Posts filed under ‘Zoonosis’

Multistate infestation with the exotic disease–vector tick Haemaphysalis longicornis — United States, August 2017–September 2018.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep November 30, 2018 V.67 N.47 P.1310-1313.

Beard CB et al

Haemaphysalis longicornis is a tick indigenous to eastern Asia and an important vector of human and animal disease agents, resulting in such outcomes as human hemorrhagic fever and reduction of production in dairy cattle by 25%.

H. longicornis was discovered on a sheep in New Jersey in August 2017 (1).

This was the first detection in the United States outside of quarantine.

In the spring of 2018, the tick was again detected at the index site, and later, in other counties in New Jersey, in seven other states in the eastern United States, and in Arkansas.

The hosts included six species of domestic animals, six species of wildlife, and humans.

To forestall adverse consequences in humans, pets, livestock, and wildlife, several critical actions are indicated, including expanded surveillance to determine the evolving distribution of H. longicornis, detection of pathogens that H. longicornis currently harbors, determination of the capacity of H. longicornis to serve as a vector for a range of potential pathogens, and evaluation of effective agents and methods for the control of H. longicornis ….



December 6, 2018 at 8:00 am

Virus Mayaro: una nueva amenaza para el continente Americano

Revista LatinoAmericana de Infectología Pediátrica Ene-Mar 2017 V.30 N.1 P.12-14

Iván Renato Zúñiga Carrasco,* Janett Caro Lozano**

* Jefe del Departamento de Epidemiología. HGR. 251 IMSS, Metepec, Estado de México.

** Coordinadora de Educación e Investigación HGZ. C/MF. 1 IMSS, Chetumal, Quintana Roo.

Es una enfermedad causada por el virus de Mayaro perteneciente al género Alphavirus (grupo A de arbovirus), estrechamente relacionada con fiebre de Chikungunya.

Se transmite por la picadura de mosquitos hembras infectados con este virus principalmente del género Haemagogus spp., en zonas selváticas y rurales y por Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus en la parte urbana, áreas ubicadas entre 0 y 2,200 metros sobre el nivel del mar.

Inicia con una rápida elevación de la temperatura corporal e incluye malestar general, cefalea, dolor retroocular, mialgias, artralgia, dolor abdominal, mareos, náuseas, pérdida de apetito, erupción en piel principalmente en pecho, piernas, espalda, brazos y con menor frecuencia en la cara.

En algunos casos se presenta dolor de garganta, congestión nasal, tos y algunas hemorragias.

El cuadro febril es de corta duración, entre tres y siete días y suele resolverse por sí solo, aunque en algunos pacientes la afectación articular puede ser severa y de duración prolongada.

El diagnóstico es mediante la técnica de RT-PCR.

No existe tratamiento específico y el manejo debe ser sintomático de soporte.


November 21, 2018 at 8:24 am

Review – Will Mayaro virus be responsible for the next outbreak of an arthropod-borne virus in Brazil?

The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases 2017 V.21 N.5 P.540-544

Danillo Lucas Alves Esposito, Benedito Antonio Lopes da Fonseca

Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departmento de Clínica Médica, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

Mayaro virus is an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family and is transmitted mainly by Hemagogus mosquitoes.

This virus circulates in high-density tropical forests or rural areas of Central and South America causing a disease characterized by high-grade fever, maculopapular skin rash and marked arthralgia that, in some patients, can persist for long periods after infection and may be misinterpreted as chikungunya.

Although only a few outbreaks involving this virus have been reported, in the last years the number of Mayaro virus infections has increased in the central and northern regions of Brazil.

In this review, we describe the reported prevalence of this infection over the years and discuss the circumstances that can contribute to the establishment of an urban mayaro virus epidemic in Brazil and the problems encountered with the specific diagnosis, especially the antigenic cross-reactivity of this pathogen with other viruses of the same family.




November 21, 2018 at 8:22 am

Anopheles mosquitoes may drive invasion and transmission of Mayaro virus across geographically diverse regions

Public Library of Science – Neglected Tropical Diseases November 7, 2018

Anopheles mosquitoes may drive invasion and transmission of Mayaro virus across geographically diverse regions

The Togavirus (Alphavirus) Mayaro virus (MAYV) was initially described in 1954 from Mayaro County (Trinidad) and has been responsible for outbreaks in South America and the Caribbean.

Imported MAYV cases are on the rise, leading to invasion concerns similar to Chikungunya and Zika viruses.

Little is known about the range of mosquito species that are competent MAYV vectors.

We tested vector competence of 2 MAYV genotypes in laboratory strains of six mosquito species (Aedes aegypti, Anopheles freeborni, An. gambiae, An. quadrimaculatus, An. stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus).

Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were poor MAYV vectors, and had either poor or null infection and transmission rates at the tested viral challenge titers.

In contrast, all Anopheles species were able to transmit MAYV, and 3 of the 4 species transmitted both genotypes.

The Anopheles species tested are divergent and native to widely separated geographic regions (Africa, Asia, North America), suggesting that Anopheles may be important in the invasion and spread of MAYV across diverse regions of the world.



November 21, 2018 at 8:10 am

Diseases Transmitted by Cats.

Microbiol Spectr. October 2015 V.3 N.5

Goldstein EJC1, Abrahamian FM2.


Humans and cats have shared a close relationship since ancient times. Millions of cats are kept as household pets, and 34% of households have cats.

There are numerous diseases that may be transmitted from cats to humans.

General modes of transmission, with some overlapping features, can occur through inhalation (e.g., bordetellosis); vector-borne spread (e.g., ehrlichiosis); fecal-oral route (e.g., campylobacteriosis); bite, scratch, or puncture (e.g., rabies); soil-borne spread (e.g., histoplasmosis); and direct contact (e.g., scabies).

It is also likely that the domestic cat can potentially act as a reservoir for many other zoonoses that are not yet recognized.

The microbiology of cat bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial with a broad mixture of aerobic (e.g., Pasteurella, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and anaerobic (e.g., Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Bacteroides) microorganisms.

Bacteria recovered from infected cat bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the cat, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods.

Bacteria may also originate from the victim’s own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury.




November 19, 2018 at 11:23 am

Pet-Related Infections.

Am Fam Physician. November 15, 2016 V.94 N.10 P.794-802.

Day MJ1.


Physicians and veterinarians have many opportunities to partner in promoting the well-being of people and their pets, especially by addressing zoonotic diseases that may be transmitted between a pet and a human family member.

Common cutaneous pet-acquired zoonoses are dermatophytosis (ringworm) and sarcoptic mange (scabies), which are both readily treated.

Toxoplasmosis can be acquired from exposure to cat feces, but appropriate hygienic measures can minimize the risk to pregnant women.

Persons who work with animals are at increased risk of acquiring bartonellosis (e.g., cat-scratch disease); control of cat fleas is essential to minimize the risk of these infections.

People and their pets share a range of tick-borne diseases, and exposure risk can be minimized with use of tick repellent, prompt tick removal, and appropriate tick control measures for pets.

Pets such as reptiles, amphibians, and backyard poultry pose a risk of transmitting Salmonella species and are becoming more popular.

Personal hygiene after interacting with these pets is crucial to prevent Salmonella infections.

Leptospirosis is more often acquired from wildlife than infected dogs, but at-risk dogs can be protected with vaccination.

The clinical history in the primary care office should routinely include questions about pets and occupational or other exposure to pet animals.

Control and prevention of zoonoses are best achieved by enhancing communication between physicians and veterinarians to ensure patients know the risks of and how to prevent zoonoses in themselves, their pets, and other people.



November 19, 2018 at 11:20 am

Diseases Transmitted by Less Common House Pets.

Microbiol Spectr. December 2015 V.3 N6

Chomel BB1.


Beside dogs and cats, the most common pets worldwide, an increasing number of pocket pets and exotic pets are making their way to more and more households, especially in North America and Europe.

Although many of these animals make appropriate pets, they also can be a source of many zoonotic diseases, especially in young children and immunocompromised individuals.

Some of these diseases can be life threatening, such as rabies, rat bite fever, and plague.

Some others are quite common, because of the frequency of the pathogens harbored by these species, such as salmonellosis in reptiles and amphibians.

Appropriate knowledge of the zoonotic agents carried by these “new” pet species is strongly recommended prior to acquiring pocket or exotic pets.

Furthermore, adopting wildlife as pets is strongly discouraged, because it is always a risky action that can lead to major health issues.



November 19, 2018 at 11:17 am

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