Posts filed under ‘Metodos diagnosticos’

The road to elimination of hepatitis C: analysis of cures versus new infections in 91 countries

Journal of Virus Eradication July 2017

Andrew M Hill1* , Sanjay Nath2 , Bryony Simmons2

1 Department of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK

2 Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK

Abstract

Background

Hepatitis C (HCV) can only be eradicated if annual rates of cure (SVR) are consistently and significantly higher than new HCV infections, across many countries. In 2016, the WHO called for a 90% reduction in new HCV infection by 2030. Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) can cure the majority of those treated, at around 90% in most populations, at potentially very low prices. We compared the net annual change in epidemic size across 91 countries using data on SVR, new HCV infections, and deaths. In a further 109 countries, we projected this figure using regional averages of epidemic size.

Methods

Epidemiological data for 2016 were extracted from national reports, publications and the Polaris Observatory. There were 91/210 countries with data on SVR, HCV-related deaths and new infections available for analysis; 109 countries had net change in epidemic size projected from the regional prevalence of HCV, extrapolated to their population size. ‘Net cure’ was defined as the number of people with SVR, minus new HCV infections, plus HCV-related deaths in 2016.

Results

For the 91 countries analysed, there were 57.3 million people with chronic HCV infection in 2016. In the remaining 109 countries, the projected epidemic size was 12.2 million, giving a global epidemic size of 69.6 million. Across the 91 countries, there was a fall from 57.3 to 56.9 million people in 2017, a 0.7% reduction. The projected global net change was from 69.6 to 69.3 million, a 0.4% reduction. Ten countries had at least five times more people reaching SVR than new HCV infections, including Egypt and USA. In 47/91 countries, there were more HCV infections than SVR in 2016.

Conclusion

Very few countries are on target to achieve elimination of HCV as a public health problem by 2030. While the North American, North African/Middle East and Western European regions have shown small declines in prevalence, the epidemic is growing in sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe. Far higher rates of DAA treatment are required for worldwide elimination of HCV.

FULL TEXT

http://viruseradication.com/journal-details/The_road_to_elimination_of_hepatitis_C:_analysis_of_cures_versus_new_infections_in_91_countries/

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September 25, 2017 at 8:21 am

Recommendations for prevention of surgical site infection in adult elective arthroplasty.

Medicina (B Aires). 2017;77(2):143-157.

[Article in Spanish]

Chuluyán JC1, Vila A2, Chattás AL3, Montero M3, Pensotti C4, Tosello C5, Sánchez M6, Vera Ocampo C7, Kremer G8, Quirós R8, Benchetrit GA9, Pérez CF10, Terusi AL11, Nacinovich F12.

Author information

1 Grupo de Trabajo Infectología, Hospital General de Agudos Dr. T. álvarez, Argentina. E-mail: jcchulu@gmail.com

2 Servicio de Infectología, Hospital Italiano de Mendoza, Mendoza, Argentina.

3 Hospital General de Agudos Dr. Pirovano, Argentina.

4 Clínica Monte Grande, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

5 Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín, UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

6 Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

7 Sanatorio Dupuytren, Argentina.

8 Hospital Universitario Austral, Argentina.

9 Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas A. Lanari, UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

10 Policlínico del Docente-Centro Médico Huésped, Argentina.

11 Instituto César Milstein, Argentina.

12 Instituto Cardiovascular de Buenos Aires, Centros Médicos Dr. Stamboulian, Argentina.

Abstract

Surgical site infections complicating orthopedic implant surgeries prolong hospital stay and increase risk of readmission, hospitalization costs and mortality.

These recommendations are aimed at:

(i) optimizing compliance and incorporating habits in all surgery phases by detecting risk factors for surgical site infections which are potentially correctable or modifiable; and

(ii) optimizing preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis as well as intraoperative and postoperative care.

PDF

http://www.medicinabuenosaires.com/PMID/28463223.pdf

September 25, 2017 at 7:35 am

Trends in antimicrobial resistance in bloodstream infection isolates at a large urban hospital in Malawi (1998–2016): a surveillance study

Lancet Infectious Diseases October 2017 V.17 N.10

Patrick Musicha, MSc, Jennifer E Cornick, PhD, Naor Bar-Zeev, PhD, Prof Neil French, Clemens Masesa, MSc, Brigitte Denis, MSc, Neil Kennedy, MMedSci, Jane Mallewa, MD, Prof Melita A Gordon, MD, Chisomo L Msefula, PhD, Prof Robert S Heyderman, PhD, Dean B Everett, PhD, Dr Nicholas A Feasey, PhD

Background

Bacterial bloodstream infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, yet few facilities are able to maintain long-term surveillance. The Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme has done sentinel surveillance of bacteraemia since 1998. We report long-term trends in bloodstream infection and antimicrobial resistance from this surveillance.

Methods

In this surveillance study, we analysed blood cultures that were routinely taken from adult and paediatric patients with fever or suspicion of sepsis admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi from 1998 to 2016. The hospital served an urban population of 920 000 in 2016, with 1000 beds, although occupancy often exceeds capacity. The hospital admits about 10 000 adults and 30 000 children each year. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done by the disc diffusion method according to British Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy guidelines. We used the Cochran-Armitage test for trend to examine trends in rates of antimicrobial resistance, and negative binomial regression to examine trends in icidence of bloodstream infection over time.

Findings

Between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2016, we isolated 29 183 pathogens from 194 539 blood cultures. Pathogen detection decreased significantly from 327·1/100 000 in 1998 to 120·2/100 000 in 2016 (p<0·0001). 13 366 (51·1%) of 26 174 bacterial isolates were resistant to the Malawian first-line antibiotics amoxicillin or penicillin, chloramphenicol, and co-trimoxazole; 68·3% of Gram-negative and 6·6% of Gram-positive pathogens. The proportions of non-Salmonella Enterobacteriaceae with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) or fluoroquinolone resistance rose significantly after 2003 to 61·9% in 2016 (p<0·0001). Between 2003 and 2016, ESBL resistance rose from 0·7% to 30·3% in Escherichia coli, from 11·8% to 90·5% in Klebsiella spp and from 30·4% to 71·9% in other Enterobacteriaceae. Similarly, resistance to ciprofloxacin rose from 2·5% to 31·1% in E coli, from 1·7% to 70·2% in Klebsiella spp and from 5·9% to 68·8% in other Enterobacteriaceae. By contrast, more than 92·0% of common Gram-positive pathogens remain susceptible to either penicillin or chloramphenicol. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was first reported in 1998 at 7·7% and represented 18·4% of S aureus isolates in 2016.

Interpretation

The rapid expansion of ESBL and fluoroquinolone resistance among common Gram-negative pathogens, and the emergence of MRSA, highlight the growing challenge of bloodstream infections that are effectively impossible to treat in this resource-limited setting.

Funding

Wellcome Trust, H3ABionet, Southern Africa Consortium for Research Excellence (SACORE).

PDF

http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS1473-3099(17)30394-8.pdf

September 24, 2017 at 11:00 am

Patterns of bacteraemia aetiology

Lancet Infectious Diseases October 2017 V.17 N.10

COMMENT

Alan Cross, Myron M Levine

Bloodstream infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both high-income and lower-income countries, but the causative organisms and risk factors differ. Human beings coexist with diverse bacterial flora on their skin and their nasal, pharyngeal, and gastrointestinal mucosae. Physical barriers and non-specific immune defences keep these bacteria in check.

However, various primary pathogens can invade via the respiratory mucosa (eg, some Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes) or gastrointestinal (Salmonella Typhi) mucosa or integument (Staphylococcus aureus), then enter the bloodstream and provoke clinical syndromes such as sepsis, febrile bacteraemia, meningitis, or enteric fever…..

PDF

http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS1473-3099(17)30491-7.pdf

September 24, 2017 at 10:58 am

Dengue Virus 1 Outbreak in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2016

Emerging Infectious Diseases October 2017 V.23 N.10

Estefanía Tittarelli, Silvina B. Lusso, Stephanie Goya, Gabriel L. Rojo, Mónica I. Natale, Mariana Viegas, Alicia S. Mistchenko, and Laura E. Valinotto

Hospital de Niños “Ricardo Gutiérrez” Buenos Aires, Argentina (E. Tittarelli, S.B. Lusso, S. Goya, G.L. Rojo, M.I. Natale, M. Viegas, A.S. Mistchenko, L.E. Valinotto); CONICET, Buenos Aires (E. Tittarelli, S. Goya, M. Viegas, L.E. Valinotto); Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (A.S. Mistchenko).

Abstract

The largest outbreak of dengue in Buenos Aires, Argentina, occurred during 2016. Phylogenetic, phylodynamic, and phylogeographic analyses of 82 samples from dengue patients revealed co-circulation of 2 genotype V dengue virus lineages, suggesting that this virus has become endemic to the Buenos Aires metropolitan area.

PDF

https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/10/pdfs/16-1718.pdf

September 24, 2017 at 10:56 am

Familial Transmission of emm12 Group A Streptococcus

Emerging Infectious Diseases October 2017 V.23 N.10

Research Letter 

Claire Duployez, Anne Vachée, Olivier Robineau, François Giraud, Anthony Deny, Eric Senneville, Frédéric Wallet, and Caroline Loïez

Centre Hospitalier de Roubaix, Roubaix, France (C. Duployez, A. Vachée, F. Giraud); Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, Lille, France (C. Duployez, A. Deny, F. Wallet, C. Loïez); Centre Hospitalier de Tourcoing, Tourcoing, France (O. Robineau, E. Senneville); University of Lille, Lille (O. Robineau, E. Senneville); Centre de Référence des Infections Ostéo-Articulaires Complexes Nord-Ouest, Tourcoing (E. Senneville)

Abstract

Incidence and severity of invasive group A Streptococcus infections are of increasing concern in France and worldwide. The risk for secondary infection of close contacts is known but rarely described. We report a case of intrafamilial and life-threatening transmission of emm12 group A Streptococcus.

PDF

https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/10/pdfs/17-0343.pdf

September 24, 2017 at 10:55 am

Pitfalls of defining combination therapy for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in observational studies

European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. V.36 N.10 P.1707–1709

Editorial         

R. Giacobbe A. E. MaraoloC. Viscoli

ISGRI-SITA (Italian Study Group on Resistant Infections of the Società Italiana Terapia Antinfettiva)

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are now endemic in several countries [1]. Infections caused by these organisms are associated with high mortality, with the frequently multidrug-resistant phenotype of CRE being deemed as one of the major culprits [2, 3]. Indeed, clinicians have usually little choice but to use antibiotics with reduced activity; sometimes they do not have any active choice at all. Many clinicians, including ourselves, have therefore started to administer combinations of antimicrobials, mainly with the aim of taking advantage of possible additive or synergistic effects …

PDF

https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs10096-017-3010-z.pdf

 

September 23, 2017 at 9:59 pm

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