Posts filed under ‘Meta-Análisis’

Comparative efficacy and safety of treatment options for MDR and XDR Acinetobacter baumannii infections: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy January 1, 2018 V.73 N.1 P.22-32.

Kengkla K1, Kongpakwattana K2, Saokaew S1,2,3,4, Apisarnthanarak A5, Chaiyakunapruk N2,3,6,4.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To comprehensively compare and rank the efficacy and safety of available treatment options for patients with MDR and XDR Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) infection.

METHODS:

We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane register of trials systematically for studies that examined treatment options for patients with MDR- and XDR-AB infections until April 2016. Network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed to estimate the risk ratio (RR) and 95% CI from both direct and indirect evidence. Primary outcomes were clinical cure and microbiological cure. Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality and nephrotoxic and non-nephrotoxic adverse events.

RESULTS:

A total of 29 studies with 2529 patients (median age 60 years; 65% male; median APACHE II score 19.0) were included. Although there were no statistically significant differences between treatment options, triple therapy with colistin, sulbactam and tigecycline had the highest clinical cure rate. Colistin in combination with sulbactam was associated with a significantly higher microbiological cure rate compared with colistin in combination with tigecycline (RR 1.23; 95% CI 1.03-1.47) and colistin monotherapy (RR 1.21; 95% CI 1.06-1.38). No significant differences in all-cause mortality were noted between treatment options. Tigecycline-based therapy also appeared less effective for achieving a microbiological cure and is not appropriate for treating bloodstream MDR- and XDR-AB infections.

CONCLUSIONS:

Combination therapy of colistin with sulbactam demonstrates superiority in terms of microbiological cure with a safety profile similar to that of colistin monotherapy. Thus, our findings support the use of this combination as a treatment for MDR- and XDR-AB infections.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/jac/article/73/1/22/4563557

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March 16, 2019 at 11:15 am

Diagnostic value of symptoms and signs for identifying urinary tract infection in older adult outpatients: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal of  Infection  November 2018 V.77 N.5 P.379-390.

Gbinigie OA1, Ordóñez-Mena JM2, Fanshawe TR3, Plüddemann A4, Heneghan C5.

Author information

1 Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Primary Care Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG, United Kingdom. Electronic address: oghenekome.gbinigie@phc.ox.ac.uk.

2 Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Primary Care Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG, United Kingdom. Electronic address: jose.ordonezmena@phc.ox.ac.uk.

3 Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Primary Care Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG, United Kingdom. Electronic address: thomas.fanshawe@phc.ox.ac.uk.

4 Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Primary Care Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG, United Kingdom. Electronic address: annette.pluddemann@phc.ox.ac.uk.

5 Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Primary Care Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6GG, United Kingdom. Electronic address: carl.heneghan@phc.ox.ac.uk.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To critically appraise and evaluate the diagnostic value of symptoms and signs in identifying UTI in older adult outpatients, using evidence from observational studies.

METHODS:

We searched Medline and Medline in process, Embase and Web of Science, from inception up to September 2017. We included studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and/or signs in predicting UTI in outpatients aged 65 years and above. Study quality was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool.

RESULTS:

We identified 15 eligible studies of variable quality, with a total of 12,039 participants (range 65-4259), and assessed the diagnostic accuracy of 66 different symptoms and signs in predicting UTI. A number of symptoms and signs typically associated with UTI, such as nocturia, urgency and abnormal vital signs, were of limited use in older adult outpatients. Inability to perform a number of acts of daily living were predictors of UTI: For example, disability in feeding oneself, + ve LR: 11.8 (95% CI 5.51-25.2) and disability in washing one’s hands and face, + ve LR: 6.84 (95% CI 4.08-11.5).

CONCLUSIONS:

The limited evidence of varying quality shows that a number of symptoms and signs traditionally associated with UTI may have limited diagnostic value in older adult outpatients.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6203890/pdf/main.pdf

March 15, 2019 at 3:32 pm

Effectiveness of the ribavirin in treatment of hantavirus infections in the Americas and Eurasia: a meta-analysis

Virus disease. September 2014 V.25 N.3 P. 385–389

Marcos L. Moreli,corresponding author Ariany C. Marques-Silva, Vagner A. Pimentel, and Vivaldo G. da Costa

Virology Laboratory, Federal University of Goiás, Jataí, Brazil

Marcos L. Moreli, Email: rb.gfu.iataj@ileromlm

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) are transmitted to humans through infection with the old- and new-world hantaviruses, respectively.

Together these diseases affect tens of thousands of people every year, and no specific treatment is available.

To investigate whether ribavirin treatment for hantaviruses infections decreases disease severity, we conducted a meta-analysis involving human and animal studies.

After defining the research protocol and criteria for inclusion/exclusion, we identified seven studies. We found that in groups with HPS who were treated with ribavirin, there was no significant reduction in mortality (RR 0.99, 95 % CI 0.60–1.61, I2 = 0 %).

On the other hand, for animal group with HPS-like disease, there was significant increase in survival (RR 0.05, 95 % CI 0.01–0.34, I2 = 0 %).

For animal group infected with the old-world hantaviruses, treated with ribavirin, there was a statistically significant increase in survival (RR 0.56, 95 % CI 0.42–0.76, I2 = 64 %).

Similarly, for humans with HFRS treated, there was increase in survival (RR 0.28, 95 % CI 0.08–1), although only a study exist.

Our meta-analysis provides data that should be interpreted with caution, partly due to the limited number of studies available.

Additionally, the results of the application of ribavirin in the population with HPS could not be determined, particularly in patients in the end stage of this disease.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4188213/pdf/13337_2014_Article_219.pdf

January 12, 2019 at 12:17 pm

Diagnostic value of symptoms and signs for identifying urinary tract infection in older adult outpatients: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Journal of Infection November 2018 V.77 N.5 P.379–390

Oghenekome A. Gbinigie, José M. Ordóñez-Mena, Thomas R. Fanshawe, Annette Plüddemann, Carl Heneghan

Highlights

  • Older adults may present atypically with UTI and making a diagnosis can be difficult.
  • There is limited authoritative guidance on how older adult outpatients present with UTI.
  • Symptoms and signs traditionally associated with UTI (e.g. nocturia, urgency and abnormal vital signs) may have limited utility in diagnosing these infections in older adult outpatients.
  • Disability in performing a number of acts of daily living may be better predictors of UTI; high quality studies should be conducted in this area to confirm this

Objectives

To critically appraise and evaluate the diagnostic value of symptoms and signs in identifying UTI in older adult outpatients, using evidence from observational studies.

Methods

We searched Medline and Medline in process, Embase and Web of Science, from inception up to September 2017. We included studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and/or signs in predicting UTI in outpatients aged 65 years and above. Study quality was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool.

Results

We identified 15 eligible studies of variable quality, with a total of 12,039 participants (range 65–4259), and assessed the diagnostic accuracy of 66 different symptoms and signs in predicting UTI. A number of symptoms and signs typically associated with UTI, such as nocturia, urgency and abnormal vital signs, were of limited use in older adult outpatients. Inability to perform a number of acts of daily living were predictors of UTI: For example, disability in feeding oneself, + ve LR: 11.8 (95% CI 5.51–25.2) and disability in washing one’s hands and face, + ve LR: 6.84 (95% CI 4.08–11.5).

Conclusions

The limited evidence of varying quality shows that a number of symptoms and signs traditionally associated with UTI may have limited diagnostic value in older adult outpatients.

FULL TEXT

https://www.journalofinfection.com/article/S0163-4453(18)30190-7/fulltext

PDF

https://www.journalofinfection.com/article/S0163-4453(18)30190-7/pdf

January 12, 2019 at 9:59 am

Comparison Between Carbapenems and β-Lactam/β-Lactamase Inhibitors in the Treatment for Bloodstream Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Open Forum Infect Dis. 16 May 2017;4(2):ofx099.

Muhammed M, Flokas ME, Detsis M, Alevizakos M, y col.  

Background.

Carbapenems are widely used for the management of bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE). However, the wide use of carbapenems has been associated with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae development.

Methods.

We searched the PubMed and Scopus databases (last search date was on June 1, 2016) looking for studies that reported mortality in adult patients with ESBL-PE BSIs that were treated with carbapenems or β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors (BL/BLIs).

Results.

Fourteen studies reported mortality data in adult patients with ESBL-PE BSI that were treated with carbapenems or BL/BLIs. Among them, 13 studies reported extractable data on empiric therapy, with no statistically significant difference in mortality of patients with ESBL-PE BSI that were treated empirically with carbapenems (22.1%; 121 of 547), compared with those that received empiric BL/BLIs (20.5%; 109 of 531; relative risk [RR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83–1.37; I2 = 20.7%; P = .241). In addition, 7 studies reported data on definitive therapy. In total, 767 patients (79.3%) received carbapenems and 199 patients (20.6%) received BL/BLIs as definitive therapy, and there was again no statistically significant difference (RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.25–1.52; I2 = 84.6%; P < .001). Regarding specific pathogens, the use of empiric BL/BLIs in patients with BSI due to ESBL-Escherichia coli was not associated with a statistically significant difference in mortality (RR, 1.014; 95% CI, 0.491–2.095; I2 = 62.5%; P = .046), compared with the use of empiric carbapenems.

Conclusions.

These data do not support the wide use of carbapenems as empiric therapy, and BL/BLIs might be effective agents for initial/empiric therapy for patients with BSI caused by likely ESBL-PE, and especially ESBL-E coli.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/ofid/article/4/2/ofx099/3828264

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September 20, 2018 at 3:31 pm

Effects of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection on Sexual Risk Behavior in Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Clinical Infectious Diseases September 1, 2018 V.67 N.5 P.676–686

EDITOR’S CHOICE

Michael W Traeger; Sophia E Schroeder; Edwina J Wright; Margaret E Hellard; Vincent J Cornelisse..

This systematic review and meta-analysis of 17 open-label studies published to 2017 found that daily HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis use among men who have sex with men is associated with increased sexually transmitted infection diagnoses and an increase in condomless sex.

Background

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective in reducing HIV risk in men who have sex with men (MSM). However, concerns remain that risk compensation in PrEP users may lead to decreased condom use and increased incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the impact of PrEP on sexual risk outcomes in MSM.

Methods

We conducted a systematic review of open-label studies published to August 2017 that reported sexual risk outcomes in the context of daily oral PrEP use in HIV-negative MSM and transgender women. Pooled effect estimates were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis, and a qualitative review and risk of bias assessment were performed.

Results

Sixteen observational studies and 1 open-label trial met selection criteria. Eight studies with a total of 4388 participants reported STI prevalence, and 13 studies with a total of 5008 participants reported change in condom use. Pre-exposure prophylaxis use was associated with a significant increase in rectal chlamydia (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19–2.13) and an increase in any STI diagnosis (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, .99–1.54). The association of PrEP use with STI diagnoses was stronger in later studies. Most studies showed evidence of an increase in condomless sex among PrEP users.

Conclusion

Findings highlight the importance of efforts to minimize STIs among PrEP users and their sexual partners. Monitoring of risk compensation among MSM in the context of PrEP scale-up is needed to assess the impact of PrEP on the sexual health of MSM and to inform preventive strategies.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/67/5/676/4917600

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

September 2, 2018 at 10:36 am

Antibiotic prophylaxis in ureteroscopic lithotripsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies.

BJU Int. 2018 Jul;122(1):29-39.

Deng T1,2,3, Liu B4, Duan X1,2,3, Cai C1,2,3, Zhao Z1,2,3, Zhu W1,2,3, Fan J1,2,3, Wu W1,2,3, Zeng G1,2,3.

Author information

1 Department of Urology, Minimally Invasive Surgery Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

2 Guangzhou Institute of Urology, Guangzhou, China.

3 Guangdong Key Laboratory of Urology, Guangzhou, China.

4 The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To explore the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and the different strategies used to prevent infection in ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URL) by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A systematic literature search using Pubmed, Embase, Medline, the Cochrane Library, and the Chinese CBM, CNKI and VIP databases was performed to find comparative studies on the efficacy of different antibiotic prophylaxis strategies in URL for preventing postoperative infections. The last search was conducted on 25 June 2017. Summarized unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the efficacy of different antibiotic prophylaxis strategies.

RESULTS:

A total of 11 studies in 4 591 patients were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. No significant difference was found in the risk of postoperative febrile urinary tract infections (fUTIs) between groups with and without antibiotic prophylaxis (OR: 0.82, 95% CI 0.40-1.67; P = 0.59). Patients receiving a single dose of preoperative antibiotics had a significantly lower risk of pyuria (OR: 0.42, 95% CI 0.25-0.69; P = 0.0007) and bacteriuria (OR: 0.25, 95% CI 0.11-0.58; P = 0.001) than those who did not. Intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis was not superior to single-dose oral antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing fUTI (OR: 1.00, 95% CI 0.26-3.88; P = 1.00).

CONCLUSIONS:

We concluded that preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis did not lower the risk of postoperative fUTI, but a single dose could reduce the incidence of pyuria or bacteriuria. A single oral dose of preventive antibiotics is preferred because of its cost-effectiveness. The efficacy of different types of antibiotics and other strategies could not be assessed in our meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials with a larger sample size and more rigorous study design are needed to validate these conclusions.

FULL TEXT

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bju.14101

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July 27, 2018 at 12:59 pm

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