

FULL TEXT

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2018/03/13/1711611115

PDF

http://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/early/2018/03/13/1711611115.full.pdf

March 21, 2018 at 9:26 am

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