Posts filed under ‘Zoonosis’

Perspective – Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Transmission

Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal February 2020 V.26 N.2

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection causes a spectrum of respiratory illness, from asymptomatic to mild to fatal.

MERS-CoV is transmitted sporadically from dromedary camels to humans and occasionally through human-to-human contact.

Current epidemiologic evidence supports a major role in transmission for direct contact with live camels or humans with symptomatic MERS, but little evidence suggests the possibility of transmission from camel products or asymptomatic MERS cases.

Because a proportion of case-patients do not report direct contact with camels or with persons who have symptomatic MERS, further research is needed to conclusively determine additional mechanisms of transmission, to inform public health practice, and to refine current precautionary recommendations.

FULL TEXT

https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/2/19-0697_article?deliveryName=DM17906

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January 27, 2020 at 8:02 am

First reported case of Shewanella haliotis in the region of the Americas — New York, December 2018.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep December 20, 2019 V.68 N.50 P.1168-1169

Liu D et al.

On December 18, 2018, a man aged 87 years was evaluated in a hospital emergency department in Flushing, New York, for right lower abdominal quadrant pain.

Evaluation included a computed tomography scan, which showed acute appendicitis with multiple abscesses measuring ≤3 cm.

The patient was admitted, a percutaneous drain was placed, and 5 mL of an opaque jelly-like substance was aspirated and sent for culture and testing for antimicrobial sensitivities…..

PDF

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/pdfs/mm6850a5-H.pdf

January 9, 2020 at 9:00 am

Use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for conclusive diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease – field implementation in the Bolivian Chaco region

PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases December 19, 2019

Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is the neglected tropical disease with a highest burden in Latin America.

Its acute stage is mostly asymptomatic and goes unnoticed.

Symptoms appear at the chronic stage, which is when diagnosis is usually made. This is based on the agreement of two conventional serological tests such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs).

There are commercial kits with good sensitivity and specificity but their use is impractical in many highly endemic regions with poorly equipped laboratories.

Luckily, several rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are available for the detection of anti-T. cruzi immunoglobulins.

They are easy to operate, require no cold storage, provide fast turnaround of results, and some can work with a tiny volume of whole blood as sample.

With the aim to field validate their use we compared an alternative algorithm based on a combination of RDTs with the standard based on ELISAs.

In both cases a third test was available in case of discordance. RDTs were implemented by mobile teams in field campaigns to detect chronic T. cruzi-infections in the Chaco region of Bolivia.

ELISAs were made in the reference laboratories located in the main hospitals of Yacuiba and Villa Montes, two major cities of the region.

We enrolled 685 subjects who voluntarily participated in the study and had not been treated against the disease before.

The agreement between the two main RDTs was 93.1% (638/685) (kappa index = 0.86; CI 95% 0.83–0.90). In comparison to the ELISAs algorithm, the combined use of the RDTs provided a sensitivity of 97.7% and a specificity of 96.1%.

These results support the use of RDTs for the diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease in the studied region, and encourage their evaluation in other regions of Bolivia and other endemic countries.

FULL TEXT

https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0007877#abstract0

PDF

https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0007877&type=printable

January 3, 2020 at 4:05 pm

Population Gene Introgression and High Genome Plasticity for the Zoonotic Pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae

Molecular Biology and Evolution July 25, 2019

The influence that bacterial adaptation (or niche partitioning) within species has on gene spillover and transmission among bacterial populations occupying different niches is not well understood. Streptococcus agalactiae is an important bacterial pathogen that has a taxonomically diverse host range making it an excellent model system to study these processes. Here, we analyze a global set of 901 genome sequences from nine diverse host species to advance our understanding of these processes. Bayesian clustering analysis delineated 12 major populations that closely aligned with niches. Comparative genomics revealed extensive gene gain/loss among populations and a large pan genome of 9,527 genes, which remained open and was strongly partitioned among niches. As a result, the biochemical characteristics of 11 populations were highly distinctive (significantly enriched). Positive selection was detected and biochemical characteristics of the dispensable genes under selection were enriched in ten populations. Despite the strong gene partitioning, phylogenomics detected gene spillover. In particular, tetracycline resistance (which likely evolved in the human-associated population) from humans to bovine, canines, seals, and fish, demonstrating how a gene selected in one host can ultimately be transmitted into another, and biased transmission from humans to bovines was confirmed with a Bayesian migration analysis. Our findings show high bacterial genome plasticity acting in balance with selection pressure from distinct functional requirements of niches that is associated with an extensive and highly partitioned dispensable genome, likely facilitating continued and expansive adaptation.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/mbe/advance-article/doi/10.1093/molbev/msz169/5539754

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September 20, 2019 at 8:19 am

Listeriosis in Spain based on hospitalisation records, 1997 to 2015: need for greater awareness

Eurosuveillance

Listeriosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Listeria spp. L. monocytogenes is the major pathogenic species in both animals and humans. L. monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped organism that can grow in aerobic and anaerobic conditions [1], is widely distributed in the environment and is able to contaminate a wide variety of foods or beverages (soft cheese, deli meats, unpasteurised milk, refrigerated smoked seafood, etc.) [2]. The bacteria can multiply at refrigerator temperatures [3]; therefore, contaminated products are often kept for several days or even weeks, e.g. in the household/restaurants, and may be eaten on multiple occasions, which can complicate the identification of the incriminated food source [4].

The clinical syndromes of listeriosis include: febrile gastroenteritis, sepsis, central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the form of encephalitis, meningoencephalitis and focal infections such as pneumonia myo-endocarditis and septic arthritis, etc [5]. Invasive listeriosis most commonly affects pregnant women, neonates, elderly people and people with chronic conditions or weakened immune response [6]. Listeriosis has one of the highest case fatality rates among all food-borne infections; when it affects the CNS, the mortality rate is above 50% and neurological sequelae are present in more than 60% of survivors [2]. Listeriosis is also associated with fetal and neonatal death.

Worldwide, listeriosis is an emerging infection of public health concern [7]. In Europe, human listeriosis peaked in incidence during the 1980s, showed a general decline during the 1990s and stabilised in the 2000s [8]. More recent data show an increasing trend since 2008 [9]. This increase seems to be related to the ageing of the population and the increase in life expectancy of immunocompromised patients, but also to changes in the ways food is produced, stored, distributed and consumed around the world [10]. Although listeriosis is often a sporadic disease [11], large food-borne outbreaks have occurred during the last decade in Europe and the United States (US) [12]. In South Africa, an outbreak with more than 1,024 laboratory-confirmed listeriosis cases, as at 2 May 2018, has been ongoing since the start of 2017, with a 28.6% case fatality rate [13].

In Spain, food safety criteria (FSC) for L. monocytogenes follow European Commission (EC) regulations [14,15]. Before 2015, when it was added to the list of mandatory notifiable diseases, regions could voluntarily report listeriosis to the Microbiological Information System (Sistema de Información Microbiológica, SIM) [16]. Using the centralised hospital discharge database (Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos, CMBD), we aimed to describe the epidemiology of listeriosis in Spain from 1997–2015.

FULL TEXT

https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.21.1800271

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June 21, 2019 at 7:49 am

Increased risk of chikungunya infection in travellers to Thailand during ongoing outbreak in tourist areas: cases imported to Europe and the Middle East, early 2019.

EuroSurveillance  March 07, 2019 V.24 N.10

Rapid communication

Emilie Javelle1,2,3, Simin-Aysel Florescu4, Hilmir Asgeirsson5,6, Shilan Jmor7, Gilles Eperon8, Eyal Leshem9, Johannes Blum10, Israel Molina11, Vanessa Field7,12, Nancy Pietroski13, Carole Eldin2, Victoria Johnston7, Ioana Ani Cotar14, Corneliu Popescu4, Davidson H Hamer15,16, Philippe Gautret2,3

Since the start of 2019, the EuroTravNet/GeoSentinel and TropNet data collection networks for the surveillance of travel-related morbidity have identified nine patients with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported from Thailand to Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom (UK), Romania, Israel and France.

In comparison, the last CHIKV infection reported to EuroTravNet/GeoSentinel in travellers from Thailand was a suspected case in Romania in January 2018.

Only three other cases were reported to this network during the past 3 years from Thailand, and none in travellers returning to Europe.

Here, we present the clinical and travel data of eight travellers notified to EuroTravNet/GeoSentinel and one notified to TropNet with confirmed chikungunya disease imported from Thailand within 2 months.

FULL TEXT

https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.10.1900146

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April 7, 2019 at 12:53 pm

Human Rabies — Virginia, 2017

MMWR January 4, 2019  V.67 N.5152 P.1410–1414

Julia Murphy, DVM1; Costi D. Sifri, MD2; Rhonda Pruitt3; Marcia Hornberger4; Denise Bonds4; Jesse Blanton, DrPH5; James Ellison, PhD5; R. Elaine Cagnina2; Kyle B. Enfield2; Miriam Shiferaw, MD5; Crystal Gigante, PhD5; Edgar Condori5; Karen Gruszynski, PhD1,6; Ryan M. Wallace, DVM5

On May 9, 2017, the Virginia Department of Health was notified regarding a patient with suspected rabies. The patient had sustained a dog bite 6 weeks before symptom onset while traveling in India.

On May 11, CDC confirmed that the patient was infected with a rabies virus that circulates in dogs in India.

Despite aggressive treatment, the patient died, becoming the ninth person exposed to rabies abroad who has died from rabies in the United States since 2008.

A total of 250 health care workers were assessed for exposure to the patient, 72 (29%) of whom were advised to initiate postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). The total pharmaceutical cost for PEP (rabies immunoglobulin and rabies vaccine) was approximately $235,000.

International travelers should consider a pretravel consultation with travel health specialists; rabies preexposure prophylaxis is warranted for travelers who will be in rabies endemic countries for long durations, in remote areas, or who plan activities that might put them at risk for a rabies exposures.

PDF

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/pdfs/mm675152a2-H.pdf

More information for international travelers about rabies considerations can be found on the CDC’s rabies webpage.

FULL TEXT

https://www.cdc.gov/rabies/index.html

January 26, 2019 at 12:41 pm

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