Posts filed under ‘REVIEWS’


Medicina (B Aires). 2018;78(2):99-106.

Pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation. Update and recommendations inter- Societies SADI-SATI.

[Article in Spanish]

Cornistein W1, Colque ÁM2, Staneloni MI3, Monserrat Lloria M4, Lares M5, González AL5, Fernández Garcés A6, Carbone E7.

Author information

1 Hospital General de Agudos Dr. Cosme Argerich, Hospital Universitario Austral, Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail:

2 Complejo Médico Churruca Visca, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

3 Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

4 Hospital Prof. Alejandro Posadas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

5 Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos San Martín de La Plata, Argentina.

6 Clínica AMEBPBA (Mutual de Empleados del Banco de la Provincia de Buenos Aires), Argentina.

7 Hospital Aeronáutico Central, Buenos Aires, Argentina.


Representatives of the Argentine Society of Infectious Diseases (SADI) and the Argentine Society of Intensive Therapy (SATI) worked together on the development of specific recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The methodology used was the analysis of the literature published in the last 15 years, complemented with the opinion of experts and local data. This document aims to offer basic tools to optimize diagnosis based on clinical and microbiological criteria, orientation in empirical and targeted antibiotic schemes, news on posology and administration of antibiotics in critical patients and to promote effective measures to reduce the risk of VAP. It also offers a diagnostic and treatment algorithm and considerations on inhaled antibiotics. The joint work of both societies -infectious diseases and intensive care- highlights the concern for the management of VAP and the importance of ensuring improvement in daily practices. This guideline established recommendations to optimize the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of VAP in order to reduce morbidity and mortality, days of hospitalization, costs and resistance to antibiotics due to misuse of antimicrobials.



November 3, 2018 at 10:43 am


Medicina (B Aires). 2018;78(4):258-264.

An update on catheter-associated urinary tract infection. Inter-Society recommendations.

[Article in Spanish]

Cornistein W1, Cremona A2, Chattas AL3, Luciani A4, Daciuk L5, Juárez PA6, Colque AM7.

Author information

1 Hospital Universitario Austral, Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail:

2 Hospital Italiano de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina.

3 Hospital Dr. Ignacio Pirovano, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

4 Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

5 Hospital Prof. Dr. Alejandro Posadas, El Palomar, Argentina.

6 Hospital de la Madre y el Niño, La Rioja, Argentina.

7 Complejo Médico Churruca Visca, Buenos Aires, Argentina.


Representatives of the Argentine Society of Infectious Diseases (SADI) and the Argentine Society of Intensive Therapy (SATI) issued the present recommendations on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of catheter associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI). Articles published during 2006-2016 were analyzed in the light of experts’ opinion and local data. This document aims to offer basic strategies to optimize the diagnosis based on clinical and microbiological criteria, provide guidance in empirical and targeted antibiotic schemes, and promote effective measures to reduce the risk of CA-UTI. The joint work of both societies highlights the experts’ concern about the mismanagement of CA-UTI, which is associated to the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials, and the importance of improving daily practices of CA-UTI management. Through these recommendations, local guidelines are established to optimize the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of CAUTI in order to reduce morbimortality, days of hospitalization, costs and antibiotic resistance due to the misuse of antimicrobials.


November 3, 2018 at 10:40 am

Biofilms: survival mechanisms of clinically relevant microorganisms.

Clinical Microbiology Reviews April 2002 V.15 N.2 P.167-93.

Donlan RM1, Costerton JW.

1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA.


Though biofilms were first described by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, the theory describing the biofilm process was not developed until 1978. We now understand that biofilms are universal, occurring in aquatic and industrial water systems as well as a large number of environments and medical devices relevant for public health. Using tools such as the scanning electron microscope and, more recently, the confocal laser scanning microscope, biofilm researchers now understand that biofilms are not unstructured, homogeneous deposits of cells and accumulated slime, but complex communities of surface-associated cells enclosed in a polymer matrix containing open water channels. Further studies have shown that the biofilm phenotype can be described in terms of the genes expressed by biofilm-associated cells. Microorganisms growing in a biofilm are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents by one or more mechanisms. Biofilm-associated microorganisms have been shown to be associated with several human diseases, such as native valve endocarditis and cystic fibrosis, and to colonize a wide variety of medical devices. Though epidemiologic evidence points to biofilms as a source of several infectious diseases, the exact mechanisms by which biofilm-associated microorganisms elicit disease are poorly understood. Detachment of cells or cell aggregates, production of endotoxin, increased resistance to the host immune system, and provision of a niche for the generation of resistant organisms are all biofilm processes which could initiate the disease process. Effective strategies to prevent or control biofilms on medical devices must take into consideration the unique and tenacious nature of biofilms. Current intervention strategies are designed to prevent initial device colonization, minimize microbial cell attachment to the device, penetrate the biofilm matrix and kill the associated cells, or remove the device from the patient. In the future, treatments may be based on inhibition of genes involved in cell attachment and biofilm formation.


October 14, 2018 at 10:41 am

Criteria for Identifying Patients With Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Who Are at Low Risk of Endocarditis: A Systematic Review

Open Forum Infectious Diseases Octoboer 1, 2017 V.4 N.4

This systematic review examines the methods and results of recent studies reporting clinical criteria able to identify patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia who are at very low risk of endocarditis.

We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Collaboration CENTRAL database for articles published after March 1994 using a combination of MeSH and free text search terms for S. aureus AND bacteremia AND endocarditis.

Studies were included if they presented a combination of clinical and microbiological criteria with a negative likelihood ratio of ≤0.20 for endocarditis.

We found 8 studies employing various criteria and reference standards whose criteria were associated with negative likelihood ratios between 0.00 and 0.19 (corresponding to 0%–5% risk of endocarditis at 20% background prevalence). The benefit of echocardiography for patients fulfilling these criteria is uncertain.



September 29, 2018 at 2:48 pm

Invasive streptococcal disease: a review for clinicians.

Br Med Bull. 2015 Sep;115(1):77-89.

Parks T1, Barrett L2, Jones N3.



Streptococci are a genus of Gram-positive bacteria which cause diverse human diseases. Many of these species have the potential to cause invasive infection resulting from the presence of bacteria in a normally sterile site.


Original articles, reviews and guidelines.


Invasive infection by a streptococcus species usually causes life-threatening illness. When measured in terms of deaths, disability and cost, these infections remain an important threat to health in the UK. Overall they are becoming more frequent among the elderly and those with underlying chronic illness. New observational evidence has become available to support the use of clindamycin and intravenous immunoglobulin in invasive Group A streptococcal disease.


Few interventions for the treatment and prevention of these infections have undergone rigorous evaluation in clinical trials. For example, the role of preventative strategies such as screening of pregnant women to prevent neonatal invasive Group B streptococcal disease needs to be clarified.


Studies of invasive streptococcal disease are challenging to undertake, not least because individual hospitals treat relatively few confirmed cases. Instead clinicians and scientists must work together to build national and international networks with the aim of developing a more complete evidence base for the treatment and prevention of these devastating infections.



September 21, 2018 at 8:20 am

Group A Streptococcus Toxic Shock Syndrome: An outbreak report and review of the literature.

J Infect Public Health. 2012 Dec;5(6):388-93.

Al-ajmi JA1, Hill P, O’ Boyle C, Garcia ML, Malkawi M, George A, Saleh F, Lukose B, Ali BA, Elsheikh M.


Group A Streptococcal (GAS) Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) is an acute, rapidly progressive, and often fatal illness. Outbreaks can occur in hospitals. However, early infection control measures may interrupt transmissions and prevent morbidity and mortality. Two cases of invasive GAS TSS were diagnosed within 48h after two uncomplicated laparoscopic surgeries that were performed in the same operating room of a women’s hospital. Investigations conducted by the infection prevention and control department of the hospital identified 46 obstetrical staff members who were involved in the surgeries and/or had contact with either of the patients. All of the staff members were interviewed regarding any recent history of upper respiratory tract infections, the presence of skin lesions and vaginal or rectal symptoms. Throat, rectal, and vaginal cultures were obtained two times from all of the involved staff members. Throat colonization with GAS was detected in the cultures from one obstetrical intern who attended the 1st surgery and from one nurse who had formerly worked in the postnatal ward. These two strains were epidemiologically different from each other and from the outbreak strain. Both carriers were suspended from direct patient care and were treated with a ten-day course of oral clindamycin. The success of their decolonization status was assessed at the end of therapy and at three, six, nine and twelve months thereafter before reassigning them to routine work. Unfortunately, in spite of the extensive investigation of all involved personnel and of the environment, the mode of transmission to the second patient could not be established. However, droplet or airborne transmission could not be ruled out. Early and meticulous implementation of infection control measures was crucial and instrumental in the successful management and control of this outbreak. Furthermore, there were no subsequent GAS cases detected during the 24 months following the outbreak.


September 21, 2018 at 8:17 am

Comparison Between Carbapenems and β-Lactam/β-Lactamase Inhibitors in the Treatment for Bloodstream Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Open Forum Infect Dis. 16 May 2017;4(2):ofx099.

Muhammed M, Flokas ME, Detsis M, Alevizakos M, y col.  


Carbapenems are widely used for the management of bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE). However, the wide use of carbapenems has been associated with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae development.


We searched the PubMed and Scopus databases (last search date was on June 1, 2016) looking for studies that reported mortality in adult patients with ESBL-PE BSIs that were treated with carbapenems or β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors (BL/BLIs).


Fourteen studies reported mortality data in adult patients with ESBL-PE BSI that were treated with carbapenems or BL/BLIs. Among them, 13 studies reported extractable data on empiric therapy, with no statistically significant difference in mortality of patients with ESBL-PE BSI that were treated empirically with carbapenems (22.1%; 121 of 547), compared with those that received empiric BL/BLIs (20.5%; 109 of 531; relative risk [RR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83–1.37; I2 = 20.7%; P = .241). In addition, 7 studies reported data on definitive therapy. In total, 767 patients (79.3%) received carbapenems and 199 patients (20.6%) received BL/BLIs as definitive therapy, and there was again no statistically significant difference (RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.25–1.52; I2 = 84.6%; P < .001). Regarding specific pathogens, the use of empiric BL/BLIs in patients with BSI due to ESBL-Escherichia coli was not associated with a statistically significant difference in mortality (RR, 1.014; 95% CI, 0.491–2.095; I2 = 62.5%; P = .046), compared with the use of empiric carbapenems.


These data do not support the wide use of carbapenems as empiric therapy, and BL/BLIs might be effective agents for initial/empiric therapy for patients with BSI caused by likely ESBL-PE, and especially ESBL-E coli.




September 20, 2018 at 3:31 pm

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