Posts filed under ‘Metodos diagnosticos’

Comparing a single-day swabbing regimen with an established 3-day protocol for MRSA decolonization control

Clinical Microbiology abd Infection May 2018 V.24 N.5 P.522–527

Frickmann, N.G. Schwarz, A. Hahn, A. Ludyga, P. Warnke, A. Podbielski

Objectives

Success of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decolonization procedures is usually verified by control swabs of the colonized body region. This prospective controlled study compared a single-day regimen with a well-established 3-day scheme for noninferiority and adherence to the testing scheme.

Methods

Two sampling schemes for screening MRSA patients of a single study cohort at a German tertiary-care hospital 2 days after decolonization were compared regarding their ability to identify MRSA colonization in throat or nose. In each patient, three nose and three throat swabs were taken at 3- to 4-hour intervals during screening day 1, and in the same patients once daily on days 1, 2 and 3. Swabs were analysed using chromogenic agar and broth enrichment. The study aimed to investigate whether the single-day swabbing scheme is not inferior to the 3-day scheme with a 15% noninferiority margin.

Results

One hundred sixty patients were included, comprising 105 and 101 patients with results on all three swabs for decolonization screening of the nose and throat, respectively. Noninferiority of the single-day swabbing scheme was confirmed for both pharyngeal and nasal swabs, with 91.8% and 89% agreement, respectively. The absolute difference of positivity rates between the swabbing regimens was 0.025 (−0.082, 0.131) for the nose and 0.006 (−0.102, 0.114) (95% confidence interval) for the pharynx as calculated with McNemar’s test for matched or paired data. Compliance with the single-day scheme was better, with 12% lacking second-day swabs and 27% lacking third-day swabs from the nostrils.

Conclusions

The better adherence to the single-day screening scheme with noninferiority suggests its implementation as the new gold standard.

FULL TEXT

https://www.clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com/article/S1198-743X(17)30480-9/fulltext

PDF

https://www.clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com/article/S1198-743X(17)30480-9/pdf

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June 12, 2018 at 8:15 am

Selective digestive and oropharyngeal decontamination in medical and surgical ICU patients: individual patient data meta-analysis

Clinical Microbiology abd Infection May 2018 V.24 N.5 P.505-513

N.L. Plantinga, A.M.G.A. de Smet, E.A.N. Oostdijk, E. de Jonge, C. Camus, W.A. Krueger, D. Bergmans, J.B. Reitsma, M.J.M. Bonten

Objectives

Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) improved intensive care unit (ICU), hospital and 28-day survival in ICUs with low levels of antibiotic resistance. Yet it is unclear whether the effect differs between medical and surgical ICU patients.

Methods

In an individual patient data meta-analysis, we systematically searched PubMed and included all randomized controlled studies published since 2000. We performed a two-stage meta-analysis with separate logistic regression models per study and per outcome (hospital survival and ICU survival) and subsequent pooling of main and interaction effects.

Results

Six studies, all performed in countries with low levels of antibiotic resistance, yielded 16 528 hospital admissions and 17 884 ICU admissions for complete case analysis. Compared to standard care or placebo, the pooled adjusted odds ratios for hospital mortality was 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72–0.93) for SDD and 0.84 (95% CI 0.73–0.97) for SOD. Compared to SOD, the adjusted odds ratio for hospital mortality was 0.90 (95% CI 0.82–0.97) for SDD. The effects on hospital mortality were not modified by type of ICU admission (p values for interaction terms were 0.66 for SDD and control, 0.87 for SOD and control and 0.47 for SDD and SOD). Similar results were found for ICU mortality.

Conclusions

In ICUs with low levels of antibiotic resistance, the effectiveness of SDD and SOD was not modified by type of ICU admission. SDD and SOD improved hospital and ICU survival compared to standard care in both patient populations, with SDD being more effective than SOD.

FULL TEXT

https://www.clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com/article/S1198-743X(17)30477-9/fulltext

PDF

https://www.clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com/article/S1198-743X(17)30477-9/pdf

 

June 12, 2018 at 8:07 am

Minireview – Nipah Virus Infection

J. Clin. Microbiol. June 2018 56:10 e01875-17

Brenda S. P. Ang, Tchoyoson C. C. Lim, and Linfa Wang

Nipah virus, a paramyxovirus related to Hendra virus, first emerged in Malaysia in 1998.

Clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal encephalitis.

Malaysia has had no more cases since 1999, but outbreaks continue to occur in Bangladesh and India.

In the Malaysia-Singapore outbreak, transmission occurred primarily through contact with pigs, whereas in Bangladesh and India, it is associated with ingestion of contaminated date palm sap and human-to-human transmission.

Bats are the main reservoir for this virus, which can cause disease in humans and animals.

There are currently no effective therapeutics, and supportive care and prevention are the mainstays of management.

abstract

http://jcm.asm.org/content/56/6/e01875-17.abstract

PDF

http://jcm.asm.org/content/56/6/e01875-17.full.pdf+html

June 12, 2018 at 7:37 am

Diagnostic Performance of a Molecular Test versus Clinician Assessment of Vaginitis

Clin. Microbiol. June 2018 56:13 e00252-18

Jane R. Schwebke, Charlotte A. Gaydos, Paul Nyirjesy, Sonia Paradis, Salma Kodsi, and Charles K. Cooper

Vaginitis is a common complaint, diagnosed either empirically or using Amsel’s criteria and wet mount microscopy. This study sought to determine characteristics of an investigational test (a molecular test for vaginitis), compared to reference, for detection of bacterial vaginosis, Candida spp., and Trichomonas vaginalis. Vaginal specimens from a cross-sectional study were obtained from 1,740 women (≥18 years old), with vaginitis symptoms, during routine clinic visits (across 10 sites in the United States).

Specimens were analyzed using a commercial PCR/fluorogenic probe-based investigational test that detects bacterial vaginosis, Candida spp., and Trichomonas vaginalis. Clinician diagnosis and in-clinic testing (Amsel’s test, potassium hydroxide preparation, and wet mount) were also employed to detect the three vaginitis causes.

All testing methods were compared to the respective reference methods (Nugent Gram stain for bacterial vaginosis, detection of the Candida gene its2, and Trichomonas vaginalis culture). The investigational test, clinician diagnosis, and in-clinic testing were compared to reference methods for bacterial vaginosis, Candida spp., and Trichomonas vaginalis.

The investigational test resulted in significantly higher sensitivity and negative predictive value than clinician diagnosis or in-clinic testing. In addition, the investigational test showed a statistically higher overall percent agreement with each of the three reference methods than did clinician diagnosis or in-clinic testing.

The investigational test showed significantly higher sensitivity for detecting vaginitis, involving more than one cause, than did clinician diagnosis. Taken together, these results suggest that a molecular investigational test can facilitate accurate detection of vaginitis.

abstract

http://jcm.asm.org/content/56/6/e00252-18.abstract

PDF

http://jcm.asm.org/content/56/6/e00252-18.full.pdf+html

June 12, 2018 at 7:34 am

Antibiotic Resistance and the Risk of Recurrent Bacteremia

Clinical Infectious Diseases June 1, 2018 V.66 N.11 P.1651–1657

Sjoukje H S Woudt; Sabine C de Greeff; Annelot F Schoffelen; Anne L M Vlek; Marc J M Bonten …

Background

Direct health effects of antibiotic resistance are difficult to assess. We quantified the risk of recurrent bacteremia associated with resistance.

Methods

We extracted antimicrobial susceptibility testing data on blood isolates from the Dutch surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance between 2008 and 2017. First and first recurrent (4–30 days) bacteremia episodes were categorized as susceptible, single nonsusceptible, or co-nonsusceptible to third-generation cephalosporins without or with carbapenems (Enterobacteriaceae), ceftazidime without or with carbapenems (Pseudomonas species), aminopenicillins without or with vancomycin (Enterococcus species), or as methicillin-sensitive/-resistant S. aureus (MSSA/MRSA). We calculated risks of recurrent bacteremia after nonsusceptible vs susceptible first bacteremia, estimated the crude population attributable effect of resistance for the Netherlands, and calculated risks of nonsusceptible recurrent bacteremia after a susceptible first episode.

Results

Risk ratios for recurrent bacteremia after a single- and co-nonsusceptible first episode, respectively, vs susceptible first episode, were 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5–2.0) and 5.2 (95% CI, 2.1–12.4) for Enterobacteriaceae, 1.3 (95% CI, 0.5–3.1) and 5.0 (95% CI, 2.9–8.5) for Pseudomonas species, 1.4 (95% CI, 1.2–1.7) and 1.6 (95% CI, 0.6–4.2) for Enterococcus species, and 1.6 (95% CI, 1.1–2.4) for MRSA vs MSSA. The estimated population annual number of recurrent bacteremias associated with nonsusceptibility was 40. The risk of nonsusceptible recurrent bacteremia after a susceptible first episode was at most 0.4% (Pseudomonas species).

Conclusions

Although antibiotic nonsusceptibility was consistently associated with higher risks of recurrent bacteremia, the estimated annual number of additional recurrent episodes in the Netherlands (40) was rather limited.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/66/11/1651/4706269

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

June 10, 2018 at 7:22 pm

Duration of exposure to multiple antibiotics is associated with increased risk of VRE bacteraemia: a nested case-control study

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy June 2018 V.73 N.6 P.1692–1699

Theodore Gouliouris; Ben Warne; Edward J P Cartwright; Luke Bedford; Chathika K Weerasuriya …

Background

VRE bacteraemia has a high mortality and continues to defy control. Antibiotic risk factors for VRE bacteraemia have not been adequately defined. We aimed to determine the risk factors for VRE bacteraemia focusing on duration of antibiotic exposure.

Methods

A retrospective matched nested case-control study was conducted amongst hospitalized patients at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012. Cases who developed a first episode of VRE bacteraemia were matched 1:1 to controls by length of stay, year, specialty and ward type. Independent risk factors for VRE bacteraemia were evaluated using conditional logistic regression.

Results

Two hundred and thirty-five cases were compared with 220 controls. Duration of exposure to parenteral vancomycin, fluoroquinolones and meropenem was independently associated with VRE bacteraemia. Compared with patients with no exposure to vancomycin, those who received courses of 1–3 days, 4–7 days or >7 days had a stepwise increase in risk of VRE bacteraemia [conditional OR (cOR) 1.2 (95% CI 0.4–3.8), 3.8 (95% CI 1.2–11.7) and 6.6 (95% CI 1.9–22.8), respectively]. Other risk factors were: presence of a central venous catheter (CVC) [cOR 8.7 (95% CI 2.6–29.5)]; neutropenia [cOR 15.5 (95% CI 4.2–57.0)]; hypoalbuminaemia [cOR 8.5 (95% CI 2.4–29.5)]; malignancy [cOR 4.4 (95% CI 1.6–12.0)]; gastrointestinal disease [cOR 12.4 (95% CI 4.2–36.8)]; and hepatobiliary disease [cOR 7.9 (95% CI 2.1–29.9)].

Conclusions

Longer exposure to vancomycin, fluoroquinolones or meropenem was associated with VRE bacteraemia. Antimicrobial stewardship interventions targeting high-risk antibiotics are required to complement infection control procedures against VRE bacteraemia.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/jac/article/73/6/1692/4934161

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

June 10, 2018 at 7:20 pm

Respiratory Syncytial Virus During Pregnancy

Clinical Infectious Diseases June 1, 2018 V.66 N.11 P.1666–1667

Fernando P Polack

Fundacion INFANT, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Correspondence: F. P. Polack, Fundacion INFANT, Gavilan 94, Buenos Aires (1406), Argentina (Fernando.p.polack@vanderbilt.edu).

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main viral cause of hospitalization in infants and young children worldwide [1]. More than 3 million severe cases and close to 100 000 pediatric deaths every year, half of them at home, demand effective interventions to mitigate disease burden [1]. Addressing this challenge is not easy, however, in part because more than 90% of severe cases and 99% of fatalities due to RSV occur in the developing world [1]. In fact, severe cases in industrialized countries almost exclusively affect high-risk groups that represent only a subset of those burdened by serious illness in developing nations. Congenital heart disease, neuromuscular disorders, chronic lung illness, and/or Down syndrome are almost ubiquitous in fatal cases in industrialized countries [2]. On the other hand, secondary bacterial infections and …

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/66/11/1666/4749761

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

June 10, 2018 at 7:19 pm

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