Posts filed under ‘REVIEWS’

Distribution characteristics of Staphylococcus spp. in different phases of periprosthetic joint infection: A review.

Exp Ther Med. 2017 Jun;13(6):2599-2608.

Guo G1, Wang J1, You Y2, Tan J1, Shen H1.

Author information

1 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai 200233, P.R. China.

2 Department of Obstetrics, Fudan University Affiliated Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Shanghai 200233, P.R. China.

Abstract

Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating condition and Staphylococcus spp. are the predominant pathogens responsible, particularly coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and Staphylococcus aureus.

The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the distribution characteristics of specific Staphylococcus spp. in different PJI phases, reveal the effect of pathogens’ feature on their distribution and suggest recommendations for antibiotic treatment of Staphylococcal PJI.

The present systematic review was performed using PubMed and EMBASE databases with the aim to identify existing literature that presented the spectrum of Staphylococcus spp. that occur in PJI. Once inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 20 cohort studies involving 3,344 cases in 3,199 patients were included.

The predominant pathogen involved in PJI was indicated to be CoNS (31.2%), followed by S. aureus (28.8%). This trend was more apparent in hip replacement procedures. In addition, almost equal proportions of CoNS and S. aureus (28.6 and 30.0%, respectively) were indicated in the delayed phase. CoNS (36.6%) were the predominant identified organism in the early phase, whereas S. aureus (38.3%) occurred primarily in the late phase.

In PJI caused by S. aureus, the number of cases of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was ~2.5-fold greater than that of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA occurred predominantly in the early phase, whereas MSSA was largely observed in the delayed and late phases.

With regards to antibiotic treatment, the feature of various pathogens and the phases of PJI were the primary considerations.

The present review provides useful information for clinical practice and scientific research of PJI.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5450602/pdf/etm-13-06-2599.pdf

June 22, 2017 at 5:29 pm

Biofilm and the Role of Antibiotics in the Treatment of Periprosthetic Hip and Knee Joint Infections.

Open Orthop J. Nov. 30, 2016 V.30 N.10 P.636-645.

Mirza YH1, Tansey R1, Sukeik M2, Shaath M3, Haddad FS1.

Author information

1 Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, University College London Hospital, 235 Euston Road, NW1 2BU, London, United Kingdom.

2 Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, London, E1 1BB, United Kingdom.

3 Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, North Manchester General Hospital, Delaunay’s Road, Crumpsall, M8 5RB, United Kingdom.

Abstract

An increasing demand for lower limb arthroplasty will lead to a proportionate increase in the need for revision surgery.

A notable proportion of revision surgery is secondary to periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). Diagnosing and eradicating PJI can form a very difficult challenge. An important cause of PJI is the formation of a bacterial biofilm on the implant surface.

Our review article seeks to describe biofilms; their definitions and formation, common causative bacteria, prophylactic and therapeutic antibiotic therapy.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5398090/pdf/TOORTHJ-10-636.pdf

 

June 20, 2017 at 7:08 pm

Candida Prosthetic Joint Infection. A Review of Treatment Methods.

J Bone Jt Infect. 2017 Feb 5;2(2):114-121.

Cobo F1, Rodríguez-Granger J1, Sampedro A1, Aliaga-Martínez L2, Navarro-Marí JM1.

Author information

1 Department of Microbiology, Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain.

2 Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain.

Abstract

Fungal microorganisms are still a rare cause of bone and joint infections. We report a new case of knee prosthetic joint infection due to Candida albicans in a patient with a previous two-stage right knee arthroplasty for septic arthritis due to S. epidermidis occurred several months ago. Moreover, the treatment in 76 cases of Candida prosthetic joint infection has been discussed. Forty patients were female and mean age at diagnosis was 65.7 (± SD 18) yrs. No risk factors for candidal infection were found in 25 patients. Infection site was the knee in 38 patients and hip in 36; pain was present in 44 patients and swelling in 24. The most frequent species was C. albicans, followed by C. parapsilosis. Eleven patients were only treated with antifungal drugs being the outcome favourable in all of them. Two-stage exchange arthroplasty was performed in 30 patients, and resection arthroplasty in other 30; in three patients one-stage exchange arthroplasty was done. A favourable outcome was found in 58 patients after antifungal plus surgical treatment, in 11 after antifungal treatment alone and in one after surgery alone. The type of treatment is still not clearly defined and an algorithm for treatment in fungal PJI should be established, but various types of surgical procedures may be applied.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5441142/pdf/jbjiv02p0114.pdf

June 20, 2017 at 2:24 pm

Pseudomonas Prosthetic Joint Infections: A Review of 102 Episodes.

J Bone Jt Infect. 2016 Jun 4;1:25-30.

Shah NB1, Osmon DR1, Steckelberg JM1, Sierra RJ2, Walker RC1, Tande AJ1, Berbari EF1.

Author information

1 Department of Internal Medicine and Division of Infectious Disease, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

2 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 1st Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Abstract

Background: The outcome of patients with Pseudomonas prosthetic joint infection (PS PJI) has not been well studied. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to assess the outcome of patients with Pseudomonas PJI and to review risk factors associated with failure of therapy. Methods: Between 1/1969 and 12/2012, 102 episodes of PS PJI in 91 patients were identified. Results: The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 67.4 years; forty three percent had knee involvement. Over 40 percent had either diabetes mellitus or a history of gastrointestinal or genitourinary surgery. Nearly half (48 out of 102 episodes) received aminoglycoside monotherapy, while 25% received an anti-pseudomonal cephalosporin. The 2-year cumulative survival free from failure was 69% (95% CI, 56%-82%). Patients treated with resection arthroplasty, two-stage exchange, and debridement with implant retention had a 2-year cumulative survival free from failure of 80% (95% CI, 66%-95%), 83% (95% CI, 60%-100%), and 26% (95% CI, 23%-29%) respectively (P=0.0001). Conclusions: PS PJI’s are associated with a high failure rate. Patients treated with debridement and implant retention had a worse outcome.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5423557/pdf/jbjiv01p0025.pdf

June 19, 2017 at 12:57 pm

Prevalence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria among nursing home residents: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

American Journal of Infection Control May 1, 2017 V.45 N.5 P.512-518

Sainfer Aliyu, MPhil, MSEd, MHPM, BSN, RN’MPhil, MSEd, MHPM, BSN, RN Sainfer Aliyu, MSEd, MHPM, BSN, RN Sainfer Aliyu, Arlene Smaldone, PhD, CPNP, CDE, Elaine Larson, PhD, RN, CIC, FAAN

Highlights

  • Multidrug resistant-gram negative bacteria colonization ranged from 11.2%-59.1%.
  • E coli accounted for the largest proportion of isolates.
  • The most common site of colonization was rectal, followed by nasal, sputum, urinary tract and wound.
  • Colonization was significantly higher in studies conducted in United States (38%) compared to other countries (14%).

Background

Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) are associated with an increasing proportion of infections among nursing home (NH) residents. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to critically review evidence of the prevalence of MDR-GNB among NH residents.

Methods

Following Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines, a systematic review of literature for the years 2005-2016 using multiple databases was conducted. Study quality, appraised by 2 reviewers, used Downs and Black risk of bias criteria. Studies reporting prevalence of MDR-GNB colonization were pooled using a random effects meta-analysis model. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran Q and I2 statistics.

Results

Of 327 articles, 12 met the criteria for review; of these, 8 met the criteria for meta-analysis. Escherichia coli accounted for the largest proportion of isolates. Reported MDR-GNB colonization prevalence ranged from 11.2%-59.1%. Pooled prevalence for MDR-GNB colonization, representing data from 2,720 NH residents, was 27% (95% confidence interval, 15.2%-44.1%) with heterogeneity (Q = 405.6; P = .01; I2 = 98.3). Two studies reported MDR-GNB infection rates of 10.9% and 62.7%.

Conclusion

Our findings suggest a high prevalence of MDR-GNB colonization among NH residents, emphasizing the need to enhance policies for infection control and prevention (ICP) in NHs.

FULL TEXT

http://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(17)30085-8/fulltext

PDF

http://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(17)30085-8/pdf

 

June 9, 2017 at 8:08 am

JAMA Surgery May 3, 2017

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline for the prevention of surgical site infection, 2017

Berríos-Torres SI et al.

Importance 

The human and financial costs of treating surgical site infections (SSIs) are increasing. The number of surgical procedures performed in the United States continues to rise, and surgical patients are initially seen with increasingly complex comorbidities. It is estimated that approximately half of SSIs are deemed preventable using evidence-based strategies.

Objective 

To provide new and updated evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of SSI.

Evidence Review 

A targeted systematic review of the literature was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from 1998 through April 2014. A modified Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the quality of evidence and the strength of the resulting recommendation and to provide explicit links between them. Of 5487 potentially relevant studies identified in literature searches, 5759 titles and abstracts were screened, and 896 underwent full-text review by 2 independent reviewers. After exclusions, 170 studies were extracted into evidence, evaluated, and categorized.

Findings 

Before surgery, patients should shower or bathe (full body) with soap (antimicrobial or nonantimicrobial) or an antiseptic agent on at least the night before the operative day. Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be administered only when indicated based on published clinical practice guidelines and timed such that a bactericidal concentration of the agents is established in the serum and tissues when the incision is made. In cesarean section procedures, antimicrobial prophylaxis should be administered before skin incision. Skin preparation in the operating room should be performed using an alcohol-based agent unless contraindicated. For clean and clean-contaminated procedures, additional prophylactic antimicrobial agent doses should not be administered after the surgical incision is closed in the operating room, even in the presence of a drain. Topical antimicrobial agents should not be applied to the surgical incision. During surgery, glycemic control should be implemented using blood glucose target levels less than 200 mg/dL, and normothermia should be maintained in all patients. Increased fraction of inspired oxygen should be administered during surgery and after extubation in the immediate postoperative period for patients with normal pulmonary function undergoing general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Transfusion of blood products should not be withheld from surgical patients as a means to prevent SSI.

Conclusions and Relevance

This guideline is intended to provide new and updated evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of SSI and should be incorporated into comprehensive surgical quality improvement programs to improve patient safety.

 

FULL TEXT

http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamasurgery/fullarticle/2623725

PDF (CLIC en “DOWNLOAD PDF”)

May 27, 2017 at 10:42 am

Decolonization in Prevention of Health Care-Associated Infections.

Clin Microbiol Rev. April 2016 V.29 N.2 P.201-22.

Septimus EJ1, Schweizer ML2.

Author information

1 Hospital Corporation of America, Nashville, Tennessee, USA Texas A&M Health Science Center, College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA Edward.septimus@hcahealthcare.com.

2 University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA Iowa City VA Health Care System, Iowa City, Iowa, USA University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.

Abstract

Colonization with health care-associated pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, Gram-negative organisms, and Clostridium difficile is associated with increased risk of infection.

Decolonization is an evidence-based intervention that can be used to prevent health care-associated infections (HAIs).

This review evaluates agents used for nasal topical decolonization, topical (e.g., skin) decolonization, oral decolonization, and selective digestive or oropharyngeal decontamination. Although the majority of studies performed to date have focused on S. aureus decolonization, there is increasing interest in how to apply decolonization strategies to reduce infections due to Gram-negative organisms, especially those that are multidrug resistant.

Nasal topical decolonization agents reviewed include mupirocin, bacitracin, retapamulin, povidone-iodine, alcohol-based nasal antiseptic, tea tree oil, photodynamic therapy, omiganan pentahydrochloride, and lysostaphin.

Mupirocin is still the gold standard agent for S. aureus nasal decolonization, but there is concern about mupirocin resistance, and alternative agents are needed. Of the other nasal decolonization agents, large clinical trials are still needed to evaluate the effectiveness of retapamulin, povidone-iodine, alcohol-based nasal antiseptic, tea tree oil, omiganan pentahydrochloride, and lysostaphin.

Given inferior outcomes and increased risk of allergic dermatitis, the use of bacitracin-containing compounds cannot be recommended as a decolonization strategy.

Topical decolonization agents reviewed included chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), hexachlorophane, povidone-iodine, triclosan, and sodium hypochlorite. Of these, CHG is the skin decolonization agent that has the strongest evidence base, and sodium hypochlorite can also be recommended. CHG is associated with prevention of infections due to Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms as well as Candida.

Conversely, triclosan use is discouraged, and topical decolonization with hexachlorophane and povidone-iodine cannot be recommended at this time.

There is also evidence to support use of selective digestive decontamination and selective oropharyngeal decontamination, but additional studies are needed to assess resistance to these agents, especially selection for resistance among Gram-negative organisms.

The strongest evidence for decolonization is for use among surgical patients as a strategy to prevent surgical site infections.

PDF

http://cmr.asm.org/content/29/2/201.full.pdf+html

May 12, 2017 at 7:45 am

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