Posts filed under ‘Profilaxis Antibiótica en Cirugía – PAC’

Intraoperative povidone-iodine irrigation for infection prevention

Arthroplasty Today September 2019 V.5 N.3 P.306-308

Although prevention of infection following arthroplasty requires a multifaceted approach, the use of intraoperative irrigation is an important component of any protocol.

Recent clinical practice guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control, World Health Organization, and International Consensus Meeting on Musculoskeletal Infection advocate the use of a dilute povidone-iodine solution prior to wound closure.

Our experience suggests that this practice is safe, inexpensive, and easily implemented.

The present article describes our institutional irrigation protocol and reviews the current literature regarding povidone-iodine solutions.




September 6, 2019 at 8:17 am

Single-Dose Perioperative Antibiotics Do Not Increase the Risk of Surgical Site Infection in Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty

Journal of Arthroplasty July 2019 V.34 Supplement S327–S330


Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is commonly performed as an outpatient procedure. To facilitate this process, a single-dose intravenous (IV) perioperative antibiotic administration is required compared to 24-hour IV antibiotic dosing schedules that are typical of most inpatient arthroplasty procedures. There is a paucity of literature to guide surgeons on the safety of single-dose perioperative antibiotic administration for arthroplasty procedures, particularly those that will be performed in the outpatient setting. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a large series of UKA performed with single-dose vs 24-hour IV antibiotic coverage to determine the impact on risk for surgical site infection (SSI).


All UKA cases were evaluated from 2007 to 2017 performed by a single surgeon at an academic institution. There were 296 UKAs in the cohort: 40 were outpatient procedures receiving single-dose antibiotics and 256 were inpatient procedures receiving 24-hour antibiotics. No patients were prescribed adjuvant oral antibiotics. Mean age was 64 years, 50% were female, mean body mass index was 32 kg/m2, and mean follow-up was 4.1 years (range 1.0-10.4). Perioperative antibiotic regimen was evaluated and SSI, defined as occurring within 1 year of surgery, was abstracted through a prospective total joint registry and manual chart review.


SSI occurred in 2 of 296 cases (0.7%) in the entire cohort, 2 of 256 inpatient UKAs (0.8%), and 0 of 40 outpatient UKAs (0%) (P = 1.00). One SSI was a deep infection occurring 6 weeks postoperatively that required 2-stage exchange and conversion to total knee arthroplasty. The other was a superficial infection treated with 2 weeks of oral antibiotics.


This study demonstrates a low SSI risk (0.8% or less) following UKA with both single-dose and 24-hour IV antibiotics. Administering single-dose perioperative antibiotics is safe for UKA, which should alleviate that potential concern for outpatient surgery.



August 30, 2019 at 4:15 pm

The Presence of Sinus Tract Adversely Affects the Outcome of Treatment of Periprosthetic Joint Infections

Journal of Arthroplasty June 2019 V.34 N.6 P.1227-1232


A sinus tract may be encountered in patients with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and constitutes a major criterion for diagnosis. The aim of this study is to identify associated factors for the presence of sinus tract and outcome of 2-stage exchange arthroplasty in these patients.


We retrospectively reviewed all patients with PJI following hip and knee arthroplasty from 2000 to 2017. Of them, 161 patients with a sinus tract had a minimum follow-up of 1 year following 2-stage exchange arthroplasty. These patients were matched 1:2 with those without sinus tract by using propensity score matching. Treatment success was assessed using the modified Delphi criteria. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of sinus tract on the outcome and associated factors for the presence of sinus tract.


Factors significantly associated with sinus tract included smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.83), hypothyroidism (OR = 1.62), hypoalbuminemia (OR = 1.52), hip joint involvement (OR = 1.43), and prior revision surgery (OR = 1.37). Patients with sinus tract had a significantly higher rate of failure compared to those without sinus tract (OR = 2.94).


This study demonstrates that the presence of sinus tract in patients with PJI adversely affects the outcome of treatment of these patients. The presence of sinus tract may be a proxy for other issues such as poor periarticular soft tissue, the poor nutritional status of the host, and multiple prior operations. These findings need to be borne in mind when treating patients with PJI and a concomitant sinus tract.



August 30, 2019 at 4:08 pm

Synovial Fluid Viscosity Test is Promising for the Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Joint Infection

Journal of Arthroplasty June 2019 V.34 N.6 P.1197-1200


So far there is no “gold standard” test for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), compelling clinicians to rely on several serological and synovial fluid tests with no 100% accuracy. Synovial fluid viscosity is one of the parameters defining the rheology properties of synovial fluid. We hypothesized that patients with PJI may have a different level of synovial fluid viscosity and aimed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of synovial fluid viscosity in detecting PJI.


This prospective study was initiated to enroll patients undergoing primary and revision arthroplasty. Our cohort consisted of 45 patients undergoing revision for PJI (n = 15), revision for aseptic failure (n = 15), and primary arthroplasty (n = 15). PJI was defined using the Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria. In all patients, synovial fluid viscosity, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and plasma d-dimer levels were measured preoperatively.


The synovial fluid viscosity level was significantly lower (P = .0011) in patients with PJI (7.93 mPa·s, range 3.0-15.0) than in patients with aseptic failure (13.11 mPa·s, range 6.3-20.4). Using Youden’s index, 11.80 mPa·s was determined as the optimal threshold value for synovial fluid viscosity for the diagnosis of PJI. Synovial fluid viscosity outperformed CRP, ESR, and plasma d-dimer, with a sensitivity of 93.33% and a specificity of 66.67%.


Synovial fluid viscosity seems to be on the same level of accuracy with CRP, ESR, and d-dimer regarding PJI detection and to be a promising marker for the diagnosis of PJI.



August 30, 2019 at 4:05 pm

Fever and Erythema are Specific Findings in Detecting Infection Following Total Knee Arthroplasty.

J Bone Jt Infect. March 16, 2019 V.4 B.2 P.92-98. doi: 10.7150/jbji.30088. eCollection 2019.

Shohat N1,2, Goswami K1, Tan TL1, Henstenburg B1, Makar G1, Rondon AJ1, Parvizi J1.

1 The Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107.

2 Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel.


Current diagnostic modalities are based almost exclusively on laboratory findings and the role of clinical presentation remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the diagnostic value of clinical presentation in detecting periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). This study evaluated 279 patients undergoing revision surgery for failed total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between 2001-2016. Patients were classified as undergoing septic revisions based on major MSIS criteria. Aseptic revisions were defined as cases of single stage revision that did not have suspected PJI, fulfill MSIS criteria, or subsequently fail within one year of follow-up. Clinical presentation included pain, fever, presence of joint effusion or erythema, and reduced range of motion. Serum and synovial laboratory markers were also evaluated. The diagnostic value of each test was assessed and a Fagan’s nomogram was constructed. A subset of MSIS-negative patients was used to demonstrate the value of various clinical presentations in detecting PJI. Post-test probability for infection was calculated taking into account clinical presentation together with serum and synovial markers. Our results show that fever and erythema are the most important signs for diagnosing PJI with a positive likelihood ratio (LR) of 10.78 and 8.08, respectively. Effusion had a LR of 2.42. Pain and reduced ROM were not as strongly correlated with PJI diagnosis; LR was 1.02 and 1.51. Of the 35 MSIS-negative patients treated for PJI, 33 had a post-test probability of infection greater than 90% when taking clinical presentation into account. Clinical presentation should be used to guide which future diagnostic tests should be ordered and in the interpretation of their results. Our results indicate that pain, fever, presence of joint effusion or erythema, and reduced range of motion should prompt further workup for infection. We propose a nomogram that may be used in interoperating their individual weight together with laboratory findings. Fever and erythema are highly specific findings in patients with PJI and future studies should assess whether they may be added as minor criteria to current definitions for infection.


August 28, 2019 at 3:52 pm

Is Gram staining still useful in prosthetic joint infections?

J Bone Jt Infect. January 29, 2019 V.4 N.2 P.56-59.

doi: 10.7150/jbji.31312. eCollection 2019.

Wouthuyzen-Bakker M1, Shohat N2,3, Sebillotte M4, Arvieux C4,5, Parvizi J2, Soriano A6.

1 Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Prevention, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands.

2 Rothman Institute at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, United States.

3 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

4 Department of Infectious Diseases and Intensive Care Medicine, Rennes University Hospital, Rennes, France.

5 Great West Reference centers for Complex Bone and Joint Infections (CRIOGO), France.

6 Service of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.


Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is an independent risk factor for DAIR failure in patients with a late acute prosthetic joint infection (PJI). Therefore, identifying the causative microorganism in an acute setting may help to decide if revision surgery should be chosen as a first surgical approach in patients with additional risk factors for DAIR failure. The aim of our study was to determine the sensitivity of Gram staining in late acute S. aureus PJI. Material and methods: We retrospectively evaluated all consecutive patients between 2005-2015 who were diagnosed with late acute PJI due to S. aureus. Late acute PJI was defined as the development of acute symptoms and signs of PJI, at least three months after the index surgery. Symptoms existing for more than three weeks were excluded from the analysis. Gram staining was evaluated solely for synovial fluid. Results: A total of 52 cases were included in the analysis. Gram staining was positive with Gram positive cocci in clusters in 31 cases (59.6%). Patients with a C-reactive protein (CRP) > 150 mg/L at clinical presentation had a significantly higher rate of a positive Gram stain (30/39, 77%) compared to patients with a CRP ≤ 150 mg/L (4/10, 40%) (p=0.02). A positive Gram stain was not related to a higher failure rate (60.6% versus 57.9%, p 0.85). Conclusion: Gram staining may be a useful diagnostic tool in late acute PJI to identify S. aureus PJI. Whether a positive Gram stain should lead to revision surgery instead of DAIR should be determined per individual case.


August 28, 2019 at 3:51 pm

Streptococcus salivarius Prosthetic Joint Infection following Dental Cleaning despite Antibiotic Prophylaxis.

Case Rep Infect Dis. April 21, 2019   

Olson LB1, Turner DJ2, Cox GM3, Hostler CJ3,4.

Author information

1 Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, USA.

2 Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, USA.

3 Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

4 Infectious Disease Section, Durham VA Health Care System, Durham, USA.


We present the case of a 92-year-old man with septic arthritis of a prosthetic hip joint due to Streptococcus salivarius one week following a high-risk dental procedure despite preprocedure amoxicillin. S. salivarius is a commensal bacterium of the human oral mucosa that is an uncommon cause of bacteremia. S. salivarius has previously been described as a causative agent of infective endocarditis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis but was only recently recognized as a cause of prosthetic joint infection. This case highlights the potential pathogenicity of a common commensal bacteria and the questionable utility of prophylactic antibiotics before dental procedures to prevent periprosthetic joint infections


August 9, 2019 at 8:26 am

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