Posts filed under ‘Zoonosis’

Detection and Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus in Foods Confiscated in EU Borders.

Front Microbiol. July 2017  V.8 P.1344.

Rodríguez-Lázaro D1, Oniciuc EA1,2, García PG3, Gallego D4, Fernández-Natal I5,6, Dominguez-Gil M7, Eiros-Bouza JM7, Wagner M8, Nicolau AI2, Hernández M3,9.

Author information

1 Microbiology Division, Department of Biotechnology and Food Science, Faculty of Science, University of BurgosBurgos, Spain.

2 Faculty of Food Science and Engineering, Dunarea de Jos University of GalatiGalati, Romania.

3 Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Instituto Tecnológico Agrario de Castilla y LeónValladolid, Spain.

4 Dependencia de Sanidad de Vizcaya, Delegación del Gobierno en el País VascoBilbao, Spain.

5 Department of Clinical Microbiology, Complejo Asistencial Universitario de LeónLeón, Spain.

6 Institute of Biomedicine, University of LeónLeón, Spain.

7 Department of Clinical Microbiology, University Hospital Rio HortegaValladolid, Spain.

8 Institute for Milk Hygiene, Milk Technology and Food Science, University of Veterinary Medicine ViennaVienna, Austria.

9 Departamento de Ingeniería Agrícola y Forestal, Tecnología de los Alimentos, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenierías Agrarias, Universidad de ValladolidPalencia, Spain.


The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential role of the illegal entry of food in UE in the Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) spread.

We studied the prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA isolated from foods of animal origin confiscated from passengers on flights from 45 non-EU countries from 2012 to 2015 by the Border Authorities at Bilbao International Airport (Spain) and Vienna International Airport (Austria), as well as foods from open markets close to EU land borders.

Of 868 food samples tested (diverse meat samples including antelope, duck, guinea pig, pork, rodents, turkey, dairy products, and eggs), 136 (15.7%) were positive for S. aureus and 26 (3.0%) for MRSA. All MRSA strains were mecA-positive.

The prevalence of S. aureus-positive dairy samples among food confiscated at Bilbao International Airport was 64.6%, and this airport also had the highest value (11.8%) for MRSA-positive samples.

The predominant sequence type was ST5 (30.8%), followed by ST8, ST1649, ST1, and other lineages were found to a lesser extent (ST7, ST22, ST72, ST97, and ST398). Six isolates tested positive for luk-PVL genes (SCCmec IV subtypes IVc and IVe).

Enterotoxin profiling revealed that 19 MRSA strains were enterotoxigenic, harboring one or more se genes. The MRSA isolates positive for luk-PVL genes were not enterotoxigenic, and none of the isolates tested positive for enterotoxin E.

We found 14 resistance profiles, and more than 69% of the MRSA isolates were resistant to three or more types of antimicrobial agents.

This finding reveals both the wide diversity of the antimicrobial resistance found in the strains and the capacity to resist not only to beta-lactam drugs.

One MRSA strain showed unusual characteristics: it was oxacillin-susceptible, harbored SCCmec V, and was positive for sed, seg, and sej but negative for PVL virulence factors.

This study shows the presence of enterotoxigenic HA-, CA-, and LA-MRSA in foods illegally entering the EU, and highlights illegal importation of food as route of enterotoxigenic MRSA spread. Uncontrolled entry of food stuffs into the EU can be a relevant neglected route of MRSA dissemination.



August 29, 2017 at 3:21 pm

Report of mecC-carrying MRSA in domestic swine

Journal of Antimicrobial & Chemotherapy January 1, 2017 V.72 N.1 P.60-63

Ø. Angen, M. Stegger, J. Larsen, B. Lilje, H. Kaya, K. S. Pedersen, A. Jakobsen, A. Petersen, and A. R. Larsen

1Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark

2Ø-Vet, Køberupvej 33, 4700 Næstved, Denmark


We unexpectedly identified MRSA isolates carrying mecC (mecC-MRSA) from a Danish swine farm located in eastern Zealand. The objective of the present study was to investigate the origin of these isolates and their genetic relatedness to other mecC-MRSA isolates from Zealand.


WGS was used to infer the phylogenetic relationship between 19 identified mecC-MRSA isolates from the swine farm and 34 additional epidemiologically unrelated human isolates from the same geographical region of Denmark. Variations in the accessory genome were investigated by bioinformatics tools, and antibiotic susceptibility profiles were assessed by MIC determination.


mecC-MRSA was isolated from a domestic swine farm, but not from cattle reared at the same farm. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all mecC-MRSA isolates from both farm animals and workers formed a separate cluster, whereas human isolates from the same municipality belonged to a closely related cluster. Analysis of the accessory genome supported this relationship.


To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of mecC-MRSA isolated from domestic swine. The investigation strongly indicates that transmission of mecC-MRSA has taken place on the swine farm between the farmers and swine. The close clustering of farm isolates and isolates from the same municipality suggests a local transmission of mecC-MRSA.


August 19, 2017 at 10:35 am

Polymerase Chain Reaction – An Important Tool for Early Diagnosis of Leptospirosis Cases.

J Clin Diagn Res. 2016 Dec;10(12):DC08-DC11.
Mullan S1, Panwala TH2.
Author information
1 Professor and Head, Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College , Surat, Gujarat, India
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College , Surat, Gujarat, India
Various diagnostic methods like Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), IgM ELISA, Isolation of Leptospira from the clinical specimen, Rapid leptocheck tests etc., are available for diagnosis of leptospirosis. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used for diagnosis of various diseases of infectious origin including leptospirosis but there is paucity of data about comparison of PCR with other available method of diagnosis of leptospirosis.
The aim of the study was to detect the leptospiral DNA by PCR method and to compare the results of PCR with other available diagnostic methods used for diagnosis of suspected leptospirosis cases in acute phase of illness.
A total of 207 blood samples were obtained from suspected patients of leptospirosis admitted in New Civil Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in South Gujarat, during the period of July 2008 to November 2008. These blood samples were subjected to Rapid leptocheck, IgM ELISA, MAT test to detect (IgG or IgM) antibody level, Leptospira culture and PCR.
In early phase of the disease, Rapid leptocheck test gave 44% detection, but along with PCR seropositivity reached upto 71%. Detection rate by IgM ELISA was 59% which increased to 80% with PCR. By MAT seropositivity was 57% but combined seropositivity of MAT with PCR was 78%. Sensitivity and specificity of PCR as compared to MAT (Gold standard) was 52% and 79% respectively. Leptospira was not growing in culture.
In present study, PCR picked up to 50% of cases which were negative by other serological tests so these finding suggest that PCR should be used routinely in acute phase of disease.

August 4, 2017 at 6:51 pm

Changing patterns in leptospirosis: a three-decade study in Brazil

International Journal of Infectious Diseases July 2017 V.60 N.7 P.4-10

Elizabeth De Francesco Daher, Gabriela Studart Galdino de Carvalho, Douglas de Sousa Soares, Matheus Henrique Mendes, Sérgio Luiz Arruda Parente Filho, Hermano Alexandre Lima Rocha, Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior


This study was conducted to investigate changes in the clinical pattern of leptospirosis over time, analyzing its clinical and laboratory presentations in a metropolitan city of Brazil.


This was a retrospective study including all patients with leptospirosis admitted to tertiary care hospitals in Fortaleza in the northeast of Brazil, between 1985 and 2015. Patients were divided into three groups according to the year of hospital admission: group I for the years 1985–1995, group II for 1996–2005, and group III for 2006–2015. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were compared between the groups.


A total of 507 patients were included. Their mean age was 37.3 ± 15.9 years and 82.4% were male. The mean time between symptom onset and admission was 7 ± 4 days. There was a linear decrease in the levels of serum urea (190.1 ± 92.7, 135 ± 79.5, and 95.6 ± 73.3 mg/dl, respectively, p < 0.0001) and creatinine (5.8 ± 2.9, 3.8 ± 2.6, and 3.0 ± 2.5 mg/dl, respectively, p < 0.0001) in each decade, while levels of hemoglobin (10.31 ± 1.9, 10.8 ± 2.0, and 11.5 ± 2.1 g/dl, respectively, p < 0.0001) and platelets (57.900 ± 52.650, 80.130 ± 68.836, and 107.101 ± 99.699 × 109/l, respectively, p < 0.0001) increased. There was a tendency towards a linear decrease in mortality (22%, 14%, and 11.6%, respectively, p = 0.060).


Leptospirosis showed significant changes over time in this region. The main changes point to a decrease in disease severity and complications, such as acute kidney injury. Mortality has decreased, being close to 11%.


July 30, 2017 at 12:47 pm

Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women with Possible Zika Virus Exposure — United States (Including U.S. Territories), July 2017

MMWR July 28, 2017 V.66 N.29 P.781-793


Titilope Oduyebo, MD1; Kara D. Polen, MPH1; Henry T. Walke, MD1; Sarah Reagan-Steiner, MD1; Eva Lathrop, MD1; Ingrid B. Rabe, MBChB1; Wendi L. Kuhnert-Tallman, PhD1; Stacey W. Martin, MSc1; Allison T. Walker, PhD1; Christopher J. Gregory, MD1; Edwin W. Ades, PhD1; Darin S. Carroll, PhD1; Maria Rivera, MPH1; Janice Perez-Padilla, MPH1; Carolyn Gould, MD1; Jeffrey B. Nemhauser, MD1; C. Ben Beard, PhD1; Jennifer L. Harcourt, PhD1; Laura Viens, MD1; Michael Johansson, PhD1; Sascha R. Ellington, MSPH1; Emily Petersen, MD1; Laura A. Smith, MA1; Jessica Reichard, MPA1; Jorge Munoz-Jordan, PhD1; Michael J. Beach, PhD1; Dale A. Rose, PhD1; Ezra Barzilay, MD1; Michelle Noonan-Smith1; Denise J. Jamieson, MD1; Sherif R. Zaki, MD1; Lyle R. Petersen, MD1; Margaret A. Honein, PhD1; Dana Meaney-Delman, MD1

CDC has updated the interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure in response to 1) declining prevalence of Zika virus disease in the World Health Organization’s Region of the Americas (Americas) and 2) emerging evidence indicating prolonged detection of Zika virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies.

Zika virus cases were first reported in the Americas during 2015–2016; however, the incidence of Zika virus disease has since declined.

As the prevalence of Zika virus disease declines, the likelihood of false-positive test results increases. In addition, emerging epidemiologic and laboratory data indicate that, as is the case with other flaviviruses, Zika virus IgM antibodies can persist beyond 12 weeks after infection.

Therefore, IgM test results cannot always reliably distinguish between an infection that occurred during the current pregnancy and one that occurred before the current pregnancy, particularly for women with possible Zika virus exposure before the current pregnancy.

These limitations should be considered when counseling pregnant women about the risks and benefits of testing for Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

This updated guidance emphasizes a shared decision-making model for testing and screening pregnant women, one in which patients and providers work together to make decisions about testing and care plans based on patient preferences and values, clinical judgment, and a balanced assessment of risks and expected outcomes…..


July 28, 2017 at 5:17 pm

LEPTOSPIROSIS – GUIA para el Equipo de Salud. Ministerio de Salud de la Nación Argentina – ABRIL 2014


Pág 3. Información para el equipo de salud:

  1. Introducción
  2. Manifestaciones clínicas
  3. ¿Cuándo sospechar leptospirosis?
  4. ¿Cómo confirmar leptospirosis?
  5. ¿Cómo notificar el caso de leptospirosis?
  6. ¿Cómo se trata el paciente con leptospirosis?
  7. Flujograma de manejo de casos sospechosos de leptospirosis
  8. Diagnóstico diferencial
  9. ¿Qué hacer si se confirma?
  10. ¿Cómo se tratan los casos caninos de leptospirosis?
  11. Prevención de la leptospirosis en la familia y la comunidad

Pág 25. Recomendaciones para la organización de las actividades en el Equipo de Salud

  1. ¿Qué pueden Ud y su equipo de salud hacer para contribuir al control de la leptospirosis en su área?

Pág 29. Información para la población

  1. ¿Qué es la leptospirosis?
  2. ¿Cómo se transmite la leptospirosis?
  3. ¿Cómo ingresa la bacteria?
  4. ¿Cuáles son los síntomas de la leptospirosis?
  5. ¿Qué hacer en caso de padecer de algunos de los síntomas mencionados antes?
  6. ¿Cuál es el tratamiento?

7 ¿Cómo afecta la enfermedad a los animales domésticos?

  1. ¿Qué podemos hacer para prevenir la leptospirosis?

Pág 35. Anexos

  1. Muestras clínicas para examen
  2. Notificación a través del Módulo SIVILA del SNVS
  3. Bioseguridad
  4. Laboratorios de la Red de leptospirosis
  5. Algoritmo de diagnóstico y notificación por laboratorio
  6. Ficha de notificación de casos de síndrome febril
  7. Ficha de notificación de caso leptospirosis canina


July 17, 2017 at 8:32 am

Leptospirosis. Puesta al día

Rev. Chil. infectol. Junio 2007 V.24 N.3 P.220-226

Enna Zunino M. y Rolando Pizarro P.

Hospital Dr. Lucio Córdova Santiago, Chile


Se revisan los aspectos clínicos, diagnóstico de laboratorio y alternativas terapéuticas para la leptospirosis.

Destaca en la epidemiología el riesgo ocupacional y laboral y la falta de datos, por no haber constituido en Chile tema de vigilancia epidemiológica hasta el año 2000.

Los datos clínicos evidencian una notable heterogeneidad de manifestaciones, muchas veces inespecíficas. La complejidad del diagnóstico diferencial que plantea hace necesario incluirlo en el análisis causal de múltiples situaciones clínicas.

El diagnóstico de laboratorio es aún complejo y poco accesible. Aunque es todavía controvertido, el análisis de la literatura apoya el beneficio del tratamiento antimicrobiano con varias alternativas de elección.


July 17, 2017 at 8:30 am

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