Posts filed under ‘REVIEWS’

REVISION – Difusión de los antibióticos en el sistema nervioso central

Revista Española de Quimioterapia Febrero 2018 V.31 N.1 P.1–12.

José María Cabrera-Maqueda,corresponding author1 Luna Fuentes Rumí,1 Gabriel Valero López,1 Ana Esther Baidez Guerrero,1 Estefanía García Molina,1 José Díaz Pérez,1 and Elisa García-Vázquez2

RESUMEN

Las infecciones del SNC causadas por patógenos mutiresistentes suponen un reto terapéutico. El paso de fluidos y de solutos al SNC está estrechamente regulado a través de la BHE.La penetración de cualquier fármaco, inclusive los ATB, en el LCR depende del tamaño molecular, la lipofilicidad, la unión a proteínas plasmáticas y su afinidad por transportadores de la BHE. La relación entre el área bajo la curva en el LCR y el suero AUCCSF (Area Bajo la Curva en LCR)/AUCS (Area Bajo la Curva en suero) de una sustancia es el parámetro más preciso para determinar su capacidad de difusión.

Linezolid, algunas quinolonas y metronidazol consiguen altas concentraciones en LCR y son útiles para tratar microorganismos sensibles. Algunos ATB cuya permeabilidad a través de la BHE es baja pueden ser administrados directamente en el ventrículo a la vez que se realiza infusión IV. El ATB ideal para tratar una infección del SNC es pequeño, no tiene alta tasa de unión a proteínas plasmáticas, es moderadamente lipofílico y no es un ligando de alta afinidad a bombas de expulsión de la BHE.

Conocer la farmacocinética de los ATB y su interacción con la BHE permitirá mejorar el tratamiento de los pacientes con infecciones del SNC. En este artículo se exponen las propiedades físico-químicas de los principales grupos de ATB para evaluar cuáles son más prometedores en el tratamiento de las infecciones del SNC y cómo usarlos en la práctica clínica habitual.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6159365/pdf/revespquimioter-31-1.pdf

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May 19, 2019 at 7:13 pm

Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria: 2019 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Clinical Infectious Diseases May 15, 2019 V.68 N.10 P.1611-1615

IDSA GUIDELINES

Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a common finding in many populations, including healthy women and persons with underlying urologic abnormalities. The 2005 guideline from the Infectious Diseases Society of America recommended that ASB should be screened for and treated only in pregnant women or in an individual prior to undergoing invasive urologic procedures. Treatment was not recommended for healthy women; older women or men; or persons with diabetes, indwelling catheters, or spinal cord injury. The guideline did not address children and some adult populations, including patients with neutropenia, solid organ transplants, and nonurologic surgery. In the years since the publication of the guideline, further information relevant to ASB has become available. In addition, antimicrobial treatment of ASB has been recognized as an important contributor to inappropriate antimicrobial use, which promotes emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The current guideline updates the recommendations of the 2005 guideline, includes new recommendations for populations not previously addressed, and, where relevant, addresses the interpretation of nonlocalizing clinical symptoms in populations with a high prevalence of ASB.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/68/10/1611/5481760

PDF (CLIC en PDF)

May 5, 2019 at 12:04 pm

A review of the value of quadrivalent influenza vaccines and their potential contribution to influenza control.

Hum Vaccin Immunother. July 3, 2017 V.13 N.7 P.1640-1652.

Ray R1, Dos Santos G2, Buck PO3, Claeys C1, Matias G1, Innis BL3, Bekkat-Berkani R1.

Author information

1 a GSK , Wavre , Belgium.

2 b Business & Decision Life Sciences , Brussels , Belgium (on behalf of GSK).

3 c GSK , Philadelphia , PA , USA.

Abstract

The contribution of influenza B to the seasonal influenza burden varies from year-to-year. Although 2 antigenically distinct influenza B virus lineages have co-circulated since 2001, trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) contain antigens from only one influenza B virus. B-mismatch or co-circulation of both B lineages results in increased morbidity and mortality attributable to the B lineage absent from the vaccine. Quadrivalent vaccines (QIVs) contain both influenza B lineages. We reviewed currently licensed QIVs and their value by focusing on the preventable disease burden. Modeling studies support that QIVs are expected to prevent more influenza cases, hospitalisations and deaths than TIVs, although estimates of the case numbers prevented vary according to local specificities. The value of QIVs is demonstrated by their capacity to broaden the immune response and reduce the likelihood of a B-mismatched season. Some health authorities have preferentially recommended QIVs over TIVs in their influenza prevention programmes.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5512791/pdf/khvi-13-07-1313375.pdf

 

April 13, 2019 at 12:57 pm

Review – Candida auris – Review of the Literature

Clinical Microbiology Reviews January 2018 V.31 N.1

Anna Jeffery-Smith, Surabhi K. Taori, Silke Schelenz, Katie Jeffery, Elizabeth M. Johnson, Andrew Borman, Candida auris Incident Management Team, Rohini Manuel, Colin S. Brown

The emerging pathogen Candida auris has been associated with nosocomial outbreaks on five continents. Genetic analysis indicates the simultaneous emergence of separate clades of this organism in different geographical locations.

Invasive infection and colonization have been detected predominantly in patients in high-dependency settings and have garnered attention due to variable antifungal resistance profiles and transmission within units instituting a range of infection prevention and control measures. Issues with the identification of C. auris using both phenotypic and molecular techniques have raised concerns about detecting the true scale of the problem.

This review considers the literature available on C. auris and highlights the key unknowns, which will provide direction for further work in this field.

FULL TEXT

https://cmr.asm.org/content/31/1/e00029-17

PDF

https://cmr.asm.org/content/cmr/31/1/e00029-17.full.pdf

 

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April 11, 2019 at 8:15 am

2017 WSES and SICG guidelines on acute calcolous cholecystitis in elderly population

World J Emerg Surg. 2019 Mar 4;14:10.

Pisano M, Ceresoli M, Cimbanassi S, Gurusamy K, Coccolini F, Borzellino G, et al

Background

Gallstone disease is very common afflicting 20 million people in the USA. In Europe, the overall incidence of gallstone disease is 18.8% in women and 9.5% in men. The frequency of gallstones related disease increases by age. The elderly population is increasing worldwide.

Aim

The present guidelines aims to report the results of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) and Italian Surgical Society for Elderly (SICG) consensus conference on acute calcolous cholecystitis (ACC) focused on elderly population.

Material and methods

The 2016 WSES guidelines on ACC were used as baseline; six questions have been used to investigate the particularities in elderly population; the answers have been developed in terms of differences compared to the general population and to statements of the 2016 WSES Guidelines. The Consensus Conference discusses, voted, and modified the statements. International experts contributed in the elaboration of final statements and evaluation of the level of scientific evidences.

Results

The quality of the studies available decreases when we approach ACC in elderly. Same admission laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be suggested for elderly people with ACC; frailty scores as well as clinical and surgical risk scores could be adopted but no general consensus exist. The role of cholecystostomy is uncertain.

Discussion and conclusions

The evaluation of pro and cons for surgery or for alternative treatments in elderly suffering of ACC is more complex than in young people; also, the oldest old age is not a contraindication for surgery; however, a larger use of frailty and surgical risk scores could contribute to reach the best clinical judgment by the surgeon. The present guidelines offer the opportunity to share with the scientific community a baseline for future researches and discussion.

FULL TEXT

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399945/

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399945/pdf/13017_2019_Article_224.pdf

April 3, 2019 at 8:37 am

Management of post-neurosurgical meningitis: narrative review.

Clinical Microbiology and Infection September 2017 V.23 N.9 P.621-628.

Hussein K1, Bitterman R2, Shofty B3, Paul M1, Neuberger A4.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Infections complicating neurosurgery pose unacceptable mortality and morbidity.

AIMS:

To summarize what is known about the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of post-neurosurgical meningitis (PNM).

SOURCES:

PubMed, references of identified studies and reviews, and personal experience when evidence was lacking.

CONTENT:

The incidence and pathogen distribution of PNM is highly variable. A shift towards Gram-negative bacteria has been observed with use of antibiotic prophylaxis and antibiotic-coated devices directed mainly against Gram-positive bacteria. However, knowledge of the local epidemiology is necessary to treat PNM. The diagnosis of PNM is difficult because, unlike community-acquired meningitis, symptoms are less specific; patients are ill at baseline and many neurosurgical conditions mimic meningitis and cause cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities. Pivotal CSF findings for diagnosis of PNM are the CSF glucose, CSF lactate and Gram stain. CSF leucocyte counts are not specific in PNM. Current diagnostic capabilities leave a non-negligible category of patients with microbiologically negative, uncertain diagnosis of PNM. There is no high-quality evidence on several cardinal issues in PNM management, including the effectiveness of intraventricular or intrathecal (IV/IT) antibiotics, effectiveness of dual antibiotic therapy for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria; clinical benefit of routine therapeutic drug monitoring; and safest timing of shunt replacement. Some data point to a potential benefit of IV/IT antibiotic treatment, mainly for PNM caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Carbapenem-colistin combination therapy is suggested for PNM caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria with a carbapenem MIC ≤8 mg/L.

IMPLICATIONS:

Guiding the optimal management of PNM will necessitate collaborative multicentre efforts and unique study designs.

FULL TEXT

https://www.clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com/article/S1198-743X(17)30273-2/fulltext

PDF

https://www.clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com/article/S1198-743X(17)30273-2/pdf

April 1, 2019 at 6:34 pm

2017-10 European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS). European guidelines for clinical management and treatment of HIV-1-infected adults in Europe 102 pag

Welcome to the EACS Guidelines!

These Guidelines were developed by the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS), a not-for-profit organisation, whose mission is to promote excellence in standards of care, research and education in HIV infection and related co-infections, and to actively engage in the formulation of public health policy, with the aim of reducing HIV disease burden across Europe.

The EACS Guidelines were first published in 2005, and are currently available in print, online, and as a free App for both iOS and Android devices. The Guidelines are translated to a number of different languages, and are formally revised at least annually for the electronic version and biennially for the printed version. The electronic version can, however, be updated at any given moment if the panels consider it necessary.

The aim of the EACS Guidelines is to provide easily accessible and comprehensive recommendations to clinicians centrally involved in the care of HIV-positive persons.

The EACS Guidelines are covering a relatively large and diverse area geographically, with different national levels of access to care. As a natural consequence, the Guidelines aim to cover a relatively wide range of recommendations as opposed to the often more uniform national guidelines.

The Guidelines consist of five main sections, including a general overview table of all major issues in HIV infection, as well as detailed recommendations on antiretroviral treatment, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of co-morbidities, co-infections and opportunistic diseases.

Each respective section of the Guidelines is managed by a panel of experienced European HIV experts, and additional experts, where needed. All recommendations are evidence-based whenever possible, and based on expert opinions in the rare instances where adequate evidence is unavailable. It was decided not to provide formal grades of evidence in the Guidelines. The panels make decisions by consensus or by vote when necessary. Yet, it was decided not to publish results of the votes or discrepancies if any.

A list of the main references used to produce the Guidelines is provided as a separate section. Please reference the EACS Guidelines as follows: EACS Guidelines version 9.0, October 2017. Video links to the EACS online course on Clinical Management of HIV are provided throughout the Guidelines, see Video links.

The diagnosis and management of HIV infection and related co-infections, opportunistic diseases and co-morbidities continue to require a multidisciplinary effort for which we hope the 2017 version of the EACS Guidelines will provide you with an easily accessible and updated overview.

All comments to the Guidelines are welcome and can be directed to guidelines@eacsociety.org

We wish to warmly thank all panellists, external experts, linguists, translators, the EACS Secretariat, the Sanford team and everyone else who helped to build up and to publish the EACS Guidelines for their dedicated work.

 

Enjoy!

Manuel Battegay and Lene Ryom – October 2017

PDF

http://www.eacsociety.org/files/guidelines_9.0-english.pdf

March 19, 2019 at 4:00 pm

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