Posts filed under ‘Zoonosis’

Population Gene Introgression and High Genome Plasticity for the Zoonotic Pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae

Molecular Biology and Evolution July 25, 2019

The influence that bacterial adaptation (or niche partitioning) within species has on gene spillover and transmission among bacterial populations occupying different niches is not well understood. Streptococcus agalactiae is an important bacterial pathogen that has a taxonomically diverse host range making it an excellent model system to study these processes. Here, we analyze a global set of 901 genome sequences from nine diverse host species to advance our understanding of these processes. Bayesian clustering analysis delineated 12 major populations that closely aligned with niches. Comparative genomics revealed extensive gene gain/loss among populations and a large pan genome of 9,527 genes, which remained open and was strongly partitioned among niches. As a result, the biochemical characteristics of 11 populations were highly distinctive (significantly enriched). Positive selection was detected and biochemical characteristics of the dispensable genes under selection were enriched in ten populations. Despite the strong gene partitioning, phylogenomics detected gene spillover. In particular, tetracycline resistance (which likely evolved in the human-associated population) from humans to bovine, canines, seals, and fish, demonstrating how a gene selected in one host can ultimately be transmitted into another, and biased transmission from humans to bovines was confirmed with a Bayesian migration analysis. Our findings show high bacterial genome plasticity acting in balance with selection pressure from distinct functional requirements of niches that is associated with an extensive and highly partitioned dispensable genome, likely facilitating continued and expansive adaptation.

FULL TEXT

https://academic.oup.com/mbe/advance-article/doi/10.1093/molbev/msz169/5539754

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September 20, 2019 at 8:19 am

Listeriosis in Spain based on hospitalisation records, 1997 to 2015: need for greater awareness

Eurosuveillance

Listeriosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Listeria spp. L. monocytogenes is the major pathogenic species in both animals and humans. L. monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped organism that can grow in aerobic and anaerobic conditions [1], is widely distributed in the environment and is able to contaminate a wide variety of foods or beverages (soft cheese, deli meats, unpasteurised milk, refrigerated smoked seafood, etc.) [2]. The bacteria can multiply at refrigerator temperatures [3]; therefore, contaminated products are often kept for several days or even weeks, e.g. in the household/restaurants, and may be eaten on multiple occasions, which can complicate the identification of the incriminated food source [4].

The clinical syndromes of listeriosis include: febrile gastroenteritis, sepsis, central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the form of encephalitis, meningoencephalitis and focal infections such as pneumonia myo-endocarditis and septic arthritis, etc [5]. Invasive listeriosis most commonly affects pregnant women, neonates, elderly people and people with chronic conditions or weakened immune response [6]. Listeriosis has one of the highest case fatality rates among all food-borne infections; when it affects the CNS, the mortality rate is above 50% and neurological sequelae are present in more than 60% of survivors [2]. Listeriosis is also associated with fetal and neonatal death.

Worldwide, listeriosis is an emerging infection of public health concern [7]. In Europe, human listeriosis peaked in incidence during the 1980s, showed a general decline during the 1990s and stabilised in the 2000s [8]. More recent data show an increasing trend since 2008 [9]. This increase seems to be related to the ageing of the population and the increase in life expectancy of immunocompromised patients, but also to changes in the ways food is produced, stored, distributed and consumed around the world [10]. Although listeriosis is often a sporadic disease [11], large food-borne outbreaks have occurred during the last decade in Europe and the United States (US) [12]. In South Africa, an outbreak with more than 1,024 laboratory-confirmed listeriosis cases, as at 2 May 2018, has been ongoing since the start of 2017, with a 28.6% case fatality rate [13].

In Spain, food safety criteria (FSC) for L. monocytogenes follow European Commission (EC) regulations [14,15]. Before 2015, when it was added to the list of mandatory notifiable diseases, regions could voluntarily report listeriosis to the Microbiological Information System (Sistema de Información Microbiológica, SIM) [16]. Using the centralised hospital discharge database (Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos, CMBD), we aimed to describe the epidemiology of listeriosis in Spain from 1997–2015.

FULL TEXT

https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.21.1800271

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June 21, 2019 at 7:49 am

Increased risk of chikungunya infection in travellers to Thailand during ongoing outbreak in tourist areas: cases imported to Europe and the Middle East, early 2019.

EuroSurveillance  March 07, 2019 V.24 N.10

Rapid communication

Emilie Javelle1,2,3, Simin-Aysel Florescu4, Hilmir Asgeirsson5,6, Shilan Jmor7, Gilles Eperon8, Eyal Leshem9, Johannes Blum10, Israel Molina11, Vanessa Field7,12, Nancy Pietroski13, Carole Eldin2, Victoria Johnston7, Ioana Ani Cotar14, Corneliu Popescu4, Davidson H Hamer15,16, Philippe Gautret2,3

Since the start of 2019, the EuroTravNet/GeoSentinel and TropNet data collection networks for the surveillance of travel-related morbidity have identified nine patients with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported from Thailand to Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom (UK), Romania, Israel and France.

In comparison, the last CHIKV infection reported to EuroTravNet/GeoSentinel in travellers from Thailand was a suspected case in Romania in January 2018.

Only three other cases were reported to this network during the past 3 years from Thailand, and none in travellers returning to Europe.

Here, we present the clinical and travel data of eight travellers notified to EuroTravNet/GeoSentinel and one notified to TropNet with confirmed chikungunya disease imported from Thailand within 2 months.

FULL TEXT

https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.10.1900146

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April 7, 2019 at 12:53 pm

Human Rabies — Virginia, 2017

MMWR January 4, 2019  V.67 N.5152 P.1410–1414

Julia Murphy, DVM1; Costi D. Sifri, MD2; Rhonda Pruitt3; Marcia Hornberger4; Denise Bonds4; Jesse Blanton, DrPH5; James Ellison, PhD5; R. Elaine Cagnina2; Kyle B. Enfield2; Miriam Shiferaw, MD5; Crystal Gigante, PhD5; Edgar Condori5; Karen Gruszynski, PhD1,6; Ryan M. Wallace, DVM5

On May 9, 2017, the Virginia Department of Health was notified regarding a patient with suspected rabies. The patient had sustained a dog bite 6 weeks before symptom onset while traveling in India.

On May 11, CDC confirmed that the patient was infected with a rabies virus that circulates in dogs in India.

Despite aggressive treatment, the patient died, becoming the ninth person exposed to rabies abroad who has died from rabies in the United States since 2008.

A total of 250 health care workers were assessed for exposure to the patient, 72 (29%) of whom were advised to initiate postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). The total pharmaceutical cost for PEP (rabies immunoglobulin and rabies vaccine) was approximately $235,000.

International travelers should consider a pretravel consultation with travel health specialists; rabies preexposure prophylaxis is warranted for travelers who will be in rabies endemic countries for long durations, in remote areas, or who plan activities that might put them at risk for a rabies exposures.

PDF

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/pdfs/mm675152a2-H.pdf

More information for international travelers about rabies considerations can be found on the CDC’s rabies webpage.

FULL TEXT

https://www.cdc.gov/rabies/index.html

January 26, 2019 at 12:41 pm

Correlación entre criterios clínicos y de laboratorio de casos notificados por sospecha de hantavirosis y el resultado de la técnica de referencia.

Rev. Chil. Infectol. Junio 2016 V.33 N.3 P.275-281

Actualmente en Chile, debido a la elevada sospecha clínica de enfermedad por hantavirus y el alto impacto en salud pública que esto provoca, se hace necesario reforzar al equipo de salud, los criterios de sospecha clínica y epidemiológica de hantavirosis.

Objetivo:

Analizar la información contenida en las notificaciones de sospecha de infección por hantavirus versus la técnica de referencia para el diagnóstico confirmatorio de casos sospechosos, ELISA IgM de captura anti-hantavirus.

Material y Método:

Mediante cálculo de precisión diagnóstica se analizó la correlación que existe entre la información entregada en las notificaciones versus el resultado de la confirmación mediante la técnica de referencia.

Resultados:

De 1.566 pacientes estudiados 3,4% (53 casos) fue confirmado para SCPH. De las notificaciones analizadas 58,6% estaban con datos incompletos. Los porcentajes de positividad de la técnica de referencia asociada a fiebre, mialgia y cefalea, fueron de 80-85%. Destaca que la presencia de inmunoblastos (> 10%), presenta: S: 25%, E: 98%, VPP: 37%, VPN: 97%. Paratrombocitopenia se obtuvo: S: 98%, E: 74%, VPP: 16%, VPN: 100%.

Conclusión:

Se hace necesario reiterar a nivel del sistema sanitario chileno la importancia de contar con datos completos en los formularios de notificación. La presencia de trombocitopenia e inmunoblastos (> 10%) fue altamente sensible y especifica, respectivamente, en la detección de pacientes con SCPH. Con el fin de optimizar la sospecha de infección por hantavirus, según la definición de caso sospechoso, se plantea la necesidad de desarrollar programas de capacitación para la sospecha clínica y lectura de parámetros de laboratorio, tales como presencia de inmunoblastos en el hemograma, así como incluir un algoritmo con el fin de optimizar la sospecha y el uso adecuado de los recursos sanitarios.

PDF

https://scielo.conicyt.cl/pdf/rci/v33n3/art04.pdf

 

January 20, 2019 at 8:05 pm

1er caso de SCPH diagnosticado en la Región de Antofagasta, Chile. 

Rev. Chil. Infectol. Agosto 2012 V.29 N.4 P.477-477

En Chile, desde 1995 se han confirmado casos del SCPH desde Valparaíso hasta Aysén, correspondiendo la mayor incidencia a las regiones de Aysén, Los Lagos, Araucanía y Bío Bío. El agente etiológico del SCPH es un virus ARN del género hantavirus, familia Bunyaviridae, variedad Andes.

El reservorio es el “ratón de cola larga” (Oligoryzomis longicaudatus) el cual se distribuye desde la Región de Atacama hasta la Región de Magallanes (XII°). El virus es eliminado por el ratón a través de sus secreciones (saliva, orina y heces) e ingresa al hombre por vía digestiva, cutánea o aérea, siendo esta última la más frecuente1. La transmisión de persona a persona está documentada, pero se considera excepcional.

El SCPH es un cuadro agudo grave con alta letalidad (30-55%) y sin tratamiento específico. El período de incubación puede durar hasta 45 días. Los primeros síntomas son fiebre, mialgias, cefalea y ocasionalmente diarrea; días después aparece la fase de compromiso respiratorio, con disnea progresiva e insuficiencia respiratoria grave. Es indispensable la terapia de soporte hemodinámico y manejo de la falla respiratoria en una UCI.

PDF

https://scielo.conicyt.cl/pdf/rci/v29n4/art22.pdf

January 20, 2019 at 8:02 pm

Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome Due to Imported Andes Hantavirus Infection in Switzerland: A Multidisciplinary Challenge, Two Cases and a Literature Review.

Clin Infect Dis. November 13, 2018 V.67 N.11 P.1788-1795.

Kuenzli AB1, Marschall J1, Schefold JC1, Schafer M1, Engler OB2, Ackermann-Gäumann R2, Reineke DC1, Suter-Riniker F3, Staehelin C1.

Author information

1 Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Switzerland.

2 Spiez Laboratory, Federal Office for Civil Protection, Switzerland.

3 Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Switzerland.

Abstract

Two travellers returning from South America were diagnosed with Andes hantavirus infection, the only member of the Hantaviridae family known to be transmitted from person to person.

We describe the clinical course and therapeutic and infection control measures.

While both patients showed high viral load (VL) and shedding over several months, 1 patient recovered within 1 week from severe respiratory illness that required noninvasive ventilation, whereas the second patient developed severe hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome that required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for 27 days.

The clinical course in the latter patient was complicated by severe disseminated intravascular coagulopathy with diffuse hemorrhage that necessitated mass transfusions, as well as by multiple organ failure, including the need for renal replacement therapy.

Results of VL in blood, respiratory secretions, and semen for the first 9 months of follow-up are reported. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of Andes hantavirus infection detected in Europe.

PDF

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233683/pdf/ciy443.pdf

January 19, 2019 at 11:17 am

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