Posts filed under ‘Inmunizaciones’

Summary of the international clinical GUIDELINES – Management of HAP and VAP. Europ Resp J

Europ Respiratory Journal April 2018 V.4 N.2

Antoni Torres, Michael S. Niederman, Jean Chastre, Santiago Ewig, Patricia Fernandez-Vandellos, Hakan Hanberger, Marin Kollef, Gianluigi Li Bassi, Carlos M. Luna, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, J. Artur Paiva, Robert C. Read, David Rigau, Jean François Timsit, Tobias Welte and Richard Wunderink

FULL TEXT

http://openres.ersjournals.com/content/4/2/00028-2018?etoc

PDF

http://openres.ersjournals.com/content/erjor/4/2/00028-2018.full.pdf

 

Europ Respiratory Journal April 2018 V.4 N.2

Editorials – Treating nosocomial pneumonia – what’s new

FULL TEXT

http://openres.ersjournals.com/content/4/2/00058-2018?etoc

PDF

http://openres.ersjournals.com/content/erjor/4/2/00058-2018.full.pdf

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June 29, 2018 at 12:31 pm

Relative vaccine effectiveness of high-dose vs standard-dose influenza vaccines among Veterans Health Administration patients.

Journal of Infectious Diseases May 5,  2018  V.217 N.11 P.1718-1727  

Young-Xu Y et al.

We examined whether a high-dose inactivated influenza vaccine was more efficacious in preventing hospitalizations than a standard-dose vaccine in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) senior population.

Methods

This study estimated the relative vaccine effectiveness (rVE) of high dose versus standard dose using a retrospective cohort of VHA patients 65 years of age or older in the 2015–2016 influenza season. To adjust for measured confounders, we matched each high-dose recipient with up to 4 standard-dose recipients vaccinated at the same location within a 2-week period and having 2 or more pre-existing medical comorbidities. We used the previous event rate ratio method (PERR), a type of difference-in-differences analysis, to adjust for unmeasured confounders.

Results

We evaluated 104965 standard-dose and 125776 high-dose recipients; matching decreased the population to 49091 standard-dose and 24682 high-dose recipients. The matched, PERR-adjusted rVE was 25% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2%–43%) against influenza- or pneumonia-associated hospitalization, 7% (95% CI, −2% to 14%) against all-cause hospitalization, 14% (95% CI, −8% to 32%) against influenza- or pneumonia-associated outpatient visit, 5% (95% CI, 2%–8%) against all-cause outpatient visit, and 38% (95% CI, −5% to 65%) against laboratory-confirmed influenza.

Conclusions

In protecting senior VHA patients against influenza- or pneumonia-associated hospitalization, a high-dose influenza vaccine is more effective than a standard-dose vaccine.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/217/11/1718/4858294

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

May 31, 2018 at 8:30 am

Associations between biomarkers at discharge and co-morbidities and risk of readmission after community-acquired pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study

European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. June 2018 V.37 N.6 P.1103–1111

Pelle Trier Petersen, Gertrud Baunbæk Egelund, Andreas Vestergaard Jensen, Stine Bang Andersen, Merete Frejstrup Pedersen, Gernot Rohde & Pernille Ravn

To investigate whether hemoglobin, white blood cell count (WBC), urea, sodium, albumin, and C-reactive protein at discharge in patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are associated with 30-day readmission. This study is a retrospective cohort study, which included all adult patients discharged after hospitalization for CAP from three Danish hospitals between January 2011 and July 2012. The outcome was all-cause, unplanned, 30-day readmission. Biomarker concentrations at discharge were transformed into binary variables by using either upper or lower quartiles as cut-off; the upper quartile was used for WBC, urea, and C-reactive protein, and the lower quartile was used for hemoglobin, sodium, and albumin. The study population consisted of 1149 patients. One hundred eighty-four (16.0%) patients were readmitted. Independent risk factors of readmission were WBC ≥ 10.6 cells × 109/L (hazard ratio 1.50; 95% CI, 1.07–2.11) and albumin <32 g/L (hazard ratio 1.78; 95% CI, 1.24–2.54) at discharge and the presence of ≥ 2 co-morbidities (hazard ratio 1.74; 95% CI, 1.15–2.64). When WBC, albumin, and co-morbidities were combined into a risk-stratification tool, there was a step-wise increase in risk of readmission for patients with 1, 2, or 3 risk factors with hazard ratios of 1.76 (95% CI, 1.25–2.49), 2.59 (95% CI, 1.71–3.93), and 6.15 (95% CI 3.33–11.38), respectively. WBC ≥ 10.6 cells × 109/L and albumin < 32 g/L at discharge and the presence of ≥ 2 co-morbidities were independently associated with increased risk of 30-day readmission.

abstract

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10096-018-3224-8?wt_mc=alerts.TOCjournals&utm_source=toc&utm_medium=email&utm_content=10096&utm_campaign=

PDF

https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10096-018-3224-8.pdf

May 16, 2018 at 9:08 am

Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older — United States, 2018

MMWR February 2018 V.67 N.5 P.158-160

Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults

David K. Kim, MD1; Laura E. Riley, MD2; Paul Hunter, MD3

1Immunization Services Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC;

2Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts;

3University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.

Corresponding author: David K. Kim, dkim@cdc.gov  404-639-0969.

Describe el calendario de vacunación recomendado para adultos mayores de 19 años en los EEUU, con base en la orientación actualizada del Comité Asesor sobre Prácticas de Inmunización. Esta actividad está dirigida a especialistas en medicina familiar, especialistas en enfermedades infecciosas, enfermeras, obstetras y ginecólogos, farmacéuticos, funcionarios de salud pública y otros médicos que participan en la inmunización de adultos.

PDF

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/pdfs/mm6705e3-H.pdf

May 16, 2018 at 9:07 am

Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. 36 pags

MMWR RR January 12, 2018 V.67 N.1 P.

Sarah Schillie, MD1 Claudia Vellozzi, MD1 Arthur Reingold, MD2 Aaron Harris, MD1 Penina Haber, MPH3 John W. Ward, MD1 Noele P. Nelson, MD1

1Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC

2University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, California

3Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC

El virus de la hepatitis B (HBV) se transmite a través de la sangre o el contacto sexual. Las personas con infección crónica por HBV tienen un mayor riesgo de cirrosis y cáncer de hígado y requieren atención médica.

Este informe actualiza y resume recomendaciones previamente publicadas del Comité Asesor sobre Prácticas de Inmunización (ACIP) y el CDC con respecto a la prevención de la infección por el HBV en los EEUU.

El ACIP recomienda realizar pruebas a todas las embarazadas para detectar el antígeno de superficie de la hepatitis B (HBsAg) y analizar las embarazadas con el HBsAg-positivo realizando test molecular para el ácido desoxirribonucleico del virus de la hepatitis B (DNA del HBV); administración de vacuna HepB e inmunoglobulina antihepatitis B (HBIG) para recién nacidos de mujeres infectadas por el HBV dentro de las 12 horas posteriores al nacimiento, seguido de la finalización de la serie de vacunas y las pruebas serológicas post-vacunación; vacunación universal contra la hepatitis B dentro de las 24 horas posteriores al nacimiento, seguida de la finalización de la serie de vacunas; y la vacunación de niños y adolescentes < 19 años que no han sido vacunados previamente.

ACIP recomienda la vacunación de adultos en riesgo de infección por HBV, incluida la vacunación universal de adultos en entornos en los que una gran proporción tiene factores de riesgo de infección por HBV y vacunación de adultos que solicitan protección contra el HBV sin reconocimiento de un factor de riesgo específico. Estas recomendaciones también proporcionan orientación de los CDC para la profilaxis después de la exposición después de ocupacional y otras exposiciones.

Este informe también resume brevemente la Asociación Americana para el Estudio de Enfermedades Hepáticas publicada previamente, las guías para la terapia antiviral materna para reducir la transmisión perinatal del HBV.

PDF

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/rr/pdfs/rr6701-H.pdf

May 16, 2018 at 9:05 am

Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for Use of a Hepatitis B Vaccine with a Novel Adjuvant.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 20 Abr 2018;67(15):455-458.

Schillie S, Harris A, Link-Gelles R, Romero J, y cols.

Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination is the primary means of preventing infections and complications caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). On February 21, 2018, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended Heplisav-B (HepB-CpG), a yeast-derived vaccine prepared with a novel adjuvant, administered as a 2-dose series (0, 1 month) for use in persons aged ≥18 years. The ACIP Hepatitis Vaccines Work Group conducted a systematic review of the evidence, including data from four randomized controlled trials assessing prevention of HBV infection and six randomized controlled trials assessing adverse events in adults. Seroprotective antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) levels were achieved in 90.0%–100.0% of subjects receiving HepB-CpG (Dynavax Technologies Corporation), compared with 70.5%–90.2% of subjects receiving Engerix-B (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals). The benefits of protection with 2 doses administered over 1 month make HepB-CpG an important option for prevention of HBV…..

FULL TEXT

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6715a5.htm

PDF

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/pdfs/mm6715a5-H.pdf

May 9, 2018 at 7:56 am

Review – A Review of Evidence that Equine Influenza Viruses Are Zoonotic

Pathogens 2016, 5, 50; doi:10.3390/pathogens5030050

Tai Xie 1,2, Benjamin D. Anderson 1, Ulziimaa Daramragchaa 3, Maitsetset Chuluunbaatar 3 andGregory C. Gray 1,*

1 Division of Infectious Diseases and Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Tai.xie@duke.edu (T.X.); Benjamin.anderson2@duke.edu (B.D.A.)

2 Faculty of Health Service, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China

3 National Center for Zoonotic Diseases, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia; ulzima_d@yahoo.com (U.D.); ch.maitsetseg@gmail.com (M.C.)

* Correspondence: Gregory.gray@duke.edu

Entre los científicos, existen opiniones encontradas sobre si el virus de la gripe equina infecta al hombre. En este informe, resumimos una revisión sistemática e integral de 2016 del inglés, chino, y literatura científica de Mongolia con respecto a la evidencia de infecciones por el virus de la influenza equina en el hombre.

Las búsquedas en PubMed, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, CNKI, la base de datos Chongqing VIP, Wanfang Data y MongolMed arrojaron 2831 artículos, de los cuales 16 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión para esta revisión.

Teniendo en cuenta estas 16 publicaciones, hubo considerable evidencia experimental y observacional de que al menos los virus de la influenza equina H3N8 ocasionalmente han infectado al hombre.

En esta revisión resumimos los informes científicos más destacados

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5039430/pdf/pathogens-05-00050.pdf

 

April 9, 2018 at 1:10 pm

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