Posts filed under ‘Medicina del viajero’

Measles virus infection diminishes preexisting antibodies that offer protection from other pathogens.

Measles Virus Infection Negatively Affects Host Immune Status

New evidence shows that measles infection decreases the breadth and titers of preexisting antibodies to a wide variety of pathogens

SOURCE

Science. November 1, 2019 V.366 N.6465 P.599-606.

Mina MJ1,2,3, Kula T4,2, Leng Y4, Li M2, de Vries RD5, Knip M6,7, Siljander H6,7, Rewers M8, Choy DF9, Wilson MS9, Larman HB10, Nelson AN11, Griffin DE11, de Swart RL5, Elledge SJ1,2,12.

Author information

1 Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. selledge@genetics.med.harvard.edu  mmina@hsph.harvard.edu

2 Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

3 Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

4 Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

5 Department of Viroscience, Postgraduate School of Molecular Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, 3015 CN, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

6 Children’s Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 00290 Helsinki, Finland.

7 Research Program for Clinical and Molecular Metabolism, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.

8 Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO 80045, USA.

9 Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.

10 Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

11 W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

12Program in Virology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Abstract

Measles virus is directly responsible for more than 100,000 deaths yearly. Epidemiological studies have associated measles with increased morbidity and mortality for years after infection, but the reasons why are poorly understood. Measles virus infects immune cells, causing acute immune suppression. To identify and quantify long-term effects of measles on the immune system, we used VirScan, an assay that tracks antibodies to thousands of pathogen epitopes in blood. We studied 77 unvaccinated children before and 2 months after natural measles virus infection. Measles caused elimination of 11 to 73% of the antibody repertoire across individuals. Recovery of antibodies was detected after natural reexposure to pathogens. Notably, these immune system effects were not observed in infants vaccinated against MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella), but were confirmed in measles-infected macaques. The reduction in humoral immune memory after measles infection generates potential vulnerability to future infections, underscoring the need for widespread vaccination.

FULL TEXT

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/366/6465/599.long

PDF

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/366/6465/599.full.pdf

November 18, 2019 at 7:04 pm

Interventions to Reduce Measles Virus Exposures in Outpatient Health Care Facilities — New York City, 2018

MMWR Sep 13, 2019 V.68 N.36 P.794-792

Strengthening health care facility infection control is crucial to preventing infectious disease transmission.

Guidelines to prevent or minimize airborne pathogen spread in outpatient health care facilities exist (1); however, few reports describe practical implementation when engineering controls, such as recommended airborne infection isolation rooms (negative pressure rooms), are unavailable* (2).

On September 30, 2018, a person with measles, a highly contagious respiratory illness characterized by fever and rash, that is spread by airborne transmission, was detected in New York City (NYC),† and as of December 10, 42 laboratory or epidemiologically linked cases had been confirmed.

By September 3, 2019, with 654 confirmed cases, this measles outbreak had become the largest in the United States since 1992, well before endemic domestic measles transmission was declared eliminated in 2000§,¶ (3,4).

Interventions used in 15 outpatient health care facilities to attempt to prevent health care facility exposure from patients with suspected measles were evaluated….

FULL TEXT

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6836a2.htm?s_cid=mm6836a2_w

PDF

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/pdfs/mm6836a2-H.pdf

September 20, 2019 at 3:54 pm

ARGENTINA – Confirmación de tres nuevos casos de sarampión en niños. Alto riesgo de transmisibilidad

ACTUALIZACIÓN EPIDEMIOLÓGICA 13/0/2019 – Ministerio salud Nación

En virtud de la situación epidemiológica regional y local respecto a la confirmación de tres casos de

sarampión en niños residentes de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y la Provincia de Buenos Aires, la

Secretaria de Gobierno de Salud emite la siguiente actualización…..

TEXTO COMPLETO

https://www.argentina.gob.ar/sites/default/files/sarampion_13_septiembre_2019.pdf

 

– – –

September 14, 2019 at 9:39 am

Sep. 11, 2019 Confirmación de dos casos de sarampión en viajeros. Alto riesgo de transmisibilidad Ministerio Salud Argentina

ACTUALIZACION EPIDEMIOLOGICA

En virtud de la situación del brote de sarampión en Brasil y otros países de la región y el mundo, y la confirmación de dos casos en turistas extranjeros arribados a España provenientes de Argentina con diagnóstico de sarampión, la Secretaria de Gobierno de Salud emite la siguiente actualización …

Boletín completo

https://www.argentina.gob.ar/sites/default/files/sarampion_alerta-11-09-2019.pdf

September 12, 2019 at 7:54 am

Confirmación de caso de sarampión en Ciudad de Buenos Aires con antecedente de viaje a Brasil

ALERTA EPIDEMIOLÓGICA 4/Septiembre/2019 – SE 36

En virtud de la situación de brote de sarampión en Brasil y otros países de la región y el mundo, y la confirmación de un caso en un ciudadano argentino con antecedente de viaje, la Secretaría de Gobierno de Salud emite el presente alerta:

SITUACIÓN ACTUAL

Se confirmó un caso de sarampión en un hombre de 44 años residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, atendido en efector privado, con antecedente de viaje a Brasil, que comenzó con fiebre el día 10 de agosto, agregando exantema cuatro días después. El caso se confirmó por serología (IgM positiva en suero) y seroconversión de IgG, así como RT-PCR positiva en orina. Las muestras fueron procesadas por el efector privado y se confirmaron en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia ANLIS Carlos G. Malbrán. Se encuentran en desarrollo las pruebas para identificación de genotipo y linaje viral. La fuente de infección está en investigación. Se iniciaron acciones de prevención y control en los contactos del caso, quienes se encuentran en seguimiento…

ARTICULO COMPLETO

https://www.argentina.gob.ar/sites/default/files/2019-09-04-alerta-sarampion.pdf

September 9, 2019 at 3:10 pm

Cryptosporidiosis Outbreaks — United States, 2009–2017

MMWR  June 28, 2019  V.68 N.25 P.568–572

Radhika Gharpure, DVM1,2; Ariana Perez, MPH1,3; Allison D. Miller, MPH1,4; Mary E. Wikswo, MPH5; Rachel Silver, MPH1,3; Michele C. Hlavsa, MPH1

Summary

What is already known about this topic?

Cryptosporidium is the leading cause of outbreaks of diarrhea linked to water and the third leading cause of diarrhea associated with animal contact in the United States.

What is added by this report?

During 2009–2017, 444 cryptosporidiosis outbreaks, resulting in 7,465 cases were reported by 40 states and Puerto Rico. The number of reported outbreaks has increased an average of approximately 13% per year. Leading causes include swallowing contaminated water in pools or water playgrounds, contact with infected cattle, and contact with infected persons in child care settings.

What are the implications for public health practice?

To prevent cryptosporidiosis outbreaks, CDC recommends not swimming or attending child care if ill with diarrhea and recommends hand washing after contact with animals….

FULL TEXT

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6825a3.htm#contribAff

PDF

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/pdfs/mm6825a3-H.pdf

 

July 1, 2019 at 11:03 am

American trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease – Sexual transmission

International Journal of Infectious Diseases April 2019 V.81 N.4 P.81-84

Clever Gomes, Adriana B. Almeida, Ana C. Rosa, Perla F. Araujo, Antonio R.L. Teixeira

Highlights

  • Trypanosoma cruzi infection can be transmitted sexually from males and females to naïve mates.
  • T. cruzi parasites were detected in semen ejaculates from individuals with Chagas disease by nucleic acid techniques.
  • Semen aliquots from humans with Chagas disease instilled into the vagina of naïve female mice resulted in T. cruzi infections.
  • Breeding T. cruzi-infected male and female mice vertically transmitted the infection to progeny mice.

Objective

To contribute to the discussion on the research findings indicating the sexual transmission of American trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease in humans.

Methods

A review of the literature was performed to investigate the routes of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites and to evaluate the distribution of Chagas disease, which is now found across five continents.

Results

The epidemiological profile of American trypanosomiasis, which is still considered a neglected disease of the poor people of Latin America, has changed over time. A family-based study demonstrated that the blood protozoan T. cruzi can be transmitted sexually from infected males and females to naïve mates.

Conclusions

Evidence that Chagas disease can be transmitted sexually, coupled with the migration of individuals with Chagas disease to previously non-endemic countries and increased travel to endemic countries, has implications for public health. Improved screening of blood supplies and prenatal care are required to prevent congenital spread.

FULL TEXT

https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(19)30032-3/fulltext

PDF

https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(19)30032-3/pdf

June 30, 2019 at 12:18 pm

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