Posts filed under ‘REPORTS’

Global etiology of bacterial meningitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One. 2018 Jun 11;13(6):e0198772.

Oordt-Speets AM1, Bolijn R1, van Hoorn RC1, Bhavsar A2, Kyaw MH3.

Abstract

Bacterial meningitis is a global public health concern, with several responsible etiologic agents that vary by age group and geographical area. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the etiology of bacterial meningitis in different age groups across global regions.

PubMed and EMBASE were systematically searched for English language studies on bacterial meningitis, limited to articles published in the last five years. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using a customized scoring system.

Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the frequency (percentages) of seven bacterial types known to cause meningitis: Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, group B Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes, with results being stratified by six geographical regions as determined by the World Health Organization, and seven age groups.

Of the 3227 studies retrieved, 56 were eligible for the final analysis. In all age groups, S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis were the predominant pathogens in all regions, accounting for 25.1-41.2% and 9.1-36.2% of bacterial meningitis cases, respectively. S. pneumoniae infection was the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in the ‘all children’ group, ranging from 22.5% (Europe) to 41.1% (Africa), and in all adults ranging from 9.6% (Western Pacific) to 75.2% (Africa).

E. coli and S. pneumoniae were the most common pathogens that caused bacterial meningitis in neonates in Africa (17.7% and 20.4%, respectively). N. meningitidis was the most common in children aged ±1-5 years in Europe (47.0%).

Due to paucity of data, meta-analyses could not be performed in all age groups for all regions. A clear difference in the weighted frequency of bacterial meningitis cases caused by the different etiological agents was observed between age groups and between geographic regions.

These findings may facilitate bacterial meningitis prevention and treatment strategies.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5995389/pdf/pone.0198772.pdf

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July 19, 2018 at 3:39 pm

Current Knowledge on Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms in Food-Related Environments: Incidence, Resistance to Biocides, Ecology and Biocontrol.

Foods. 2018 Jun 5;7(6). pii: E85.

Rodríguez-López P1, Rodríguez-Herrera JJ2, Vázquez-Sánchez D3, López Cabo M4.

Abstract

Although many efforts have been made to control Listeria monocytogenes in the food industry, growing pervasiveness amongst the population over the last decades has made this bacterium considered to be one of the most hazardous foodborne pathogens. Its outstanding biocide tolerance capacity and ability to promiscuously associate with other bacterial species forming multispecies communities have permitted this microorganism to survive and persist within the industrial environment. This review is designed to give the reader an overall picture of the current state-of-the-art in L. monocytogenes sessile communities in terms of food safety and legislation, ecological aspects and biocontrol strategies.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6025129/pdf/foods-07-00085.pdf

July 19, 2018 at 3:37 pm

To Be Cytosolic or Vacuolar: The Double Life of Listeria monocytogenes.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2018 May 15;8:136.

Bierne H1, Milohanic E1, Kortebi M1.

Abstract

Intracellular bacterial pathogens are generally classified into two types: those that exploit host membrane trafficking to construct specific niches in vacuoles (i.e., “vacuolar pathogens”), and those that escape from vacuoles into the cytosol, where they proliferate and often spread to neighboring cells (i.e., “cytosolic pathogens”). However, the boundary between these distinct intracellular phenotypes is tenuous and may depend on the timing of infection and on the host cell type. Here, we discuss recent progress highlighting this phenotypic duality in Listeria monocytogenes, which has long been a model for cytosolic pathogens, but now emerges as a bacterium also capable of residing in vacuoles, in a slow/non-growing state. The ability of L. monocytogenes to enter a persistence stage in vacuoles might play a role during the asymptomatic incubation period of listeriosis and/or the carriage of this pathogen in asymptomatic hosts. Moreover, persistent vacuolar Listeria could be less susceptible to antibiotics and more difficult to detect by routine techniques of clinical biology. These hypotheses deserve to be explored in order to better manage the risks related to this food-borne pathogen.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5962784/pdf/fcimb-08-00136.pdf

July 19, 2018 at 3:36 pm

Campylobacteriosis, Salmonellosis, Yersiniosis, and Listeriosis as Zoonotic Foodborne Diseases: A Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Apr 26;15(5). pii: E863.

Chlebicz A1, Śliżewska K2.

Abstract

Zoonoses are diseases transmitted from animals to humans, posing a great threat to the health and life of people all over the world. According to WHO estimations, 600 million cases of diseases caused by contaminated food were noted in 2010, including almost 350 million caused by pathogenic bacteria. Campylobacter, Salmonella, as well as Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes may dwell in livestock (poultry, cattle, and swine) but are also found in wild animals, pets, fish, and rodents. Animals, often being asymptomatic carriers of pathogens, excrete them with faeces, thus delivering them to the environment. Therefore, pathogens may invade new individuals, as well as reside on vegetables and fruits. Pathogenic bacteria also penetrate food production areas and may remain there in the form of a biofilm covering the surfaces of machines and equipment. A common occurrence of microbes in food products, as well as their improper or careless processing, leads to common poisonings. Symptoms of foodborne infections may be mild, sometimes flu-like, but they also may be accompanied by severe complications, some even fatal. The aim of the paper is to summarize and provide information on campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, yersiniosis, and listeriosis and the aetiological factors of those diseases, along with the general characteristics of pathogens, virulence factors, and reservoirs

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5981902/pdf/ijerph-15-00863.pdf

July 19, 2018 at 3:35 pm

A Review of Combination Antimicrobial Therapy for Enterococcus faecalis Bloodstream Infections and Infective Endocarditis

Clinical Infectious Diseases July 15, 2018 V.67 N.2 P.303-309

EDITOR’S CHOICE

Maya Beganovic; Megan K Luther; Louis B Rice; Cesar A Arias; Michael J Rybak …

Esta revisión destaca las opciones de tratamiento disponibles y sus limitaciones, y proporciona orientación para futuros esfuerzos de investigación para ayudar en el tratamiento de infecciones graves de Enterococcus faecalis, a saber, endocarditis infecciosa.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/67/2/303/4829420

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

July 15, 2018 at 5:04 pm

The Standardized Antimicrobial Administration Ratio: A New Metric for Measuring and Comparing Antibiotic Use

Clinical Infectious Diseases July 15, 2018 V.67 N.2 P.179-185

EDITOR’S CHOICE

Katharina L van Santen; Jonathan R Edwards; Amy K Webb; Lori A Pollack; Erin O’Leary …

Los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades han desarrollado una nueva métrica, la tasa de administración antimicrobiana estandarizada, que utiliza datos de administración antimicrobiana en el punto de atención informados electrónicamente a un sistema de vigilancia nacional para permitir comparaciones de uso de antibióticos ajustadas al riesgo en varios hospitales y sistemas de salud.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/67/2/179/4835069

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

July 15, 2018 at 5:02 pm

Antimicrobial-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Carriage and Infection in Specialized Geriatric Care Wards Linked to Acquisition in the Referring Hospital

Clinical Infectious Diseases July 15, 2018 V.67 N.2 P.161-170

Claire L Gorrie; Mirjana Mirceta; Ryan R Wick; Louise M Judd; Kelly L Wyres …

La microbiota intestinal del paciente fue la fuente principal de Klebsiella pneumoniae, pero las cepas de β-lactamasa de espectro extendido (BLEE) se adquirieron en el hospital de referencia. Esto resalta el potencial para la detección ó screening rectal y la importancia de una red hospitalaria más amplia para el manejo local del riesgo.

Background

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a leading cause of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing hospital-associated infections, for which elderly patients are at increased risk.

Methods

We conducted a 1-year prospective cohort study, in which a third of patients admitted to 2 geriatric wards in a specialized hospital were recruited and screened for carriage of K. pneumoniae by microbiological culture. Clinical isolates were monitored via the hospital laboratory. Colonizing and clinical isolates were subjected to whole-genome sequencing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

Results

K. pneumoniae throat carriage prevalence was 4.1%, rectal carriage 10.8%, and ESBL carriage 1.7%, and the incidence of K. pneumoniae infection was 1.2%. The isolates were diverse, and most patients were colonized or infected with a unique phylogenetic lineage, with no evidence of transmission in the wards. ESBL strains carried blaCTX-M-15 and belonged to clones associated with hospital-acquired ESBL infections in other countries (sequence type [ST] 29, ST323, and ST340). One also carried the carbapenemase blaIMP-26. Genomic and epidemiological data provided evidence that ESBL strains were acquired in the referring hospital. Nanopore sequencing also identified strain-to-strain transmission of a blaCTX-M-15 FIBK/FIIK plasmid in the referring hospital.

Conclusions

The data suggest the major source of K. pneumoniae was the patient’s own gut microbiome, but ESBL strains were acquired in the referring hospital. This highlights the importance of the wider hospital network to understanding K. pneumoniae risk and infection prevention. Rectal screening for ESBL organisms on admission to geriatric wards could help inform patient management and infection control in such facilities.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/67/2/161/4798841

PDF /CLIC en PDF)

July 15, 2018 at 5:01 pm

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