Posts filed under ‘Update’

The Added Cost of Rapid Diagnostic Testing and Active Antimicrobial Stewardship: Is It Worth It?

Journal of Clinical Microbiology January 2017 V.55 N.1 P.20-23

Erin McElvania TeKippe

Departments of Pathology and Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern and Departments of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children’s Health, Dallas, Texas, USA

Rapid diagnostic testing reduces the turnaround time for pathogen identification in the clinical microbiology laboratory, but the impact on patient care and hospital costs is a matter of speculation. Patel et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 55:60–67, 2017, investigate the impact of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in conjunction with active antimicrobial stewardship to determine if implementation is indeed worth the added costs.



October 19, 2017 at 3:06 pm

A Rose by Any Other Name: Practical Updates on Microbial Nomenclature for Clinical Microbiology

Journal of Clinical Microbiology January 2017 V.55 N.1 P.3-4


Colleen S. Kraft, Alexander J. McAdam, and Karen C. Carroll

aDepartment of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

bDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

cDivision of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

The clinical microbiology laboratory stands at the interface between basic science, including the study of phylogeny, and applications of science in the very practical world of medical care.

In this context, it is important that laboratory reports balance scientific accuracy with medical utility, and it is particularly difficult to do this in the naming of microorganisms.

New organisms are discovered and named, and our understanding of the relationships between known organisms improves, resulting in the reclassification and renaming of organisms as they are sorted into the correct groups.

In this issue of Journal of Clinical Microbiology, we are pleased to provide several minireviews that are intended to help clinical microbiologists keep up-to-date with changes in nomenclature for bacteria (1), parasites (2), viruses (3), and fungi (4).

Most of these minireviews focus on human pathogens, but the minireview on viruses includes those affecting nonhuman animals. An article about mycobacterial nomenclature is in preparation and will be published in Journal of Clinical Microbiology when available.

The idea for this informative resource was proposed by Dr. Karen Carroll at the editors’ meeting in 2015.

The editors enthusiastically agreed these reviews would be a useful resource for clinical microbiologists, infectious diseases physicians, laboratory technologists, pharmacists, and infection preventionists, in addition to fostering discussion and teaching of trainees and students.

Several editors volunteered to write the articles, and we plan to update these minireviews every 2 years if they prove to be as useful as we expect….


October 19, 2017 at 3:02 pm

Pregnant Women Hospitalized with Chikungunya Virus Infection, Colombia, 2015

Emerging Infectious Diseases November 2017 V.23 N.11

Maria Escobar, Albaro J. Nieto, Sara Loaiza-Osorio, Juan S. Barona, and Fernando Rosso

Fundación Clínica Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia (M. Escobar, A.J. Nieto, S. Loaiza-Osorio, F. Rosso); Icesi University, Cali (M. Escobar, A.J. Nieto, J.S. Barona, F. Rosso)

In 2015 in Colombia, 60 pregnant women were hospitalized with chikungunya virus infections confirmed by reverse transcription PCR.

Nine of these women required admission to the intensive care unit because of sepsis with hypoperfusion and organ dysfunction; these women met the criteria for severe acute maternal morbidity. No deaths occurred.

Fifteen women delivered during acute infection; some received tocolytics to delay delivery until after the febrile episode and prevent possible vertical transmission. As recommended by a pediatric neonatologist, 12 neonates were hospitalized to rule out vertical transmission; no clinical findings suggestive of neonatal chikungunya virus infection were observed.

With 36 women (60%), follow-up was performed 1 year after acute viremia; 13 patients had arthralgia in >2 joints (a relapse of infection).

Despite disease severity, pregnant women with chikungunya should be treated in high-complexity obstetric units to rule out adverse outcomes. These women should also be followed up to treat potential relapses.


October 18, 2017 at 8:27 am

Antimicrobial Nonsusceptibility of Gram-Negative Bloodstream Isolates, Veterans Health Administration System, United States, 2003–2013

Emerging Infectious Diseases November 2017 V.23 N.11

Michihiko Goto, Jennifer S. McDanel, Makoto M. Jones, Daniel J. Livorsi, Michael E. Ohl, Brice F. Beck, Kelly K. Richardson, Bruce Alexander, and Eli N. Perencevich

Iowa City Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Iowa City, Iowa, USA (M. Goto, J.S. McDanel, D.J. Livorsi, M.E. Ohl, B.F. Beck, K.K. Richardson, B. Alexander, E.N. Perencevich); University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City (M. Goto, J.S. McDanel, D.J. Livorsi, M.E. Ohl, E.N. Perencevich); Salt Lake City Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA (M.M. Jones); University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City USA (M.M. Jones)

Bacteremia caused by gram-negative bacteria is associated with serious illness and death, and emergence of antimicrobial drug resistance in these bacteria is a major concern.

Using national microbiology and patient data for 2003–2013 from the US Veterans Health Administration, we characterized nonsusceptibility trends of community-acquired, community-onset; healthcare-associated, community-onset; and hospital-onset bacteremia for selected gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter spp.).

For 47,746 episodes of bacteremia, the incidence rate was 6.37 episodes/10,000 person-years for community-onset bacteremia and 4.53 episodes/10,000 patient-days for hospital-onset bacteremia.

For Klebsiella spp., P. aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter spp., we observed a decreasing proportion of nonsusceptibility across nearly all antimicrobial drug classes for patients with healthcare exposure; trends for community-acquired, community-onset isolates were stable or increasing.

The role of infection control and antimicrobial stewardship efforts in inpatient settings in the decrease in drug resistance rates for hospital-onset isolates needs to be determined.


October 18, 2017 at 8:25 am

Emergence of Bordetella holmesii as a Causative Agent of Whooping Cough, Barcelona, Spain

Emerging Infectious Diseases November 2017 V.23 N.11

Alba Mir-Cros, Gema Codina, M. Teresa Martín-Gómez, Anna Fàbrega, Xavier Martínez, Mireia Jané, Diego Van Esso, Thais Cornejo, Carlos Rodrigo, Magda Campins, Tomàs Pumarola, and Juan José González-LópezComments to Author

Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain (A. Mir-Cros, G. Codina, M.T. Martín-Gómez, A. Fàbrega, X. Martínez, T. Cornejo, C. Rodrigo, M. Campins, T. Pumarola, J.J. González-López); Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (A. Mir-Cros, G. Codina, C. Rodrigo, M. Campins, T. Pumarola, J.J. González-López); Public Health Agency of Catalonia, Barcelona (M. Jané); Primary Care Health Centre Service ‘Muntanya,’ Barcelona (D. Van Esso)

We describe the detection of Bordetella holmesii as a cause of whooping cough in Spain. Prevalence was 3.9% in 2015, doubling to 8.8% in 2016. This emergence raises concern regarding the contribution of B. holmesii to the reemergence of whooping cough and the effectiveness of the pertussis vaccine.


October 18, 2017 at 8:24 am

Blood Culture–Negative Endocarditis, Morocco

Emerging Infectious Diseases November 2017 V.23 N.11

Research Letter

Najma Boudebouch, M’hammed Sarih, Abdelfattah Chakib, Salma Fadili, Drissi Boumzebra, Zahira Zouizra, Badie Azamane Mahadji, Hamid Amarouch, Didier Raoult, and Pierre-Edouard Fournier

Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Casablanca, Morocco (N. Boudebouch, M. Sarih); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ibn Rochd, Casablanca (A. Chakib, S. Fadili, B.A. Mahadji); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ibn Toufail Marrakech, Marrakech, Morocco (D. Boumzebra, Z. Zouizra); Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Casablanca (H. Amarouch); Aix-Marseille Université, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, Marseille, France (D. Raoult, P.-E. Fournier)

We investigated the microorganisms causing blood culture–negative endocarditis (BCNE) in Morocco.

We tested 19 patients with BCNE by serologic methods, molecular methods, or both and identified Bartonella quintana, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus equi, and Streptococcus oralis in 4 patients.

These results highlight the role of these zoonotic agents in BCNE in Morocco.


October 18, 2017 at 8:23 am

Antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women living with HIV: A clinical practice guideline.

BMJ 2017 Sep 11; 358:j3961.

Siemieniuk RAC et al.

Approximately 1.4 million women living with HIV become pregnant every year. Most women use antiretroviral therapy, to reduce the risk of vertical transmission or for personal health reasons. Using the GRADE framework according to the BMJ Rapid Recommendation process, we make recommendations for optimal choice of combination antiretroviral regimen considering patient values and preferences, the balance of desirable and undesirable outcomes, their uncertainty, and practical issues. We suggest a zidovudine and lamivudine-based regimen over one that includes tenofovir or emtricitabine (weak recommendation). We recommend alternatives over the combination of tenofovir, emtricitabine, and lopinavir/ritonavir (strong recommendation).



October 5, 2017 at 9:52 am

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