Posts filed under ‘Zoonosis’

Sexually acquired Zika virus: a systematic review

Clinical Microbiology and Infection May 2017 V.23 N.5

Moreira, T.M. Peixoto, A.M. Siqueira, C.C. Lamas

1) Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Fundaçao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil ~

2) Universidade do Grande Rio (Unigranrio), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

3) Unidade de pesquisa cardiovascular, Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


Zika virus (ZIKV) is transmitted to humans primarily by Aedes mosquito bites. However, circumstantial evidence points to a sexual transmission route.


To assess the sexually acquired ZIKV cases and to investigate the shedding of ZIKV in genital fluids.

Data sources:

PubMed, Scopus, Pro-MED-mail and WHO ZIKV notification databases from inception to December 2016.

Selection criteria:

Reports describing ZIKV acquisition through sex and studies reporting the detection or isolation of ZIKV in the genital fluids were included.

Risk-of-bias assessment:

The risk of bias was assessed using the National Institute of Health Tool.


Eighteen studies reporting on sex-acquired ZIKV and 21 describing the presence of ZIKV in genital fluids were included. The overall risk of bias was moderate. Sexual transmission was male efemale (92.5%), femaleemale (3.7%) and maleemale (3.7%). Modes of sexual transmission were unprotected vaginal (96.2%), oral (18.5%) and anal (7.4%) intercourse. The median time between onset of symptoms in the index partner and presumed sexual transmission was 13 days (range 4e44 days). ZIKV RNA was detected in semen as late as 188 days (range 3e188 days) following symptom onset, and infectious virus was isolated in semen up to 69 days after symptom onset. No study reported ZIKV isolation from female genital samples, but detection did occur up to 13 days after symptom onset.


ZIKV is potentially sexually transmitted and persists in male genital secretions for a prolonged period after symptom onset


May 9, 2017 at 8:26 am

REVIEW – Global expansion of chikungunya virus – mapping the 64-year history.

Int J Infect Dis May 2017 V.58 N.5 P.69-76

Braira Wahid, Amjad Ali, Shazia Rafique, Muhammad Idrees

May 8, 2017 at 3:48 pm

Bartonella henselae Infective Endocarditis Detected by a Prolonged Blood Culture.

Intern Med. 2016;55(20):3065-3067. Epub 2016 Oct 15.

Mito T1, Hirota Y, Suzuki S, Noda K, Uehara T, Ohira Y, Ikusaka M.

Author information

1 Department of General Medicine, Chiba University Hospital, Japan.


A 65-year-old Japanese man was admitted with a 4-month history of fatigue and exertional dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a vegetation on the aortic valve and severe aortic regurgitation. Accordingly, infective endocarditis and heart failure were diagnosed. Although a blood culture was negative on day 7 after admission, a prolonged blood culture with subculture was performed according to the patient’s history of contact with cats. Consequently, Bartonella henselae was isolated. Bartonella species are fastidious bacteria that cause blood culture-negative infective endocarditis. This case demonstrates that B. henselae may be detected by prolonged incubation of blood cultures.


April 20, 2017 at 4:02 pm

A literature review of laboratory-acquired brucellosis.

J Clin Microbiol. 2013 Sep;51(9):3055-62.

Traxler RM1, Lehman MW, Bosserman EA, Guerra MA, Smith TL.

Author information

1Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.


Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease which has been associated with laboratory-acquired infections. No recent reviews have addressed the characteristics of laboratory-acquired brucellosis (LAB). English-language literature was reviewed to identify reports of laboratory exposures to Brucella spp. and LAB cases between 1982 and 2007. Evaluation of 28 case reports identified 167 potentially exposed laboratory workers, of whom 71 had LAB. Nine reports were identified that summarized an additional 186 cases of LAB. Only 18 (11%) exposures were due to laboratory accidents, 147 (88%) exposures were due to aerosolization of organisms during routine identification activities, and the circumstances of 2 (1%) exposures were unknown. Brucella melitensis was the causative agent in 80% (135/167) of the exposures. Workers with high-risk exposures were 9.3 times more likely to develop LAB than workers with low-risk exposures (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0 to 38.6; P < 0.0001); they were also 0.009 times likelier to develop LAB if they took antimicrobial PEP than if they did not (95% CI, 0 to 0.042; P < 0.0001). The median incubation period in case and summary reports was 8 weeks (range 1 to 40 weeks). Antimicrobial PEP is effective in preventing LAB. The incubation period may be used to identify appropriate serological and symptom surveillance time frames for exposed laboratory workers.


April 10, 2017 at 9:17 am

Treatment of brucellosis: a systematic review of studies in recent twenty years.

Caspian J Intern Med. 2013 Spring;4(2):636-41.

Alavi SM1, Alavi L.

Author information

1Jundishapur Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.



The treatment of human brucellosis is controversial. The purpose of this study was to search published clinical trial papers to provide a simple and effective treatment in brucellosis.


Many studies on brucellosis treatment in a twenty- year span from 1993 to 2012 were searched in PubMed, Web of Science (ISI), Scopus, Google Scholar, Magiran, Iranmedex and SID. The studies that were searched and classified in groups according to combination therapy and monotherapy and their results in treatment outcome were compared. Regimens with lower treatment failure or relapse were considered as more suitable for brucellosis treatment.


The comparison of combined doxycycline and rifampicin (DR) with a doxycycline plus streptomycin (DS) favors the latter regimen. The combined doxycycline/cotrimoxazole (DCTM) showed similar effect with DR. The treatment with the combined regimen including quinolones was similar to DR but with higher relapse rates. Higher relapse rate was searched in monotherapy (13% vs. 4.8%) and in short-term (less than 4 weeks) treatment regimen (22% vs. 4.8%), respectively. Although in children, clinical trials were limited but showed cotrimoxazole plus rifampin for six weeks was the best treatment regimen.


In uncomplicated brucellosis in adult patients, doxycycline-aminoglycoside combination is the first choice with doxycycline- rifampin and doxycycline-cotrimoxazole should be the alternative regimens. The other oral regimens including quinolones may be considered as alternatives. Cotrimoxazole plus rifampin for six weeks may be the regimen of choice for the treatment of patients younger than 8 years old. Gentamicin for 5 days plus cotrimoxazole for six weeks may be a suitable alternative regimen.


April 9, 2017 at 7:35 pm

Polymerase chain reaction-based assays for the diagnosis of human brucellosis.

Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2014 Aug 1;13:31.                      

Wang Y, Wang Z, Zhang Y, Bai L, Zhao Y, Liu C, Ma A, Yu H.


Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an in vitro technique for the nucleic acid amplification, which is commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases. The use of PCR for pathogens detection, genotyping and quantification has some advantages, such as high sensitivity, high specificity, reproducibility and technical ease. Brucellosis is a common zoonosis caused by Brucella spp., which still remains as a major health problem in many developing countries around the world. The direct culture and immunohistochemistry can be used for detecting infection with Brucella spp. However, PCR has the potential to address limitations of these methods. PCR are now one of the most useful assays for the diagnosis in human brucellosis. The aim of this review was to summarize the main PCR techniques and their applications for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with brucellosis. Moreover, advantages or limitation of the different PCR methods as well as the evaluation of PCR results for treatment and follow-up of human brucellosis were also discussed.


April 9, 2017 at 7:34 pm

Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and the Risk of Listeriosis: A Nationwide Registry-based Case-Control Study

Clinical Infectious Diseases April 1, 2017 V.64 N. P.845-851


Anne Kvistholm Jensen; Jacob Simonsen; Steen Ethelberg

We investigated the association between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and risk of listeriosis in Denmark, 1994-2012, using register data. The matched comorbidity adjusted odds ratio was 2.8 (95%CI: 2.1–3.7). PPIs may increase the risk of listeriosis in vulnerable populations groups.


March 20, 2017 at 9:12 am

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