Posts filed under ‘Zoonosis’

Long-term outcomes of patients with Streptococcus suis infection in Viet Nam: A case-control study

Journal of Infection February 2018 V.76 N.2 P.159–167


  • Severe hearing and vestibular impairment persists in many S. suis survivors.
  • Hearing function tends to only improve in the first 3 months post discharge.
  • Vestibular dysfunction shows little recovery during the follow-up time period.
  • Survivors reported significantly lower health status and quality of life.
  • Appropriate patient management strategies are needed to reduce disease impact.


Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic cause of severe meningitis and sepsis in humans. We aimed to assess the long-term outcomes in patients who survived S. suis infection, in particular the progress and impact of vestibulocochlear sequelae.


This case-control study evaluated outcomes of S. suis infection at discharge and 3 and 9 months post-discharge for 47 prospectively enrolled cases and at 11–34 months for 31 retrospectively enrolled cases. Outcomes in patients were compared to 270 controls matched for age, sex and residency.


The prevalence ratio (PR) of moderate-to-complete hearing loss was 5.0(95%CI 3.6–7.1) in cases at discharge, 3.7(2.5–5.4) at 3 months, 3.2(2.2–4.7) at 9 months, and 3.1(2.1–4.4) in retrospective cases compared to controls. Hearing improvement occurred mostly within the first 3 months with a change in hearing level of 11.1%(95%CI 7.0–15.1%) compared to discharge. The PR of vestibular dysfunction was 2.4(95%CI 1.7–3.3) at discharge, 2.2(1.4–3.1) at 3 months, 1.8(1.1–2.5) at 9 months, and 1.8(1.1–2.6) for retrospective cases compared to controls. Cases also indicated more problems with mobility, self-care and usual activities.


Both hearing and vestibular impairment were common and persist in cases. Appropriate patient management strategies are needed to reduce the incidence and impact of these sequelae.






September 29, 2018 at 7:43 pm

2007-2017: 10 years of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis in Argentina

International Journal of Infectious Diseases August 2018 V.73 Supplement P.18

Borras, J. Carranza, S. Lloveras, T. Orduna, F. Troglio, F. Govedic, S.L. Garro, S. Giamperetti, R. Armitano, C. Biscayart, M.S. Santini, J. Correa, A. Seijo, R. Contreras, Y. Romer


Rickettsia parkeri spotted fever (RpSF) is a tick-borne disease, emergent in Argentina. The first cases were related to transmission through the tick Amblyomma triste, but a role was son after described for A.tigrinum, a relevant fact since this supposed an expansion of the endemic area, given its wide distribution in our country. The aim of this study was to describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the disease in our country.

Methods & Materials

A retrospective analysis through revision of medical records (n: 20) of a series of cases of patients with diagnosis of RpSF. A case was considered probable in the presence of clinical and epidemiological clues associated to seroconversion to Rickettsia spp., and confirmed when Rp was identified by means of a positive PCR in a tissue biopsy.


60% were women (n:12/20). Average age was 48 years (Rank: 15-73). Geographical distribution by provinces: 40% Buenos Aires, 25% San Luis, 10% San Juan, 10% Córdoba, 5% La Rioja, 5% Entre Ríos, 5% La Pampa. Environment where contact with the vector took place: 45% peri-urban, 25% rural, 30% wild areas. Activity performed at contact with the vector: 30% occupational, 20% recreational, 50% household. 35% of patients had confirmed contact with dogs. Clinical characteristics: see Table 1. Eschar distribution: 30% scalp and neck, 30% trunk, 20% lower limbs, 5% hands, upper limbs, mammary glands and disseminated (each). 80% were treated with doxicycline, 20% received no antimicrobial treatment. All cases resolved without sequelae.


Described for the first time as a human pathogen in USA in 2004, Rp was shortly after reported in Argentina. RpSF represents a major challenge for the health system, with increasing number of reports throughout the country. Urbanization in the rural-urban interfase and lack of ectoparasite control in dogs could favour its dissemination


July 29, 2018 at 11:53 am

2016 dengue outbreak in Buenos Aires: A case series

International Journal of Infectious Diseases August 2018 V.73 Supplement P.17

Y.L. Paredes Falzone, J. Carranza, P. Machuca, J. Monroig, L. Cusmano, G. Ortega, S. Giamperetti, B. Deodato, N. Gomez, M.B. Bouzas, C. Nogueras, M. Cantero, J. Riveros, J. Coronel, S. Lloveras


In 2016, the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires suffered the largest dengue outbreak ever recalled with 12495 cases assisted in the city. The main circulating serotype was DEN-1 and affected a population predominantly non-immune.

Methods & Materials

Description of clinical and biochemical characteristics of suspected dengue cases (as defined by argentinian guidelines), in adults attended on a specialized hospital between the 11th and the 18th epidemiological week of 2016, when the outbreak was officially announced.


1728 adults with an acute febrile illness were assisted; 1468 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 57 cases had recently travelled to areas with active circulation of dengue and 124 had risk factors for severe dengue. The median age was 34 (range 18-80) and 50% were women. The symptoms most frequently associated were headache (87%), myalgia or arthralgia (83%), nausea or vomiting (55%), diarrhea (24%), abdominal pain (29%), rash or pruritus (36%). 7.5% presented with bleeding, mainly epistaxis (28%), gingival hemorrhage (29%) and metrorrhagia (22%).

Blood tests were performed in 1300 patients. Before the fifth day of symptoms (n = 924), 66% of patients presented with laboratory findings suggestive of dengue: hematocrit > 47 (11%), leucopenia (44%) and thrombocytopenia (41%).

During the overall follow-up period (median of 2 consults, range 1-10), 82% showed laboratory findings suggestive of dengue, mainly thrombocytopenia (64%), leucopenia (54%) and relative lymphocytosis (32%).

222 patients required IV fluids and 49 of them were hospitalized.


In these series, there was a high frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms, supposing a challenge for the differential diagnosis. The course of the illness was benign in most cases.

A normal CBC before the fifth day of symptoms should not exclude the diagnosis of dengue. In the context of an outbreak, a close follow up is essential for the diagnosis and the early detection of alarm signs, in order to prevent the progression to severe dengue.


July 29, 2018 at 11:51 am

Living with dogs and cats: Is it a risk factor for skin and soft tissues infections caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus?

International Journal of Infectious Diseases August 2018 V.73 Supplement P.16

Favier, D. Torres, M.J. Tabar, M. Gismondi, F. Piñeiro, J. Perez, G. Blugerman, M. Erbin, M.J. Rolon, A. Macchi, H. Pérez


Colonization by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a risk factor for infections related to this bacteria. It is unknown the role of dogs and/or cats (D/C) in the transmission of this pathogen. This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between the coexistence and close contact with D/C and CA-MRSA skin and soft tissues infections (CA-MRSA SSTI).

Methods & Materials

Case-control study (G1-SSTI with CA-MRSA isolation and G2-SSTI without CA-MRSA isolation), of SSTI episodes treated in two hospitals in Argentina, from October 2014 to October 2017. The samples were taken by percutaneous aspirate, and bacterial identification was performed with automatized methods (MALDI-TOFTM BDTM and PHOENIXTM BDTM). Methicillin resistance was confirmed by Kirby Bauer’s method with cefoxitin discs. Data about the coexistence with D/C and classic risk factors for CA-MRSA SSTI (CRF) was collected. Recurrent SSTI (rSSTI) was defined by the presence of ≥2 episodes in the last 6 months; and close contact with D/C as they remained inside the house most hours of the day. The Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon and Chi2 tests were used, and for the multivariate model, logistic regression was used. The statistical analysis was performed with Epi-Info ™


166 episodes were included (G1 54.4% -G2 45.8%). Mean age was 39.0 years (IQR 27), and 65.1% were men. In univariate analysis, age in years (32.5 vs. 43.0 p < 0.001), presence of ≥1 CRF (86.7% vs. 73.7%, p = 0.03), rSSTI (42.2% vs. 22.4%, p = 0.007), living with D/C (74.4% vs. 60.5%, p = 0.05, OR1.9, CI95% 1.1-3.7) and close contact with D/C (42.2% vs. 28.9%, p = 0.007, OR1.8, CI95% 0.99-3.43) were significant. In the multivariate model, close contact with D/C showed 1.3 times more chances of CA-MRSA SSTI (OR2.32, CI95% 1.12-4.78, p = 0.23). On the other hand, younger age (OR0.96, CI95% 0.94-0.98, p < 0.001) and the rSSTI (OR2.9, CI95% 1.37-6.14, p = 0.005) proved an increased risk of isolation CA-MRSA in the lesions.


Close contact with D/C, age and rSSTI were independently associated with CA-MRSA SSTI. In this scenario, it would be useful to evaluate the correlation of these findings with the animal carrying of CA-MRSA.


July 29, 2018 at 11:49 am

Current Knowledge on Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms in Food-Related Environments: Incidence, Resistance to Biocides, Ecology and Biocontrol.

Foods. 2018 Jun 5;7(6). pii: E85.

Rodríguez-López P1, Rodríguez-Herrera JJ2, Vázquez-Sánchez D3, López Cabo M4.


Although many efforts have been made to control Listeria monocytogenes in the food industry, growing pervasiveness amongst the population over the last decades has made this bacterium considered to be one of the most hazardous foodborne pathogens. Its outstanding biocide tolerance capacity and ability to promiscuously associate with other bacterial species forming multispecies communities have permitted this microorganism to survive and persist within the industrial environment. This review is designed to give the reader an overall picture of the current state-of-the-art in L. monocytogenes sessile communities in terms of food safety and legislation, ecological aspects and biocontrol strategies.


July 19, 2018 at 3:37 pm

To Be Cytosolic or Vacuolar: The Double Life of Listeria monocytogenes.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2018 May 15;8:136.

Bierne H1, Milohanic E1, Kortebi M1.


Intracellular bacterial pathogens are generally classified into two types: those that exploit host membrane trafficking to construct specific niches in vacuoles (i.e., “vacuolar pathogens”), and those that escape from vacuoles into the cytosol, where they proliferate and often spread to neighboring cells (i.e., “cytosolic pathogens”). However, the boundary between these distinct intracellular phenotypes is tenuous and may depend on the timing of infection and on the host cell type. Here, we discuss recent progress highlighting this phenotypic duality in Listeria monocytogenes, which has long been a model for cytosolic pathogens, but now emerges as a bacterium also capable of residing in vacuoles, in a slow/non-growing state. The ability of L. monocytogenes to enter a persistence stage in vacuoles might play a role during the asymptomatic incubation period of listeriosis and/or the carriage of this pathogen in asymptomatic hosts. Moreover, persistent vacuolar Listeria could be less susceptible to antibiotics and more difficult to detect by routine techniques of clinical biology. These hypotheses deserve to be explored in order to better manage the risks related to this food-borne pathogen.


July 19, 2018 at 3:36 pm

Campylobacteriosis, Salmonellosis, Yersiniosis, and Listeriosis as Zoonotic Foodborne Diseases: A Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Apr 26;15(5). pii: E863.

Chlebicz A1, Śliżewska K2.


Zoonoses are diseases transmitted from animals to humans, posing a great threat to the health and life of people all over the world. According to WHO estimations, 600 million cases of diseases caused by contaminated food were noted in 2010, including almost 350 million caused by pathogenic bacteria. Campylobacter, Salmonella, as well as Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes may dwell in livestock (poultry, cattle, and swine) but are also found in wild animals, pets, fish, and rodents. Animals, often being asymptomatic carriers of pathogens, excrete them with faeces, thus delivering them to the environment. Therefore, pathogens may invade new individuals, as well as reside on vegetables and fruits. Pathogenic bacteria also penetrate food production areas and may remain there in the form of a biofilm covering the surfaces of machines and equipment. A common occurrence of microbes in food products, as well as their improper or careless processing, leads to common poisonings. Symptoms of foodborne infections may be mild, sometimes flu-like, but they also may be accompanied by severe complications, some even fatal. The aim of the paper is to summarize and provide information on campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, yersiniosis, and listeriosis and the aetiological factors of those diseases, along with the general characteristics of pathogens, virulence factors, and reservoirs


July 19, 2018 at 3:35 pm

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